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The Role Of The Socio-Cultural And Developmental Context On Special Education, Amanda Lam 2010 Claremont McKenna College

The Role Of The Socio-Cultural And Developmental Context On Special Education, Amanda Lam

CMC Senior Theses

Existing research on inclusive education deals primarily with the effectiveness of inclusion programs and the theoretical frameworks behind their limitation. However, no extensive research has been conducted that explores the role of the socio-cultural context and the development level in determining the best way in which the educational needs of children with special needs can be met. Recognizing that the effectiveness of different special education services may depend on the socio-cultural context as well as the development level, this literature review seeks to identify the ideal method of treating children with disabilities in developed and developing countries. By assessing the ...


The Effects Of Communication Disorders On Social Development, Heather M. Back 2010 Claremont McKenna College

The Effects Of Communication Disorders On Social Development, Heather M. Back

CMC Senior Theses

This paper explores literature on the effects of communication disorders on the social development of children. The paper discusses such topics as the effects of communication disorders on personality development, the ability to make friends and resolve conflict with peers, and academic success. It also discusses the influences of multiculturalism and bilingualism on the diagnosis of communication disorders and reflects on the importance of awareness of cultural differences in communication style to avoid a misdiagnosis. Research shows that without intervention and treatment communication disorders can have irreversible detrimental effects on a child’s ability to develop effect social-communication, to make ...


Epigenetics: Blurring The Line Between Nature And Nurture, Elizabeth H. Rose 2010 Claremont McKenna College

Epigenetics: Blurring The Line Between Nature And Nurture, Elizabeth H. Rose

CMC Senior Theses

This long-standing nature versus nurture debate is cited in behavioral and physical expressions of disease dysfunctions, resiliencies, and recovery. Their purposes are noted both in scientific pursuits as well as literature. This discourse has been particularly intense in the fields of psychology, psychiatry, and biology where there is a long history of scientists’ attempts to disprove or discredit others’ intellectual and professional measures. Interestingly, recent advances in the neurosciences and genetic technologies have brought these fields closer together with a new focus – the interactional relationship between nature and nurture – epigenetics.


Adhd: Culture, Treatment Strategies And Their Relevance To Preschool Children, Nelson M. Bean 2010 Claremont McKenna College

Adhd: Culture, Treatment Strategies And Their Relevance To Preschool Children, Nelson M. Bean

CMC Senior Theses

In recent decades a growing number of individuals in preschool, middle childhood and adolescence have been diagnosed with ADHD. Accompanying increasing rates of diagnoses is an increase in the use of stimulant medication in preschool populations, a practice not approved by the Food and Drug Administration. This paper reviews the current literature pertaining the social and developmental consequences of ADHD, its effect on the child and family, treatment strategies with and without the use of stimulants, and cultural and diagnostic trends which may be contributing to the rising number of diagnoses. A review of the literature suggests that there is ...


Stretched Too Thin: Low-Income Mothers' Work-Family Conflict And Preschoolers' Socioemotional Adjustment, Kelly Haas 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Stretched Too Thin: Low-Income Mothers' Work-Family Conflict And Preschoolers' Socioemotional Adjustment, Kelly Haas

Master's Theses

The purpose of the current study was to further our understanding of the association between low-income mothers' work-family conflict and their children's socioemotional adjustment, with a particular focus on externalizing and internalizing symptoms. To do so, the present study tested the mediating roles of mothers' psychological distress and positive parenting practices in the relation between work-family conflict and children's adjustment over time. Contrary to hypotheses, the linkage between low-income mothers' experience of conflict between their work and family roles and preschoolers' adjustment was not explained by mothers' symptoms of psychological distress or their use of positive parenting practices ...


The Relationship Between Parent's Comparisons Of Nouns And Children's Noun Learning, Chandra Lynn Brojde 2010 University of Colorado at Boulder

The Relationship Between Parent's Comparisons Of Nouns And Children's Noun Learning, Chandra Lynn Brojde

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Previous literature shows that language input is related to the language that children produce. Less is known about how the input provided to children relates to the way that they process language. In this study, this question was explored by looking at the relationships between children's word learning ability and the kinds of names provided by parents for objects. Whether these relationships varied with age and vocabulary size was also investigated. Children from five age groups at 12-, 16-, 20-, 24-, and 28-months participated in two types of tasks. First, to characterize the amount and type of labels used ...


The Development And Long-Term Influences Of Attachments As Seen Through Attachment Theory: The Influence Of Attachment On Homosexual Males, Christian Alvarez 2010 Claremont McKenna College

The Development And Long-Term Influences Of Attachments As Seen Through Attachment Theory: The Influence Of Attachment On Homosexual Males, Christian Alvarez

CMC Senior Theses

This paper seeks to explore the development of attachments in humans as seen through Bowlby's (1980) attachment theory. Components of the theory which focus on how attachments are formed and how they influence future behavior are explored. These are used to then examine how attachment theory applies to the attachment patterns seen in homosexual males.


Adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Laura E. Knouse, Steven A. Safren 2010 University of Richmond

Adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Laura E. Knouse, Steven A. Safren

Psychology Faculty Publications

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults is a valid and impairing disorder for which psychopharmacological and psychosocial treatments are recommended. Self-report ratings scales for adult ADHD can serve several functions in clinical work with this population including screening, providing information, in a comprehensive assessment, and tracking treatment-related change. The use of two symptom-based ratings scales for screening and tracking treatment progress- the Current Symptoms Scale (CSS) [5] and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) [6] - is outlined for the practicing clinician. Key issues in the assessment of adult ADHD are briefly discussed, highlighting the role of rating scales within a ...


When Nurture Becomes Nature: Ethnocentrism In Studies Of Humandevelopment, David F. Lancy 2010 Utah State University

When Nurture Becomes Nature: Ethnocentrism In Studies Of Humandevelopment, David F. Lancy

David Lancy

This commentary will extend the territory claimed in the target article by identifying several other areas in the social sciences where findings from the WEIRD population have been over-generalized. An argument is made that the root problem is the ethnocentrism of scholars, textbook authors, and social commentators, which leads them to take their own cultural values as the norm.


Learning “From Nobody:” The Limited Role Of Teaching In Folk Models Of Children’S Development, David F. Lancy 2010 Utah State University

Learning “From Nobody:” The Limited Role Of Teaching In Folk Models Of Children’S Development, David F. Lancy

David Lancy

Among the Western intelligentsia, parenting is synonymous with teaching. We are cajoled into beginning our child’s education in the womb and feel guilty whenever a ‘teaching moment’ is squandered. This paper will argue that this reliance on teaching generally, and especially on parents as teachers, is quite recent historically and localised culturally. The majority follow a laissez faire attitude towards development that relies heavily on children’s natural curiosity and motivation to emulate those who are more expert.


Children Learning In New Settings., David F. Lancy 2010 Utah State University

Children Learning In New Settings., David F. Lancy

David Lancy

This chapter uses a wide-angle lens to briefly examine the many new settings that village children find themselves adapting to. Those settings include schools that have barely taken root in the village, labor, urban streets, and the milieu of the insurgent band.


Semi-Supervised Learning For Connectionist Networks, Rebecca Robare 2010 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Semi-Supervised Learning For Connectionist Networks, Rebecca Robare

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

At the computational level, language is often assumed to require both supervised and unsupervised learning. Although we have a certain understanding of these computational processes both biologically and behaviorally, our understanding of the environmental conditions under which language learning takes place falls short. I examine the semi-supervised learning paradigm as the most accurate computational description of the environmental conditions of lexical acquisition during language development. This paradigm is assessed for task learning and generalization and I argue that its real ecological validity and occasional improvements in performance over supervised learning make it an ideal candidate for modeling of language acquisition ...


Children's Tolerance Of Word-Form Variation, Paul Reeves Breuning 2010 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Children's Tolerance Of Word-Form Variation, Paul Reeves Breuning

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study compared children's (N=96, mean age 4;1, range 2;8-5;3) and adults' (N=96, mean age 21 years) tolerance of word-onset modifications (e.g., wabbit and warabbit) and pseudo affixes (e.g., kocat and catko) in a label extension task. Trials comprised an introductory phase where children saw a picture of an animal and were told its name, and a test phase where they were shown the same picture along with one of a different animal. For `similar-name' trials, participants heard a word-form modification of the previously introduced name (e.g., introduced to a dib ...


Resilience In Western Australian Adolescents: A Model Of The Processes That Occur Between Risk And Success., Mandie B. Shean 2010 Edith Cowan University

Resilience In Western Australian Adolescents: A Model Of The Processes That Occur Between Risk And Success., Mandie B. Shean

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

The aim of this research was to develop a model that represents how adolescents in the Western Australian context navigate their way to resilience. Resilience was defined as “the outcome from negotiations between individuals and their environments for the resources to define themselves as healthy amidst conditions collectively viewed as adverse” (Ungar, 2004a, p. 342). The philosophical approach was social constructivist and the methodology was mixed, employing both qualitative and quantitative methodologies through grounded theory. The techniques used to gather data included interviewing, focus groups, and questionnaires. There were three stages in the research: namely, developing the model of resilience ...


Emerging Adults' Perceptions Of Learning In An Undergraduate Student Organization For Global Social Justice, Patricia Marie Kean 2010 Walden University

Emerging Adults' Perceptions Of Learning In An Undergraduate Student Organization For Global Social Justice, Patricia Marie Kean

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Current literature suggests the institution of higher education is exploring its identity and role in society, much like the emerging adults who enroll in their programs as traditional aged undergraduates. Literature also reveals that society is asking undergraduate institutions to meet the diverse needs of its students and prepare them for adulthood and life long learning. However, research also highlights the need for students to be educated for participation within an interconnected and complex global society able to facilitate positive social change. Using a developmental lens, this interpretive case study addressed these current needs through interpreting perceptions of undergraduates and ...


The Impact Of Symptom Severity On Parent-Child Interaction And Relationships Among Children With Autism, Nicole M. Beurkens 2010 Walden University

The Impact Of Symptom Severity On Parent-Child Interaction And Relationships Among Children With Autism, Nicole M. Beurkens

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Recent estimates indicate that 1 in 100 children in the United States is diagnosed on the autism spectrum. Although research has demonstrated the bidirectional nature of parentchild relations, the effect of child autism symptom severity on parent-child interaction and overall relationships has not yet been explored. This study examined the impact of child symptom severity in children ages 4-15 years, as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), on parent-child interaction, as measured by the Dyadic Coding Scale (DCS), and parent-child relationships, as measured by the Parent Child Relationship Inventory (PCRI). The bidirectional model of socialization informs the study ...


Phonological Memory And Broader Language Development: Longitudinal And Etiologic Relations, Robin Leonhardt Peterson 2010 University of Denver

Phonological Memory And Broader Language Development: Longitudinal And Etiologic Relations, Robin Leonhardt Peterson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The current research investigated the relationship of phonological memory (PM) to vocabulary and syntax learning in school-age children with and without language disorders. Previous research has established that PM and broad oral language skills covary, but disagreement remains about the reason for this association. Opposing theoretical viewpoints emphasize the importance of either bottom-up (PM influences vocabulary and syntax acquisition) or top-down (vocabulary growth influences PM skill) factors. In three longitudinal studies, we tested competing bottom-up and top-down explanations of the PM-broad language link. Study 1 utilized a structural equation modeling approach to understand PM and broad language relations from age ...


Resilience In Families With Same-Sex Parents, Natasha Griffiths 2010 Edith Cowan University

Resilience In Families With Same-Sex Parents, Natasha Griffiths

Theses : Honours

Research suggests resilience can be viewed as a dynamic process facilitating positive functioning within the context of significant adversity. A nuclear family type that remains a controversial and stigmatized group is families with same-sex parents. Same-sex families face a great number of challenges, due to the presence of heterosexism in society and they are often heavily criticised within the broad public domain. The current study adopted a phenomenological methodology to identify the family resilience processes utilised by same-sex families. Five lesbian couples (n = 10) raising children in Perth, Western Australia were interviewed. A thematic analysis technique outlined by Glesne and ...


Moral Emotion Expectancies In Adolescence: A Cross-Cultural Perspective, Fanli Jia 2010 Wilfrid Laurier University

Moral Emotion Expectancies In Adolescence: A Cross-Cultural Perspective, Fanli Jia

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Cross-cultural research on moral development has documented reliable cultural differences in people’s evaluations of moral and immoral actions. Prosocial actions are typically viewed as more obligatory and less discretionary in collectivistic cultures relative to individualistic cultures. While past research mostly focused on moral judgments, it largely neglected moral emotions. The present study was aimed at investigating self- and other-evaluative emotions following (im) moral actions in different situational and cultural contexts. It investigated moral emotion expectancies of Canadian and Chinese adolescents and young adults across different situational contexts. For each culture, 179 Canadian and 193 Chinese adolescents from grade levels ...


Interviewing Children About Repeated Events: Does Mental Context Reinstatement Improve Young Children’S Narratives?, Donna M. Drohan-Jennings 2010 Wilfrid Laurier University

Interviewing Children About Repeated Events: Does Mental Context Reinstatement Improve Young Children’S Narratives?, Donna M. Drohan-Jennings

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This study examined mental context reinstatement (MCR) as a technique to increase the quantity and accuracy of information provided by children during repeated-event narratives. Children (N = 46, 4-, 5- and 6-year olds) participated in four repeated laboratory activities and were interviewed 4-7 days later about the last occurrence with a control or MCR interview, including both a free narrative and specific questions about the events. Older children (6-year olds) provided a greater number of accurate instantiations (specific details) compared to 4-year olds. Five and 6-year olds reported a greater number of instantiations than 4-year olds, but this effect was marginal ...


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