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Personality Assessment In African Elephants (Loxodonta Africana), Kristina Marie Horback 2012 University of Southern Mississippi

Personality Assessment In African Elephants (Loxodonta Africana), Kristina Marie Horback

Dissertations

The following study assessed personality in twelve African elephants using both observational behavior coding and standardized trait rating methods, thus demonstrating consistent individual differences across time and contexts. During the summer of 2010 and 2011, over 640 hours of behavioral data were collected onsite at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park in Escondido, CA. Four coding-based personality traits were determined after analysis: PLAYFUL, CURIOUS, TOLERANT, and, AGGRESSIVE. This data was then compared to survey ratings completed by the animal keeper staff during both summers. Four rating-based personality traits resulted from this analysis: PLAYFUL, CURIOUS, TIMID, and, AGGRESSIVE. All eight composite …


The Role Of Self‐Injury In The Organisation Of Behaviour, Curt A. Sandman, Aaron S. Kemp, Christopher Mabini, David Pincus, Magnus Magnusson 2012 University of California - Irvine

The Role Of Self‐Injury In The Organisation Of Behaviour, Curt A. Sandman, Aaron S. Kemp, Christopher Mabini, David Pincus, Magnus Magnusson

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Background—Self-injuring acts are among the most dramatic behaviours exhibited by human beings. There is no known single cause and there is no universally agreed upon treatment. Sophisticated sequential and temporal analysis of behaviour has provided alternative descriptions of self-injury that provide new insights into its initiation and maintenance.

Method—Forty hours of observations for each of 32 participants were collected in a contiguous two-week period. Twenty categories of behavioural and environmental events were recorded electronically that captured the precise time each observation occurred. Temporal behavioural/ environmental patterns associated with self-injurious events were revealed with a method (tpatterns; THEME) for …


The Impact Of Sleepiness And Sleep Constructs On Driving Performance, Jennifer Freeman May 2012 Old Dominion University

The Impact Of Sleepiness And Sleep Constructs On Driving Performance, Jennifer Freeman May

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Sleepiness causes performance decrements that lead to thousands of crashes and fatalities annually. Research supports the conclusions that sleep duration and circadian rhythms impact sleepiness and affect driving performance. Conflicting in the literature is whether severity of sleep disorders, sleep quality and subjective sleepiness affect driving performance. The correlation between a driver's perception of their sleepiness and their driving performance is also unclear. The primary goal of this study was to create an in-depth model demonstrating which measures of sleepiness influence driving performance. It was hypothesized that sleep quality, sleep apnea severity and subjective sleepiness add to a model of …


The Effects Of Personalized Boosters For A Computerized Intervention Targeting College Student Drinking, Abby L. Braitman 2012 Old Dominion University

The Effects Of Personalized Boosters For A Computerized Intervention Targeting College Student Drinking, Abby L. Braitman

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Heavy episodic alcohol use within the college student population is both widespread and problematic (Benton et al., 2004; Core Institute, 2006; Hingson, Zha, & Weitzman, 2009; O'Malley & Johnston, 2002; Perkins, 2002; Singleton, 2007). More than 40% of college students report at least one symptom of alcohol abuse or dependence (Knight et al., 2002). Computerized interventions are widely used because of their advantages over in-person interventions. They are more cost-effective and can quickly deliver tailored individual feedback to more students. Computerized interventions can be administered to large groups of students (e.g., incoming students, athletes, fraternities/sororities). However, a (2007) meta-analysis by …


Stress Alters The Discriminative Stimulus And Response Rate Effects Of Cocaine Differentially In Lewis And Fischer Inbred Rats, Therese A. Kosten, Mindy Miserendino 2012 Baylor College of Medicine

Stress Alters The Discriminative Stimulus And Response Rate Effects Of Cocaine Differentially In Lewis And Fischer Inbred Rats, Therese A. Kosten, Mindy Miserendino

Psychology Faculty Publications

Stress enhances the behavioral effects of cocaine, perhaps via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Yet, compared to Fischer 344 (F344) rats, Lewis rats have hyporesponsive HPA axis function and more readily acquire cocaine self-administration. We hypothesized that stress would differentially affect cocaine behaviors in these strains. The effects of three stressors on the discriminative stimulus and response rate effects of cocaine were investigated. Rats of both strains were trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg) from saline using a two-lever, food-reinforced (FR10) procedure. Immediately prior to cumulative dose (1, 3, 10 mg/kg cocaine) test sessions, rats were restrained for 15-min, had 15-min …


Triz And Spirituality: The Methods Of Maximizing Happiness, Umakant Mishra 2012 SelectedWorks

Triz And Spirituality: The Methods Of Maximizing Happiness, Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

TRIZ is a method of high level of commonsense and can be applied in any field, whether social, economical, technical or spiritual. In this article we analyzed the concept of happiness, the ultimate goal of human being, and demonstrated the application of different TRIZ concepts like Ideality, contradictions, Principles, Resources and Trends in different theories of maximizing happiness.


Triz And Society: An Alternative Way Of Winning Enemies Without Fighting, Umakant Mishra 2012 SelectedWorks

Triz And Society: An Alternative Way Of Winning Enemies Without Fighting, Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

Although we are born and brought up in society, we are sometimes hurt by the offensive behavior of some people in our family and society, may be by the so-called friends or rivals or enemies. If we suppress our anger and don’t fight with them then we suffer from depression, frustration and other emotional disorders. On the other hand if we express our anger to fight back then the situation may become worse by inviting bigger fights and more violence. The question arises, how to solve this problem?

There are both fighting solutions and non-fighting solutions to this problem. Non-fighting …


The Study Of Dialectical Behavior Therapy Efficacy On The Amount Of High School Student’S Depression And Suicide Thoughts In Rasht City, Iran, Mona Samadzadeh, Nasirodin Javidi 2012 university of science & culture

The Study Of Dialectical Behavior Therapy Efficacy On The Amount Of High School Student’S Depression And Suicide Thoughts In Rasht City, Iran, Mona Samadzadeh, Nasirodin Javidi

university of science & culture

The main objective of this study was to identify non-drug approaches to reduce rates of depression among high school girl students; therefore, this study aims to consider dialectical behavior therapy efficacy on the amount of high school student’s depression and suicide thinking in Rasht city, Iran .The research methodology in this study is experimental and statistical community includes high school adolescents aged 15-18 years old o that Efaf high school was firstly chosen among girl high schools in Rasht city in the selection stage, which 1000 students were studying in two shifts, then ten classes were selected and all students …


Preschoolers Are Able To Take Merit Into Account When Distributing Goods, Nicolas Baumard, Olivier Mascaro, Coralie Chevallier 2012 University of Pennsylvania

Preschoolers Are Able To Take Merit Into Account When Distributing Goods, Nicolas Baumard, Olivier Mascaro, Coralie Chevallier

Goldstone Research Unit

Classic studies in developmental psychology demonstrate a relatively late development of equity, with children as old as 6 or even 8–10 years failing to follow the logic of merit—that is, giving more to those who contributed more. Following Piaget (1932), these studies have been taken to indicate that judgments of justice develop slowly and follow a stagelike progression, starting off with simple rules (e.g., equality: everyone receives the same) and only later on in development evolving into more complex ones (e.g., equity: distributions match contributions). Here, we report 2 experiments with 3- and 4-year-old children (N = 195) that …


Editorial Comment: Pursuing The Experimental Analysis Of Gambling Behavior, Jeffrey N. Weatherly 2012 University of North Dakota

Editorial Comment: Pursuing The Experimental Analysis Of Gambling Behavior, Jeffrey N. Weatherly

Analysis of Gambling Behavior

No abstract provided.


Using Unsolvable Anagrams To Induce Escape: Will It Increase Gambling Behavior?, Sarah G. Martner, Kevin S. Montes, Jeffrey N. Weatherly 2012 University of North Dakota

Using Unsolvable Anagrams To Induce Escape: Will It Increase Gambling Behavior?, Sarah G. Martner, Kevin S. Montes, Jeffrey N. Weatherly

Analysis of Gambling Behavior

Previous research has found an association between gambling as a means of escape and pathological gambling. Likewise, previous laboratory research has found an association between gambling as a means of escape and participants’ gambling behavior. The present experiment had 41 participants play video poker in two sessions. Prior to one session, participants were asked to solve a series of solvable word puzzles. Prior to the other, they were asked to solve a series of unsolvable word puzzles. Consistent with previous research, results demonstrated that participants’ video-poker play was associated with their overall tendency to endorse gambling as a function of …


Evaluating Preference And Rate Of Gambling On Vedio Slot Machines, Mark R. Dixon, Jeffrey R. Miller, Seth W. Whiting, Alyssa N. Wilson, Allie M. Hensel 2012 Southern Illinois University

Evaluating Preference And Rate Of Gambling On Vedio Slot Machines, Mark R. Dixon, Jeffrey R. Miller, Seth W. Whiting, Alyssa N. Wilson, Allie M. Hensel

Analysis of Gambling Behavior

Casinos increasingly are providing access to five-reel video slot machines and as a result are decreasing the use of traditional three-reel slot machines. Limited research has been conducted on the characteristics of play associated with video slot machines. The present study examined participant’s play on a five-reel video slot machine, comparing the number of trials played while wagering one credit on five lines versus five credits on one line. After participants were exposed to both conditions they were asked to choose their preferred condition. The results found that participants played significantly more trials while playing during the five credits on …


Gambling In A Laboratory Setting: A Comparison Of Gambling For Positive Reinforcement Versus As A Potential Escape, Jeffrey N. Weatherly, Katelyn Mari, Kevin S. Montes 2012 University of North Dakota

Gambling In A Laboratory Setting: A Comparison Of Gambling For Positive Reinforcement Versus As A Potential Escape, Jeffrey N. Weatherly, Katelyn Mari, Kevin S. Montes

Analysis of Gambling Behavior

Research has shown that most individuals’ gambling is maintained more by positive, than by negative, reinforcement but that disordered gambling is more strongly related to gambling maintained by negative, than positive, reinforcement. Forty five participants were recruited to play video poker in two different sessions: one in which they competed for a $50 gift card and one in which they could play after trying to solve unsolvable anagrams. Higher measures of gambling were observed in the gift-card, than in the anagram, session, but none of the differences were statistically significant and the observed effect sizes were small. Participants’ annual income …


Probability Discounting In A Sample Of American Indians: Gambling As An Escape Predicts Discounting Of Monetary, But Not Non-Monetary, Outcomes, Jeffrey N. Weatherly, J. Douglas McDonald, Adam Derenne 2012 University of North Dakota

Probability Discounting In A Sample Of American Indians: Gambling As An Escape Predicts Discounting Of Monetary, But Not Non-Monetary, Outcomes, Jeffrey N. Weatherly, J. Douglas Mcdonald, Adam Derenne

Analysis of Gambling Behavior

The present study investigated the relationship between measures of gambling and the process of probability discounting in a sample of participants from a population that has historically shown high rates of gambling problems. Thirty nine American Indian university students complete the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Gambling Functional Assessment – Revised, and a probability-discounting task involving two monetary and two non-monetary outcomes. Consistent with results from previous research focusing on majority-population participants, severity of gambling problems was more strongly associated with endorsing gambling as an escape than with gambling for positive reinforcement. Endorsing gambling as an escape, but not for …


Gambling Behavior And Temporal Discounting Among Militaryaffiliated And Civilian Students, Kevin S. Montes, Jeffrey N. Weatherly 2012 University of North Dakota

Gambling Behavior And Temporal Discounting Among Militaryaffiliated And Civilian Students, Kevin S. Montes, Jeffrey N. Weatherly

Analysis of Gambling Behavior

The present study explored whether the contingencies maintaining gambling behavior differed for military-affiliated and non-military-affiliated students. It also tested for differences in how these groups discounted delayed outcomes. Three groups of students participated: Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) students (n = 36), students with a relative in the military (n = 62), and students with no relative in the military (n = 58). Participants completed the Gambling Functional Assessment-Revised and a delaydiscounting task. Results indicated that all participants’ gambling behavior was maintained primarily by positive reinforcement. Moreover, ROTC students scored significantly higher on gambling for positive reinforcement, and significantly lower …


Development And Hope: Comments On Thomas Mccarthy's Race, Empire, And The Idea Of Human Development, Ladelle McWhorter 2012 University of Richmond

Development And Hope: Comments On Thomas Mccarthy's Race, Empire, And The Idea Of Human Development, Ladelle Mcwhorter

Philosophy Faculty Publications

Thomas McCarthy’s Race, Empire, and the Idea of Human Development is an intriguing and important book; moreover, despite its heavy themes and its fine scholarship, it is extremely readable. And it is very timely. The questions it takes up are some of the most pressing of our age: globalization, international distributive justice, and sustainable economic development in particular. Its central problematic concerns the detrimental effects of developmental thinking as a core feature of modernity. The book seeks, says McCarthy, to make “a contribution to the critical history of the present” (2), but it does not stop with critical analysis; McCarthy …


Network-Based Criterion For The Success Of Cooperation In An Evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma, Stephen Devlin, T Treloar 2012 University of San Francisco

Network-Based Criterion For The Success Of Cooperation In An Evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma, Stephen Devlin, T Treloar

Mathematics

We consider an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma on a random network. We introduce a simple quantitative network-based parameter and show that it effectively predicts the success of cooperation in simulations on the network. The criterion is shown to be accurate on a variety of networks with degree distributions ranging from regular to Poisson to scale free. The parameter allows for comparisons of random networks regardless of their underlying topology. Finally, we draw analogies between the criterion for the success of cooperation introduced here and existing criteria in other contexts.


Mood And Creativity: The Mediating Role Of Attention, Viktoria Tidikis 2012 Old Dominion University

Mood And Creativity: The Mediating Role Of Attention, Viktoria Tidikis

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Within literature there are two opposing views regarding the role of emotions in the creative process. The most commonly held view contends that positive emotions enhance creativity, while negative emotions stifle it; yet, some studies show an opposite trend. To help resolve this conundrum, this research examined the mediating effect of attention on the relationship between mood and creativity. The results showed that positive deactivating and negative activating emotions led to broader attention, while positive activating and negative deactivating emotions caused narrowing of attention. Furthermore, the creative process is not uniform in its requirements of attentional breadth; some creative tasks …


When Cognitive Bias Masquerades As Intervention Efficacy: Drinking Norms As Anchors And Norm Interventions As Anchoring Effects, Matthew R. Pearson 2012 Old Dominion University

When Cognitive Bias Masquerades As Intervention Efficacy: Drinking Norms As Anchors And Norm Interventions As Anchoring Effects, Matthew R. Pearson

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Problematic drinking is a serious public health concern on college campuses in the United States. College students most frequently report drinking for social reasons, and perceptions of peers' drinking, or perceived drinking norms, are among the most consistent, robust predictors of college student drinking. Therefore, norm-based interventions have risen to prominence in the attempt to reduce the harm caused by college student alcohol use. However, the efficacy of these interventions may be obscured by cognitive bias. Specifically, providing information regarding the drinking norm may "anchor" individuals' estimates of their own behavior. Using samples of college student drinkers, two studies were …


A Punishment-Free, Toilet-Training Protocol For Children With Developmental Disabilities, Chelsea Lynn Pearsall 2012 Central Washington University

A Punishment-Free, Toilet-Training Protocol For Children With Developmental Disabilities, Chelsea Lynn Pearsall

All Master's Theses

The present investigation adapted a behaviorally-based toilet-training protocol for use with two male children with developmental disabilities. Positive practice and verbal reprimands were eliminated, and reinforcement, scheduled sits, and a urine alarm were utilized. Data were collected on the number of intoilet urinations, urinary accidents, and self-initiations. Results show that both participants exhibited significant improvement in their toileting skills and met the final success criteria rapidly. These results were maintained through follow-up. Implications for the elimination of punishment procedures in future toilet training protocols are discussed.


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