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Can Mindfulness Address Maladaptive Eating Behaviors? Why Traditional Diet Plans Fail And How New Mechanistic Insights May Lead To Novel Interventions, Judson A. Brewer, Andrea Ruf, Ariel Beccia, Gloria I. Essien, Leonard M. Finn, Remko van Lutterveld, Ashley E. Mason 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Can Mindfulness Address Maladaptive Eating Behaviors? Why Traditional Diet Plans Fail And How New Mechanistic Insights May Lead To Novel Interventions, Judson A. Brewer, Andrea Ruf, Ariel Beccia, Gloria I. Essien, Leonard M. Finn, Remko Van Lutterveld, Ashley E. Mason

Open Access Articles

Emotional and other maladaptive eating behaviors develop in response to a diversity of triggers, from psychological stress to the endless external cues in our modern food environment. While the standard approach to food- and weight-related concerns has been weight-loss through dietary restriction, these interventions have produced little long-term benefit, and may be counterproductive. A growing understanding of the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms that underpin habit formation may explain why this approach has largely failed, and pave the way for a new generation of non-pharmacologic interventions. Here, we first review how modern food environments interact with human biology to promote reward-related ...


The Relationship Between Body Image And Lifestyle Choices In College Students, Morgan McGaughey 2018 University of North Georgia

The Relationship Between Body Image And Lifestyle Choices In College Students, Morgan Mcgaughey

International Social Science Review

This study examined the relationships between body image perceptions and lifestyle choices as well as demographic variables in college students. The participants included 258 students at East Texas Baptist University that were surveyed using a questionnaire constructed by the researcher. The survey included questions about sleep quality, nutrition, exercise, religiosity, body image perception, and demographics for the participants, taken from several other studies and scales. Each of the three body dissatisfaction scores had a positive correlation with one variable representing poor sleep quality. Amounts of moderate and vigorous exercise were shown to have a negative correlation with body dissatisfaction. Religiosity ...


Employee Perceptions Of Well-Being Programs, Alice V. Edwards, Susan Marcus 2018 Walden University

Employee Perceptions Of Well-Being Programs, Alice V. Edwards, Susan Marcus

Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

Measuring the effectiveness of well-being programs in the workplace is important for optimizing the return on investment and selection of programs that meet organizational objectives. A pilot study was performed to assess employee well-being using the Happiness Mini-Survey and a one-sample pre–post study design intended to quickly allow employees to subjectively rate their well-being before and after participating in various classes as part of a well-being program. The findings demonstrated statistical significance in employee subjective ratings; they reported feeling better emotionally, physically, and mentally after participating in the classes. The employees’ self-rating for stress level also had statistically significant ...


Stereotype Threat As An Explanation For Sexual Risk Taking Behavior In Gay Men: A Multi-Study Exploration Of Mechanisms, Inna Saboshchuk 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Stereotype Threat As An Explanation For Sexual Risk Taking Behavior In Gay Men: A Multi-Study Exploration Of Mechanisms, Inna Saboshchuk

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Stereotype threat is a hindrance in performance that occurs when an individual’s awareness of negative stereotypes associated with his/her group results in inadvertent conforming to that stereotype. Stereotype threat research has been conducted on myriad group and domain identifications but gay men are strikingly absent from the stereotype threat literature. One of the most prevalent stereotypes about gay men indicates they are sexually promiscuous and that this promiscuity is linked to HIV infection. In a series of three research projects, a theoretical model proposing stereotype threat as a mechanism for sexual risk taking behavior in gay men is ...


A Functional Neuroimaging Study Of Self-Regulatory Control In Adults With Gambling And Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders, Nidhi Parashar 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

A Functional Neuroimaging Study Of Self-Regulatory Control In Adults With Gambling And Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders, Nidhi Parashar

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Objective: Recent findings suggest phenomenological similarities across gambling and obsessive-compulsive disorders. The key similarity between the disorders is the failure to inhibit or control a repetitive behavior (or urges to engage in a behavior) and intrusive thoughts. Our current understanding of the neural pathophysiological mechanisms linking gambling and obsessive-compulsive disorders is limited. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the functioning of frontostriatal brain regions that support self-regulatory control in adults with gambling and obsessive-compulsive disorders.

Methods: The study compared functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygen level dependent response in 19 adults with pathological gambling (PG), 29 ...


Allostatic Load Biomarker Associations With Depressive Symptoms Vary Among Us Black And White Women And Men, Ganga Bey, William M. Jesdale, Christine M. Ulbricht, Eric O. Mick, Sharina D. Person 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Allostatic Load Biomarker Associations With Depressive Symptoms Vary Among Us Black And White Women And Men, Ganga Bey, William M. Jesdale, Christine M. Ulbricht, Eric O. Mick, Sharina D. Person

Open Access Articles

The prevalence and severity of depression differ in women and men and across racial groups. Psychosocial factors such as chronic stress have been proposed as contributors, but causes of this variation are not fully understood. Allostatic load, a measure of the physiological burden of chronic stress, is known to be associated with depression. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005(-)2010, we examined the associations of nine allostatic load biomarkers with depression among US black and white adults aged 18(-)64 years (n = 6431). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionaire-9; logistic models estimated ...


Pilot Study: Heart Rate Variability Analysis And Mental Health Outcomes In University Female Hockey Players, Kaitlyn Jacobs 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Pilot Study: Heart Rate Variability Analysis And Mental Health Outcomes In University Female Hockey Players, Kaitlyn Jacobs

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Exercise improves anxiety and depression, both of which are associated with impaired autonomic regulation of heart rate (HR). In turn, HR variability (HRV) is a reliable physiological indicator of external stressors. The following research tested the hypothesis that HRV is indicative of chronic resilience towards mental stress in female varsity hockey players. Seventeen varsity hockey players (HOCK, age 21 ± 1.5) and fifteen healthy controls (CTRL, age 21 ± 2.2) at Western University participated three times throughout a 7-month season. Participants completed questionnaires (brief resilience scale, BRS; generalized anxiety scale, GAD-7; mental health inventory, MHI; visual analog scale, VAS; short ...


The Spiritual Business: Breathing Life Into The Body, Mind, And Spirit Of Organizations, Henry C. Richardson 2018 University of Pennsylvania

The Spiritual Business: Breathing Life Into The Body, Mind, And Spirit Of Organizations, Henry C. Richardson

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Spirituality and business are generally thought to be in opposition. Spirituality is considered private, sacred, unbounded, and religious in nature. Business, on the other hand, is thought to be practical, contained, and at times cut-throat. However, spiritual practices like yoga and meditation have shown positive benefits for employees and organizations. In this paper, I will be defining “the spiritual business” and utilizing the definition of spirituality to give insight into how businesses may overlap management and leadership training with spiritual principles. Spirituality, coming from the Latin word spiritus, is defined as that which breathes life into living systems. In this ...


Wellness And Karate, Cristina Kumpf 2018 Duquesne University

Wellness And Karate, Cristina Kumpf

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The promotion of wellness is an integral part of the counseling field and is considered to be a central focus to the counseling process (Barden, Conley, & Young, 2015; Myers, 1992). The counseling profession adopted the concept of wellness because it harmonizes with many of the founding principles of the ACA and is seen as a process of questing toward optimal health and well-being in body, mind, and spirit (Barden, Conley, & Young, 2015; Myers, 1992; Myers, Sweeney, & Witmer, 2000). Additionally, ACA Code of Ethics (2014) state that counselors “engage in self-care activities to maintain and promote their own emotional, physical, and mental well-being to best ...


Yardwork: A Biography Of An Urban Place By Daniel Coleman, Vivian M. Hansen 2018 University of Calgary

Yardwork: A Biography Of An Urban Place By Daniel Coleman, Vivian M. Hansen

The Goose

Review of Daniel Coleman's Yardwork: A Biography of an Urban Place.


Disability-Related Factors And Perceived Stigma: A Closer Examination Of Suicidality In Individuals With Physical Disabilities, Lauren Khazem 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Disability-Related Factors And Perceived Stigma: A Closer Examination Of Suicidality In Individuals With Physical Disabilities, Lauren Khazem

Dissertations

Previous research has indicated an association between physical disability and suicidal ideation. However, the mechanisms contributing to the development of suicidal ideation in this population have remained largely unstudied within an empirically supported theoretical framework. The current study expands upon previous research by examining the relationship between different facets of physical disability and suicidal ideation intensity through the indirect effect of perceived stigmatization and interactions with mental states described within the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide, namely perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. Furthermore, this research aims to examine these potential relationships in a nonclinical sample of adults with physical disabilities ranging ...


The Use Of Bicycle Desks To Increase Physical Activity In Two Special Education Classrooms, Alicia Fedewa, Colleen Cornelius, Elizabeth Whitney, Soyeon Ahn, Mary Comis 2018 University of Kentucky

The Use Of Bicycle Desks To Increase Physical Activity In Two Special Education Classrooms, Alicia Fedewa, Colleen Cornelius, Elizabeth Whitney, Soyeon Ahn, Mary Comis

Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND

Although the literature has predominantly focused on elementary youth, preliminary findings indicate that attentional benefits may arise from adolescent physical activity as well. Limited research has examined the impact of classroom-based physical activity for secondary students, and no research to date has explored bicycle workstations as a means to improve physical activity within the special education classroom.

PARTICIPANTS AND PROCEDURE

Two special education resource classrooms within a high school took part in the research study. Students were given the option of riding on the bike or sitting on chairs in each classroom. Heart rate, calories, miles, time, and on-task ...


Becoming The Rising Generation: Uncovering The Path To Thriving For The Next Generation In Ultra-High Net Worth Families, Kristin Keffeler 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Becoming The Rising Generation: Uncovering The Path To Thriving For The Next Generation In Ultra-High Net Worth Families, Kristin Keffeler

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Despite the common misconception that people who are born into wealth don’t (or shouldn’t) have problems, there are many challenges that rising generation family members face. Interviews with inheritors often reveal with themes of flagging self-identities, fear of failure, isolation, and lack of motivation. The roadblocks on the path towards thriving experienced by the next generation of affluent families are often unseen and generally not acknowledged. What can look like poor behavior – entitlement, disengagement, apathy, and lack of motivation – is often camouflaging deeply-felt confusion, self-doubt, fear, shame, and anxiety. Those next generation family members who adopt a mindset ...


Weight Stigma And Motivation To Exercise : Exploring Associations And Constructs From The Basic Needs Theory., Stephanie R. McDonough 2018 University of Louisville

Weight Stigma And Motivation To Exercise : Exploring Associations And Constructs From The Basic Needs Theory., Stephanie R. Mcdonough

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Social influences, such as weight stigma, perpetuate rates of overweight and obesity, as well as contribute to poor physical and psychological health. It has been postulated that weight stigma negatively affects motivation to exercise, though the literature is mixed and underlying mechanisms of action are not well conceived. The present study aimed to: (1) explore the relationship between frequency of experienced weight stigma and exercise motivation and behavior (2) assess how frequency of experienced weight stigma might differ based on participant characteristics such as body weight and (3) consider unique associations between frequency of personal experiences with weight-based stigma, exercise ...


Understanding The Relationship Between Positive Affect And Cortisol In Lung Cancer Patients., Lauren Ann Zimmaro 2018 University of Louisville

Understanding The Relationship Between Positive Affect And Cortisol In Lung Cancer Patients., Lauren Ann Zimmaro

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Positive psychobiological processes within lung cancer patients are drastically understudied. This dissertation explores the nature of positive affect (PA) and potential associations with diurnal cortisol among lung cancer patients, given the prognostic significance of diurnal cortisol rhythms. Theoretical underpinnings and current literature involving PA, cancer, and diurnal cortisol are first reviewed. An original integrated model of PA and cortisol among cancer patients is then presented, from which the proposed dissertation study and analyses are derived. Sixty-one non-small cell lung cancer patients provided self-report assessment of mood (PANAS PA and NA subscales, CES-D PA subscale), medical and demographic characteristics, and 10-day ...


The Role Of Meaning-Making In Posttraumatic Growth Among Eritrean Refugees With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Yacob Tewolde Tekie 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Role Of Meaning-Making In Posttraumatic Growth Among Eritrean Refugees With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Yacob Tewolde Tekie

Doctoral Dissertations

The study examined the moderating role of meaning made, meaning making and social support on the relationship between negative life events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression as well as the facilitating role of these moderating variables for posttraumatic growth(PTG). Eritrean refugees (N = 135) who were residing in Europe were recruited. The results showed that post-migration living difficulties significantly related with negative outcomes. In addition, the results showed that social support moderated the relationship between the number of traumatic life events and anxiety symptoms. However, meaning made and social support were not significant moderators on the relationship ...


Implicit And Explicit Attitudes Toward Physical Appearance Among Recurrent And Non-Binge Eating College Women, Mindy L. McEntee 2018 University of New Mexico

Implicit And Explicit Attitudes Toward Physical Appearance Among Recurrent And Non-Binge Eating College Women, Mindy L. Mcentee

Psychology ETDs

Research has found that among individuals who binge eat, overvaluation of body weight/shape and internalization of a thin ideal are associated with higher levels of distress and functional impairment. These findings suggest implicit attitudes and beliefs may play an important role in understanding the complex relations between one’s cognitions and subsequent eating behavior; however, much of the research on binge eating has relied on explicit self-report measures which may not accurately reflect the way individuals automatically process body weight/shape information or the meaning one has associated with these characteristics. The present study sought to address this gap ...


Impact Of Spousal Work Restrictions And Number Of Dependents On Expatriates’ Work Life And Overall Life Satisfaction, Pooja B. Vijayakumar, Christopher J. L. Cunningham 2018 The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Impact Of Spousal Work Restrictions And Number Of Dependents On Expatriates’ Work Life And Overall Life Satisfaction, Pooja B. Vijayakumar, Christopher J. L. Cunningham

Industrial and Organizational Psychology Translational Research and Working Papers

Purpose Our understanding of the challenges and the broader role of spouses of expatriates is extremely limited. The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of spousal work restrictions and number of dependents on expatriates’ work life and overall life satisfaction using qualitative and quantitative analyses Design Data were collected from 416 Indian informational technology professionals working in USA. Hypothesized conditional process models were analyzed using the PROCESS tools. Findings Spousal work restrictions and number of dependents created complications in personal life of expatriates, which interfered with their work life resulting in lower overall life satisfaction. We identified ...


A Mobile Game To Support Smoking Cessation: Prototype Assessment, Bethany Raiff 2018 Rowan University

A Mobile Game To Support Smoking Cessation: Prototype Assessment, Bethany Raiff

Faculty Scholarship for the College of Science & Mathematics

Background: Cigarette smoking results in an estimated seven million deaths annually. Almost half of all smokers attempt to quit each year, yet only approximately 6% are successful. Although there are multiple effective interventions that can increase these odds, substantial room remains for improvement. One effective approach to helping smokers quit is contingency management, where quitting is incentivized with the delivery of monetary rewards in exchange for objective evidence (e.g., exhaled carbon monoxide levels) of abstinence.

Objective: We assessed the feasibility and promise of Inspired, a contingency management mobile app for smoking cessation that uses game-based rewards to incentivize abstinence ...


Mindful Eating And Eating Pathology: Correlation Between The Mindful Eating Questionnaire And The Eating Disorder Inventory-3rd Edition, Soujanya Sreedhara Chetluru 2018 Western Kentucky University

Mindful Eating And Eating Pathology: Correlation Between The Mindful Eating Questionnaire And The Eating Disorder Inventory-3rd Edition, Soujanya Sreedhara Chetluru

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between mindful eating and eating pathology. This was accomplished by using two measures, the Eating Disorder Inventory, Third Edition (EDI-3), and the Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ). Participants included in this study were 134 students from a midsized mid-south university who were asked to complete a demographics measure, EDI-3, and MEQ. Only three scales from the EDI-3 were considered; Drive for Thinness, Bulimia, and Body Dissatisfaction. Combined they provide an Eating Disorder Risk Composite (EDRC) score. Results indicated that there was no significant relationship between the MEQ overall score and the ...


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