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Children Of Mumbai’S Brothels: Investigating Developmental Prospects, Primary Relationships, And Service Provision, Rochelle L. Dalla 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Children Of Mumbai’S Brothels: Investigating Developmental Prospects, Primary Relationships, And Service Provision, Rochelle L. Dalla

Faculty Publications, Department of Child, Youth, and Family Studies

Objective: To understand the context of the lives of children reared in India’s red-light brothel districts. Background: Substantial empirical insight has emerged on the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC). Yet the extant literature on brothel-based children (BBC), a uniquely vulnerable subset of at-risk children, is paradoxically deficient. Understanding the developmental needs of BBC is critical to mitigating risk.

Method: In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 9 service providers and 30 women residing in 2 red-light brothel districts of Mumbai. Phenomenological inquiry informed the research methodology and data analysis.

Results: Mothers’ goals for children included survival, academic success, and ...


The Role Of Teacher Autonomy Support Across The Transition To Middle School: Its Components, Reach, And Developmental Effects, Julia Sara Dancis 2019 Portland State University

The Role Of Teacher Autonomy Support Across The Transition To Middle School: Its Components, Reach, And Developmental Effects, Julia Sara Dancis

Dissertations and Theses

Building upon self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; 2000), this study sought to ascertain the reach of teacher autonomy support beyond its well-documented impact on student autonomy and engagement to include student competence and relatedness, as well as to parse apart specific teacher behaviors that comprise autonomy support (i.e., respect, choice, relevance, coercion) and their unique influences on the multiple motivational outcomes, surrounding the transition to middle school. These questions were examined using information from 224 fifth graders, 339 sixth graders, and 345 seventh graders attending elementary and middle schools in a predominantly Caucasian working and middle class school district.

Regression analyses ...


Younger And Older Adults' Lie-Detection And Credibility Judgments Of Children's Coached Reports, Alison M. O'Connor, Thomas D. Lyon, Angela Evans 2019 Brock University

Younger And Older Adults' Lie-Detection And Credibility Judgments Of Children's Coached Reports, Alison M. O'Connor, Thomas D. Lyon, Angela Evans

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

Previous research has examined young and middle-aged adults’ perceptions of child witnesses; however, no research to date has examined how potential older adult jurors may perceive a child witness. The present investigation examined younger (18-30 years, N = 100) and older adults’ (66-89 years, N = 100) lie-detection and credibility judgments when viewing children’s truthful and dishonest reports. Participants viewed eight child interview videos where children (9 to 11 years of age) either provided a truthful report or a coached fabricated report to conceal a transgression. Participants provided lie-detection judgments following all eight videos and credibility assessments following the first two ...


66. Younger And Older Adults’ Lie-Detection And Credibility Judgments Of Children’S Coached Reports, Alison M. O'Connor, Thomas D. Lyon, Angela D. Evans 2019 Brock University

66. Younger And Older Adults’ Lie-Detection And Credibility Judgments Of Children’S Coached Reports, Alison M. O'Connor, Thomas D. Lyon, Angela D. Evans

Thomas D. Lyon

Previous research has examined young and middle-aged adults’ perceptions of child witnesses; however, no research to date has examined how potential older adult jurors may perceive a child witness. The present investigation examined younger (18-30 years, N = 100) and older adults’ (66-89 years, N = 100) lie-detection and credibility judgments when viewing children’s truthful and dishonest reports. Participants viewed eight child interview videos where children (9 to 11 years of age) either provided a truthful report or a coached fabricated report to conceal a transgression. Participants provided lie-detection judgments following all eight videos and credibility assessments following the first two ...


Maltreated Children's Ability To Make Temporal Judgments Using A Recurring Landmark Event, Kelly McWilliams, Thomas D. Lyon, J A. Quas 2019 University of Southern California Law School

Maltreated Children's Ability To Make Temporal Judgments Using A Recurring Landmark Event, Kelly Mcwilliams, Thomas D. Lyon, J A. Quas

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

This study examined whether maltreated children are capable of judging the location and order of significant events with respect to a recurring landmark event. 167 6- to 10-year-old maltreated children were asked whether the current day, their last court visit, and their last change in placement were “near” their birthday and “before or after” their birthday. Children showed some understanding that the target event was “near” and “before” their birthday when their birthday was less than three months hence, but were relatively insensitive to preceding birthdays. Hence, children exhibited a prospective bias, preferentially answering with reference to a forthcoming birthday ...


Modeling The Acquisition Of Words With Multiple Meanings, Libby Barak, Sammy Floyd, Adele Goldberg 2019 Princeton University

Modeling The Acquisition Of Words With Multiple Meanings, Libby Barak, Sammy Floyd, Adele Goldberg

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Learning vocabulary is essential to successful communication. Complicating this task is the underappreciated fact that most common words are associated with multiple senses (are polysemous) (e.g., baseball cap vs. cap of a bottle), while other words are homonymous, evoking meanings that are unrelated to one another (e.g., baseball bat vs. flying bat). Models of human word learning have thus far failed to represent this level of naturalistic complexity. We extend a feature-based computational model to allow for multiple meanings, while capturing the gradient distinction between polysemy and homonymy by using structured sets of features. Results confirm that the ...


Human-Like Nsg Mouse Glycoproteins Sialylation Pattern Changes The Phenotype Of Human Lymphocytes And Sensitivity To Hiv-1 Infection, Raghubendra S. Dagur, Amanda Branch-Woods, Saumi Mathews, Poonam S. Joshi, Rolen M. Quadros, Donald W. Harms, Yan Cheng, Shana M. Miles, Samuel J. Pirruccello, Channabasavaiah B. Gurumurthy, Santhi Gorantla, Larisa Y. Poluektova 2019 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Human-Like Nsg Mouse Glycoproteins Sialylation Pattern Changes The Phenotype Of Human Lymphocytes And Sensitivity To Hiv-1 Infection, Raghubendra S. Dagur, Amanda Branch-Woods, Saumi Mathews, Poonam S. Joshi, Rolen M. Quadros, Donald W. Harms, Yan Cheng, Shana M. Miles, Samuel J. Pirruccello, Channabasavaiah B. Gurumurthy, Santhi Gorantla, Larisa Y. Poluektova

Journal Articles: Munroe-Meyer Institute

BACKGROUND: The use of immunodeficient mice transplanted with human hematopoietic stem cells is an accepted approach to study human-specific infectious diseases such as HIV-1 and to investigate multiple aspects of human immune system development. However, mouse and human are different in sialylation patterns of proteins due to evolutionary mutations of the CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) gene that prevent formation of N-glycolylneuraminic acid from N-acetylneuraminic acid. How changes in the mouse glycoproteins' chemistry affect phenotype and function of transplanted human hematopoietic stem cells and mature human immune cells in the course of HIV-1 infection are not known.

RESULTS: We mutated mouse ...


The Impact Of Four-Day School Weeks And Fifth-Day Programs On Delinquency And Problem Behaviors In Adolescents, Emily Collins 2019 Claremont Colleges

The Impact Of Four-Day School Weeks And Fifth-Day Programs On Delinquency And Problem Behaviors In Adolescents, Emily Collins

Scripps Senior Theses

In recent years, tightening budgets have forced school districts to find new ways to save money. One way that has become increasingly popular is to shorten the traditional five-day school week to only four-days a week. This change is budget friendly and may act through efficiency wage theory as a recruitment tool for better teachers. Despite the increasing prevalence of districts running on four-day weeks, many of the effects of the shorter week on students are still unclear. Utilizing district-level panel data from the Colorado Department of Education, Study One took a difference-in-differences approach to determine the effect of the ...


The Psychology Surrounding Legal Standards Of Competency And Representation For Children In U.S. Immigration Court, Natasha Reyes 2019 Claremont Colleges

The Psychology Surrounding Legal Standards Of Competency And Representation For Children In U.S. Immigration Court, Natasha Reyes

CMC Senior Theses

In recent years, immigration detentions have spiked. Further, the Zero Tolerance Policy enacted by President Trump has separated thousands of children from their families. Because many children are without their parents, and immigration court is civil in nature, thousands of children are placed in deportation hearings without representation each year. Child psychological research is at odds with the current deportation practices as psychological research deems children unable to understand the complexities of the court system or the impacts of deportation proceedings. A minimum competency to stand trial must be enacted to protect young children’s due process rights, regardless of ...


Mothering The Aggressive Child, Katja Ermann 2019 Antioch University Seattle

Mothering The Aggressive Child, Katja Ermann

PsyD Program in Clinical Psychology Doctoral Dissertations ( Seattle)

This qualitative study explores the experience of mothers parenting significantly aggressive children, ages five to 10. Little has been known previously about how women experience this aggression or the social and psychological impacts it has on them. This dissertation highlights the women’s understandings to provide a solid basis for theoretical explication using a Constructivist Ground Theory approach. Significant findings include the invisibility and stigma the women feel and the ways in which the experience is similar and dissimilar to other forms of family violence, particularly adolescent-on-parent violence (APV). Differences were found in social stigma between women whose child has ...


Mothering The Aggressive Child, Katja Ermann 2019 Antioch University Seattle

Mothering The Aggressive Child, Katja Ermann

Dissertations & Theses

This qualitative study explores the experience of mothers parenting significantly aggressive children, ages five to 10. Little has been known previously about how women experience this aggression or the social and psychological impacts it has on them. This dissertation highlights the women’s understandings to provide a solid basis for theoretical explication using a Constructivist Ground Theory approach. Significant findings include the invisibility and stigma the women feel and the ways in which the experience is similar and dissimilar to other forms of family violence, particularly adolescent-on-parent violence (APV). Differences were found in social stigma between women whose child has ...


Building Young People’S Capacity For Critical And Transcendent Engagement: Examining The Institution, The Community, And The Individual As Protagonists Of A School Setting, Livia Dittmer 2019 Wilfrid Laurier University

Building Young People’S Capacity For Critical And Transcendent Engagement: Examining The Institution, The Community, And The Individual As Protagonists Of A School Setting, Livia Dittmer

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

As a powerful socializing force in Western society, schools have significant influence on young people’s development into adulthood. As powerful agents of societal maintenance and change, adolescents have significant influence on communities and institutions such as schools. In this embedded case study, I use structuration theory, German Critical Psychology, and systems thinking to examine the dynamic relationship between institutional structures and student agency in a school setting. I specifically examine the influence of this relationship on young people’s capacity for critical and transcendent engagement, constructs described further in this work. In the setting of Nancy Campbell Academy (NCA ...


Is Memory Enhanced By The Context Or Survival Threats? A Quantitative And Qualitative Review On The Survival Processing Paradigm, Peter Kay Chai TAY, Peter K. JONASON, Norman P. LI, Grand H.-L. CHENG 2019 Singapore Management University

Is Memory Enhanced By The Context Or Survival Threats? A Quantitative And Qualitative Review On The Survival Processing Paradigm, Peter Kay Chai Tay, Peter K. Jonason, Norman P. Li, Grand H.-L. Cheng

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Consistent with an evolutionary perspective, memory may be enhanced when people are in precarious situations. Particularly, a survival processing effect (SPE) has been found whereby people have better memory for a list of items when the items are rated for their relevance in a grassland context that contains survival threats including predators, and the lack of food and water. In this article, we systematically review research that investigated the SPE to disentangle the contextual effects (e.g., grassland) from survival effects (e.g., presence of predators) on memory. A total of 56 articles (106 experiments) that reported findings relating to ...


Moral Identity, Moral Disengagement, And Online Behaviour From Adolescence To Young Adulthood, Luc Saulnier 2019 Wilfrid Laurier University

Moral Identity, Moral Disengagement, And Online Behaviour From Adolescence To Young Adulthood, Luc Saulnier

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have become the most popular medium for social communication amongst adolescents and young adults. However, there is growing concern surrounding heightened ICT use and the development and activation of influential social constructs such as moral identity and moral disengagement. The importance of moral ideals to oneself (i.e., moral identity) and the distancing of oneself from these moral ideals (i.e., moral disengagement) are often contextual and may differ in online domains when compared to traditional face-to-face interactions. Developing youth consistently report high moral identity adherence within family and friend contexts during moral development, yet ...


Urban Congolese Refugees’ Social Capital And Community Resilience During A Period Of Political Violence In Kenya: A Qualitative Study, Julie A. Tippens 2019 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Urban Congolese Refugees’ Social Capital And Community Resilience During A Period Of Political Violence In Kenya: A Qualitative Study, Julie A. Tippens

Faculty Publications, Department of Child, Youth, and Family Studies

Community resilience has been used as a conceptual framework to promote urban refugee protection, integration, and well-being. In the context of this focus on “refugee communities,” it is critical to gain a deeper understanding of the ways urban refugee “communities” function. This study explored urban Congolese refugees’ use of social capital to promote resilience during a period of political violence in Nairobi, Kenya. Findings illustrate how refugees used social capital across different contexts to access and distribute resilience-promoting resources. Women primarily relied on informal bonding forms of capital while men exhibited greater degrees of access to formal bridging and linking ...


Gaze Patterns Of Social And Nonsocial Stimuli: A Possible Early Marker For Autism Spectrum Disorder, Ashley Rose Doll 2018 Minnesota State University Moorhead

Gaze Patterns Of Social And Nonsocial Stimuli: A Possible Early Marker For Autism Spectrum Disorder, Ashley Rose Doll

Dissertations, Theses, and Projects

The push for early identification and diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has led to new developments in this area of research. Eye tracking is a promising behavioral screening measure that has been heavily investigated for over a decade. Differences in eye gaze between typically developing (TD) children and children with ASD when viewing social and nonsocial videos have been observed, but only within videos of children playing as social stimuli and with geometric shapes as nonsocial stimuli (Pierce et al., 2016; Shaffer et al., 2017). In addition to social stimuli and geometric shapes, the current study expanded on previous ...


Conversational Movement Dynamics And Nonverbal Indicators Of Second Language Development: A Microgenetic Approach, Kristine Marie Bragg 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Conversational Movement Dynamics And Nonverbal Indicators Of Second Language Development: A Microgenetic Approach, Kristine Marie Bragg

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This dissertation study extends on current understandings of gesture and embodied interaction with the eco-social environment in second language development (SLD) while introducing new aspects of movement analysis through dynamical modeling. To understand the role of embodiment during learning activities, a second language learning task has been selected. Dyads consisting of a non-native English-speaking student and a native English-speaking tutor were video recorded during writing consultations centered on class assignments provided by the student. Cross-recurrence quantification analysis was used to measure interactional movement synchrony between the members of each dyad. Results indicate that students with varied English proficiency levels synchronize ...


The Effects Of Emotion Socialization On Internalizing Behaviors In Young Adults, Cristina Ramirez 2018 California State University, San Bernardino

The Effects Of Emotion Socialization On Internalizing Behaviors In Young Adults, Cristina Ramirez

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Parents play a significant role in how children learn to express their emotions as well as their child’s overall emotional well-being. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of positive and negative emotion socialization experiences on internalizing disorders in young adult males and females. One-hundred and forty-two young adults between the ages of 18-28 years from a southwestern university participated in the current study. It was hypothesized that early negative emotion socialization experiences would be related to higher levels of anxiety and depression in young adulthood (and, conversely, early positive emotion socialization experiences would be related ...


Broad Autism Phenotypic Traits And The Relationship To Sexual Orientation And Sexual Behavior, Lydia R. Qualls, Kathrin Hartmann, James F. Paulson 2018 Old Dominion University

Broad Autism Phenotypic Traits And The Relationship To Sexual Orientation And Sexual Behavior, Lydia R. Qualls, Kathrin Hartmann, James F. Paulson

Psychology Faculty Publications

Individuals with higher levels of the broad autism phenotype (BAP) have some symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Like individuals with ASD, people with higher-BAP may have fewer sexual experiences and may experience more same-sex attraction. This study measured BAP traits, sexual experiences, and sexual orientation in typically developing (TD) individuals to see if patterns of sexual behavior and sexual orientation in higher-BAP resemble those in ASD. Although BAP characteristics did not predict sexual experiences, one BAP measure significantly predicted sexual orientation, β = 0.22, t = 2.72, p = .007, controlling for demographic variables (R2 change = .04, F = 7 ...


The Role Of Dialect Words In Children’S Social Decisions, Madison Rose Myers-Burg 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Role Of Dialect Words In Children’S Social Decisions, Madison Rose Myers-Burg

Theses and Dissertations

Recent research suggests that young children are capable of distinguishing between phonetically dissimilar spoken accents, yet have difficulty distinguishing between phonetically similar accents (Wagner, Clopper, & Pate, 2013). The present study aimed to determine whether the presence of dialect-specific vocabulary enhances young children’s ability to categorize speakers. Participants completed four training trials in which they were familiarized with photos of two children: one of whom used American English labels for test objects and one of whom used British English labels. After training trials, participants completed eight test trials in which they were asked to infer which target child would use ...


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