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Signs Of Mood And Anxiety Disorders In Chimpanzees, Hope Ferdowsian, Debra Durham, Charles Kimwele, Godelieve Kranendonk, Emily Otali, Timothy Akugizibwe, J. B. Mulcahy, Lilly Ajarova, Cassie Meré Johnson 2011 George Washington University

Signs Of Mood And Anxiety Disorders In Chimpanzees, Hope Ferdowsian, Debra Durham, Charles Kimwele, Godelieve Kranendonk, Emily Otali, Timothy Akugizibwe, J. B. Mulcahy, Lilly Ajarova, Cassie Meré Johnson

Sentience Collection

Background: In humans, traumatic experiences are sometimes followed by psychiatric disorders. In chimpanzees, studies have demonstrated an association between traumatic events and the emergence of behavioral disturbances resembling posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. We addressed the following central question: Do chimpanzees develop posttraumatic symptoms, in the form of abnormal behaviors, which cluster into syndromes similar to those described in human mood and anxiety disorders?

Methodology/Principal Findings: In phase 1 of this study, we accessed case reports of chimpanzees who had been reportedly subjected to traumatic events, such as maternal separation, social isolation, experimentation, or similar experiences. We applied and …


Microdialect And Group Signature In The Song Of The Skylark Alauda Arvensis, Elodie Briefer, Fanny Rybak, Thierry Aubin 2011 Queen Mary University of London

Microdialect And Group Signature In The Song Of The Skylark Alauda Arvensis, Elodie Briefer, Fanny Rybak, Thierry Aubin

Sentience Collection

The Skylark Alauda arvensis is a territorial species of open landscape in which pairs settle in stable and adjacent territories during the breeding season. Due to the heterogeneity of the habitat, territories are gathered in patches spaced by a few kilometres, in which each male produces very long and complex flight songs as a part of the territorial behaviour. We showed that, in a given patch, all the males (neighbours) share some particular sequences of syllables in their songs, whereas males settled in different patches (strangers) have almost no sequences in common. Such a phenomenon is known as microdialect. To …


Vocal Learning In Grey Parrots: A Brief Review Of Perception, Production, And Cross-Species Comparisons, Irene M. Pepperberg 2010 Harvard University

Vocal Learning In Grey Parrots: A Brief Review Of Perception, Production, And Cross-Species Comparisons, Irene M. Pepperberg

Sentience Collection

This chapter briefly reviews what is known—and what remains to be understood—about Grey parrot vocal learning. I review Greys’ physical capacities—issues of auditory perception and production—then discuss how these capacities are used in vocal learning and can be recruited for referential communication with humans. I discuss cross-species comparisons where applicable and conclude with a description of recent research that integrates issues of reference, production and perception.


Are Unfamiliar Neighbours Considered To Be Dear-Enemies?, Elodie Briefer, Fanny Rybak, Thierry Aubin 2010 University of Paris-Sud

Are Unfamiliar Neighbours Considered To Be Dear-Enemies?, Elodie Briefer, Fanny Rybak, Thierry Aubin

Sentience Collection

Background: Discriminating threatening individuals from non-threatening ones allow territory owners to modulate their territorial responses according to the threat posed by each intruder. This ability reduces costs associated with territorial defence. Reduced aggression towards familiar adjacent neighbours, termed the dear-enemy effect, has been shown in numerous species. An important question that has never been investigated is whether territory owners perceive distant neighbours established in the same group as strangers because of their unfamiliarity, or as dear-enemies because of their group membership.

Methodology/Principal Findings: To investigate this question, we played back to male skylarks (Alauda arvensis) songs of adjacent neighbours, distant …


Capuchins (Cebus Apella) Can Solve A Means-End Problem, Anna M. Yocom, Sarah T. Boysen 2010 The Ohio State University

Capuchins (Cebus Apella) Can Solve A Means-End Problem, Anna M. Yocom, Sarah T. Boysen

Sentience Collection

Three capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) were tested on a 2-choice discrimination task designed to examine their knowledge of support, modeled after Hauser, Kralik, and Botto-Mahan’s (1999) experiments with tamarins. This task involved a choice between 2 pieces of cloth, including 1 with a food reward placed on its surface, and a second cloth with the food reward next to its surface. After reliably solving the basic problem, the capuchins were tested with various alternations of the original food reward and cloth. The capuchins were able to solve the initial task quickly, and generalize their knowledge to additional functional and nonfunctional …


An Examination Of Aggressive Behavior In Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Aduncus), Lauren Elizabeth Miller 2010 University of Southern Mississippi

An Examination Of Aggressive Behavior In Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Aduncus), Lauren Elizabeth Miller

Master's Theses

Agonistic behavior is often observed in animal groups in which individuals have long-term relationships. Although bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) are known to behave aggressively, relatively little is known about such behavior among wild animals. Much of the data on delphiilid aggression comes from captive studies, and is likely biased by the limited space available to the animals. In this study, video data collected from 1997 to 2007 were analyzed to examine aggressive behaviors in a wild population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) off the coast ofMikura Island, Japan. The purpose of the study was to determine if age class, …


Variation In Social Behavior Throughout The Estrous Cycle Of A Captive Killer Whale Orcinus Orca, Kristina Marie Horback 2010 University of Southern Mississippi

Variation In Social Behavior Throughout The Estrous Cycle Of A Captive Killer Whale Orcinus Orca, Kristina Marie Horback

Master's Theses

The study of cetaceans in captivity provides information on behavior, acoustics, reproduction and physiology that is often difficult to obtain with free-ranging populations. The present study examined the influence of the estrous cycle of a captive female killer whale on the rate, duration, initiation and reception of social behavior she performed with her only pool mate, a male Atlantic bottlenose dolphin. Although these two delphinid species do not commonly associate in the wild, these pool mates often engaged in affiliative tactile and social behaviors. The objectives of this project were to: (a) examine the influence of cycli~ gonadal steroid hormones …


Site Fidelity And Association Patterns Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus In The Mississippi Sound, Angela D. Mackey 2010 University of Southern Mississippi

Site Fidelity And Association Patterns Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus In The Mississippi Sound, Angela D. Mackey

Master's Theses

The current study examined the site fidelity and association patterns of a community of 678 wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Mississippi Sound (Sound) over a three-year period (May 2004 - April 2007). Using photoidentification techniques, 74% (n = 498) of the identified dolphins were classified as transients, while 10% (n = 71) were classified as year-round residents, and 16% (n = 109) were classified as seasonal residents based on their sighting histories. Thirty-nine "select" dolphins (n = 17 seasonal residents, n = 22 yearround residents) that were sighted five or more times over the study period were used …


Changes In Area Affect Figure–Ground Assignment In Pigeons, Leyre Castro, Olga F. Lazareva, Shaun P. Vecera, Edward A. Wasserman 2010 University of Iowa

Changes In Area Affect Figure–Ground Assignment In Pigeons, Leyre Castro, Olga F. Lazareva, Shaun P. Vecera, Edward A. Wasserman

Perception Collection

A critical cue for figure–ground assignment in humans is area: smaller regions are more likely to be perceived as figures than are larger regions. To see if pigeons are similarly sensitive to this cue, we trained birds to report whether a target appeared on a colored figure or on a differently colored background. The initial training figure was either smaller than (Experiments 1 and 2) or the same area as (Experiment 2) the background. After training, we increased or decreased the size of the figure. When the original training shape was smaller than the background, pigeons’ performance improved with smaller …


Pleasurable Surprises: A Cross-Cultural Study Of Consumer Responses To Unexpected Incentives, Ana Valenzuela, Barbara Mellers, Judi Strebel 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Pleasurable Surprises: A Cross-Cultural Study Of Consumer Responses To Unexpected Incentives, Ana Valenzuela, Barbara Mellers, Judi Strebel

Marketing Papers

Consumer reactions to a surprising event are generally stronger than those to an identical but unexpected event. But the experience of surprise differs across cultures. In this article, we examine differences between East Asian and Western emotional reactions to unexpected incentives. When given an unexpected gift, East Asians report less surprise and less pleasure than Westerners. East Asians’ dampened pleasure is explained by their motivation to maintain balance and emotional control, which leads to a reappraisal of perceived likelihood. However, if the unexpected gift is attributed to good luck, which is a desirable form of the unexpected, East Asians experience …


Male Territoriality In A Social Sciurid, Cynomys Gunnisoni: What Do Patterns Of Paternity Tell Us?, J. L. Verdolin, C. N. Slobodchikoff 2010 Stony Brook University

Male Territoriality In A Social Sciurid, Cynomys Gunnisoni: What Do Patterns Of Paternity Tell Us?, J. L. Verdolin, C. N. Slobodchikoff

Veterinary Science and Medicine Collection

In many social sciurids, male territoriality confers significant mating advantages. We evaluated resident male paternity in Gunnison’s prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni), a colonial ground-dwelling sciurid, where males and females cooperatively defend territories. Contrary to findings reported for other social sciurids, our results show that territorial resident males do not gain significant reproductive advantages. Resident males sired the majority of offspring from their respective territories only 10.5% of the time. A single non-resident male sired equal or greater number of offspring than any single resident male 71.2% of the time. While adult males were more likely to sire a greater number …


Discourse And Wolves: Science, Society, And Ethics, William S. Lynn 2010 Williams College

Discourse And Wolves: Science, Society, And Ethics, William S. Lynn

Human and Animal Bonding Collection

Wolves have a special resonance in many human cultures. To appreciate fully the wide variety of views on wolves, we must attend to the scientific, social, and ethical discourses that frame our understanding of wolves themselves, as well as their relationships with people and the natural world. These discourses are a configuration of ideas, language, actions, and institutions that enable or constrain our individual and collective agency with respect to wolves.

Scientific discourse is frequently privileged when it comes to wolves, on the assumption that the primary knowledge requirements are matters of ecology, cognitive ethology, and allied disciplines. Social discourse …


Vigilance And Antipredator Responses Of Caribbean Reef Squid, Jennifer A. Mather 2010 University of Lethbridge

Vigilance And Antipredator Responses Of Caribbean Reef Squid, Jennifer A. Mather

Sentience Collection

Antipredator responses, especially those of open-ocean squid, have been seldom studied in the natural environment. Sepioteuthis sepioidea, observed by snorkellers near the shore in early morning/late afternoon, produced an average of eight moves of over 1m per hour, apparently mostly antipredator behaviours. Close approaches by herbivorous parrotfish elicited no response in 74% of encounters; otherwise, squid produced agonistic zebra stripes or startle-mantle-dots skin patterns. Predatory bar jack fish caused flight but not zebra displays, and squid usually paled and fled quickly (66%) from snapper. The speed of approach was the best predictor for flight and display responses to snapper, …


Squid Dances: An Ethogram Of Postures And Actions Of Sepioteuthis Sepioidea Squid With A Muscular Hydrostatic System, Jennifer A. Mather, Ulrike Griebel, Ruth A. Byrne 2010 University of Lethbridge

Squid Dances: An Ethogram Of Postures And Actions Of Sepioteuthis Sepioidea Squid With A Muscular Hydrostatic System, Jennifer A. Mather, Ulrike Griebel, Ruth A. Byrne

Sentience Collection

A taxonomy of the movement possibilities for any species, within the constraints of its neural and skeletal systems, should be one of the foundations of the study of its behaviour. Caribbean reef squid, Sepioteuthis sepioidea, appear to have many degrees of freedom in their movement as they live in a three-dimensional habitat and have no fixed skeleton but rather a muscular hydrostatic one. Within this apparent lack of constraints, there are regularities and patterns of common occurrences that allow this article to describe an ethogram of the movements, postures and positions of squid. Squid have a combination of bent, …


Octopuses (Enteroctopus Dofleini) Recognize Individual Humans, Roland C. Anderson, Jennifer A. Mather, Mathieu Q. Monette, Stephanie R.M. Zimsen 2010 The Seattle Aquarium

Octopuses (Enteroctopus Dofleini) Recognize Individual Humans, Roland C. Anderson, Jennifer A. Mather, Mathieu Q. Monette, Stephanie R.M. Zimsen

Sentience Collection

This study exposed 8 Enteroctopus dofleini separately to 2 unfamiliar individual humans over a 2-week period under differing circumstances. One person consistently fed the octopuses and the other touched them with a bristly stick. Each human recorded octopus body patterns, behaviors, and respiration rates directly after each treatment. At the end of 2 weeks, a body pattern (a dark Eyebar) and 2 behaviors (reaching arms toward or away from the tester and funnel direction) were significantly different in response to the 2 humans. The respiration rate of the 4 larger octopuses changed significantly in response to the 2 treatments; …


Behavior Of A Solitary Sociable Female Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Off The Coast Of Kent, Southeast England, Sonja Eisfeld, Mark P. Simmonds, Laura R. Stansfield 2010 Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society

Behavior Of A Solitary Sociable Female Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Off The Coast Of Kent, Southeast England, Sonja Eisfeld, Mark P. Simmonds, Laura R. Stansfield

Ethology Collection

This article provides a report of the behavior of a solitary sociable dolphin studied on the southeast coast of England in 2007. This is the first study of its kind in which behavior of such a nonhuman animal was systematically studied. By the time of this study, this young female was highly interactive with people in the water. People accompanied the dolphin for 18.4% of the 100 hr of observation, and their presence changed her behavior. The study recorded 39 different behaviors; feeding and resting behaviors declined in frequency in the presence of people. In addition, the dolphin exhibited behavior …


Quality Prevails Over Identity In The Sexually Selected Vocalisations Of An Ageing Mammal, Elodie F. Briefer, Elisabetta Vannoni, Alan G. McElligott 2010 Queen Mary University of London

Quality Prevails Over Identity In The Sexually Selected Vocalisations Of An Ageing Mammal, Elodie F. Briefer, Elisabetta Vannoni, Alan G. Mcelligott

Ethology Collection

Background: Male sexually selected vocalisations generally contain both individuality and quality cues that are crucial in intra- as well as inter-sexual communication. As individuality is a fixed feature whereas male phenotypic quality changes with age, individuality and quality cues may be subjected to different selection pressures over time. Individuality (for example, morphology of the vocal apparatus) and quality (for example, body size and dominance status) can both affect the vocal production mechanism, inducing the same components of vocalisations to convey both kinds of information. In this case, do quality-related changes to the acoustic structure of calls induce a modification of …


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