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Transposed Letter Effects In Prefixed Words: Implications For Morphological Decomposition, Kathleen M. Masserang 2010 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Transposed Letter Effects In Prefixed Words: Implications For Morphological Decomposition, Kathleen M. Masserang

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

The nature of morphological decomposition in visual word recognition remains unclear regarding morphemically complex words such as prefixed words. To investigate the decomposition process, the current study examined the extent to which effects involving transposed letters are modulated when the transposed letters cross a morpheme boundary. Previous studies using masked priming have demonstrated that transposed letter effects (i.e. superior priming when the prime contains transposed letters than when it contains replacement letters) disappear or markedly decrease when the transposition occurs across a morpheme boundary. The current experiments further investigated transposed letter effects in prefixed words using both parafoveal previews ...


The Effects Of Associative Interference, Stimulus Type, And Item Familiarity On Associative Recognition Memory, Fahad Naveed Ahmad 2010 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Effects Of Associative Interference, Stimulus Type, And Item Familiarity On Associative Recognition Memory, Fahad Naveed Ahmad

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This study investigated whether recognition memory requires two retrieval processes (i.e., familiarity and recognition) as stated by the Dual process theory or requires one retrieval process (i.e., familiarity) as stated by the Single process theory. The first experiment investigated the effects of A-B, A-C, A-D-, A-E interference on both word and picture pair recognition. As expected, it was found that a picture superiority effect was present in the baseline condition, but was reduced in the interference condition. Moreover, in the baseline condition, a non-mirror pattern (i.e., hits higher for picture pairs, but false alarm rates were the ...


The Role Of Auditory Feedback On The Control Of Voice Fundamental Frequency (F0) While Singing, Dwayne Nicholas Keough 2010 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Role Of Auditory Feedback On The Control Of Voice Fundamental Frequency (F0) While Singing, Dwayne Nicholas Keough

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Whether we are learning how to play a new instrument, song, or even learn a second language, the nervous system relies on various forms of sensory feedback to establish task-specific sensorimotor representations. Over time, the plasticity of the nervous system permits neural reorganization and the formation of an ‘internal model’. It has been suggested that internal models represent neural maps of skilled movement that store the relationship between the motor commands, environment and sensory feedback responsible for their production. These internal representations are often investigated by altering a particular aspect of the sensory feedback associated with a given task. Arguably ...


Children's Tolerance Of Word-Form Variation, Paul Reeves Breuning 2010 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Children's Tolerance Of Word-Form Variation, Paul Reeves Breuning

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study compared children's (N=96, mean age 4;1, range 2;8-5;3) and adults' (N=96, mean age 21 years) tolerance of word-onset modifications (e.g., wabbit and warabbit) and pseudo affixes (e.g., kocat and catko) in a label extension task. Trials comprised an introductory phase where children saw a picture of an animal and were told its name, and a test phase where they were shown the same picture along with one of a different animal. For `similar-name' trials, participants heard a word-form modification of the previously introduced name (e.g., introduced to a dib ...


Not Just How One Feels, But What One Images? The Effects Of Imagery Use On Affective Responses To Moderate Exercise, Damian Stanley, Jennifer Cumming 2009 University of Wolverhampton

Not Just How One Feels, But What One Images? The Effects Of Imagery Use On Affective Responses To Moderate Exercise, Damian Stanley, Jennifer Cumming

Jennifer Cumming

Previous research has highlighted a need for identifying the psychological strategies which best maximize the affective responses to exercise (e.g., Blanchard, Rodgers, & Gauvin, 2004). The present study compared the effects on affective responses of using different imagery types while exercising. Participants (N = 75, mean age = 20.2 years, SD = 1.33) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 imagery conditions (i.e., enjoyment imagery, energy imagery, or technique imagery). Affect was recorded before and after 20 min of moderate intensity cycle ergometry (50% Heart Rate Reserve) using the Exercise-Induced Feeling Inventory (EFI; Gauvin & Rejeski, 1993) and the Feeling Scale (Hardy & Rejeski, 1989). Controlling for affect reported before the exercise bout, the enjoyment imagery group reported significantly higher levels of postexercise valence than the energy and technique imagery groups and higher revitalization than the technique imagery group. These findings indicate that enjoyment imagery could be used to further improve the affective benefits associated with exercise.


Are We Having Fun Yet? Testing The Effects Of Imagery Use On The Affective And Enjoyment Responses To Acute Moderate Exercise, Damian Stanley, Jennifer Cumming 2009 University of Birmingham

Are We Having Fun Yet? Testing The Effects Of Imagery Use On The Affective And Enjoyment Responses To Acute Moderate Exercise, Damian Stanley, Jennifer Cumming

Jennifer Cumming

Objectives The present study investigated whether using imagery during acute moderate exercise evokes more positive affective and enjoyment responses than exercising without an assigned strategy.

Design Laboratory experiment.

Methods Participants (N = 88, mean age = 19.81 years) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 conditions (enjoyment imagery, energy imagery, technique imagery, or exercise alone). Affect was measured before, during, and after 20 min of moderate intensity (50% of Heart Rate Reserve) cycle ergometry. A single-item measure of enjoyment was developed for use during exercise.

Results Enjoyment and energy imagery brought about significant increases in valence from pre- to postexercise, and ...


Activist Knowledge: Interrogating The Ideational Landscape Of Social Movements, S A Hosseini 2009 University of Newcastle

Activist Knowledge: Interrogating The Ideational Landscape Of Social Movements, S A Hosseini

Dr S A Hosseini

Over the past three decades, there has been a rising concern about the ability of social theories to address the idea-construction (ideational) processes in social and political movements. This article argues that in spite of the recent growing emphasis on the cognitive dimension of collective action, many theoretical attempts and the studies influenced by them evidence significant shortcomings in explaining the (trans)formation of ideas and ideologies in social movements. These shortcomings stem from a failure at the metatheoretical level, that is, their failure to hold an integrative and interdisciplinary approach to comprehending the relation between changing social structures, dynamic ...


Task Effects In The Mid-Fusiform Gyrus: A Comparison Of Orthographic, Phonological, And Semantic Processing Of Chinese Characters, Darcy Burgund, Yi Guo 2009 Macalester College

Task Effects In The Mid-Fusiform Gyrus: A Comparison Of Orthographic, Phonological, And Semantic Processing Of Chinese Characters, Darcy Burgund, Yi Guo

E. Darcy Burgund

No abstract provided.


The Nature Of Motivation: A Question Of ‘Why?’, Eleanor Quested, Jennifer Cumming, Joan Duda 2009 University of Birmingham

The Nature Of Motivation: A Question Of ‘Why?’, Eleanor Quested, Jennifer Cumming, Joan Duda

Jennifer Cumming

No abstract provided.


Mental Qualities And Employed Mental Techniques Of Young Elite Team Sport Athletes, Mark Holland, Charlotte Woodcock, Jennifer Cumming, Joan Duda 2009 University of Birmingham

Mental Qualities And Employed Mental Techniques Of Young Elite Team Sport Athletes, Mark Holland, Charlotte Woodcock, Jennifer Cumming, Joan Duda

Jennifer Cumming

Research on the psychological characteristics of elite performers has primarily focused on Olympic and World champions; however, the mental attributes of young developing and talented athletes have received less attention. Addressing this, the current study had two aims: (a) to examine the perceptions held by youth athletes regarding the mental qualities they need to facilitate their development and (b) to investigate the mental techniques used by these athletes. Forty-three male youth rugby players participated in a series of focus groups. Inductive content analysis revealed 11 categories of psychological qualities, including enjoyment, responsibility, adaptability, squad spirit, self-aware learner, determination, confidence, optimal ...


Incongruent Imagery Interferes With Action Initiation, Richard Ramsey, Jennifer Cumming, Daniel Eastough, Martin Edwards 2009 University of Nottingham

Incongruent Imagery Interferes With Action Initiation, Richard Ramsey, Jennifer Cumming, Daniel Eastough, Martin Edwards

Jennifer Cumming

It has been suggested that representing an action through observation and imagery share neural processes with action execution. In support of this view, motor-priming research has shown that observing an action can influence action initiation. However, there is little motor-priming research showing that imagining an action can modulate action initiation. The current study examined whether action imagery could prime subsequent execution of a reach and grasp action. Across two motion analysis tracking experiments, 40 participants grasped an object following congruent or incongruent action imagery. In Experiment 1, movement initiation was faster following congruent compared to incongruent imagery, demonstrating that imagery ...


The Use Of Imagery To Manipulate Challenge And Threat Appraisal States In Athletes, Sarah Williams, Jennifer Cumming, George Balanos 2009 University of Birmingham

The Use Of Imagery To Manipulate Challenge And Threat Appraisal States In Athletes, Sarah Williams, Jennifer Cumming, George Balanos

Jennifer Cumming

The present study investigated whether imagery could manipulate athletes’ appraisal of stress-evoking situations (i.e., challenge or threat) and whether psychological and cardiovascular responses and interpretations varied according to cognitive appraisal of three imagery scripts: challenge, neutral, and threat. Twenty athletes (Mage = 20.85; SD = 1.76; 10 female, 10 male) imaged each script while heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output were obtained using Doppler echocardiography. State anxiety and self-confidence were assessed following each script using the Immediate Anxiety Measures Scale. During the imagery, a significant increase in heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output occurred for the challenge ...


The Relation Of Aerobic Fitness To Neuroelectric Indices Of Cognitive And Motor Task Preparation, Jason Themanson, Keita Kamijo, Kevin O'leary, Matthew Pontifex, Charles Hillman 2009 Illinois Wesleyan University

The Relation Of Aerobic Fitness To Neuroelectric Indices Of Cognitive And Motor Task Preparation, Jason Themanson, Keita Kamijo, Kevin O'Leary, Matthew Pontifex, Charles Hillman

Jason R. Themanson, Ph.D

The relation of aerobic fitness to task preparation was examined in a sample of young adults separated into higher- and lower-fit groups according to their maximal oxygen consumption. Participants performed a modified Sternberg working memory task under speed and accuracy instructions while measures of task performance and contingent negative variation (CNV) were collected. Analyses revealed no significant fitness differences between groups on task performance measures. However, frontal CNVamplitude was significantly larger for lower-fit participants compared to higher-fit participants during the speed instructions, an effect not found for the accuracy instructions. These results suggest that lower-fit individuals may rely to a ...


Cortical Underconnectivity Coupled With Preserved Visuospatial Cognition In Autism: Evidence From An Fmri Study Of An Embedded Figures Task, Saudamini Damarla, Timothy Keller, Rajesh Kana, Vladimir Cherkassky, Diane Williams, Nancy Minshew, Marcel Just 2009 Carnegie Mellon University

Cortical Underconnectivity Coupled With Preserved Visuospatial Cognition In Autism: Evidence From An Fmri Study Of An Embedded Figures Task, Saudamini Damarla, Timothy Keller, Rajesh Kana, Vladimir Cherkassky, Diane Williams, Nancy Minshew, Marcel Just

Marcel Adam Just

No abstract provided.


Complex Problem Solving: A Case For Complex Cognition?, Joachim Funke 2009 University of Heidelberg, Germany

Complex Problem Solving: A Case For Complex Cognition?, Joachim Funke

Joachim Funke

Complex problem solving (CPS) emerged in the last 30 years in Europe as a new part of the psychology of thinking and problem solving. This paper introduces into the field and provides a personal view. Also, related concepts like macrocognition or operative intelligence will be explained in this context. Two examples for the assessment of CPS, Tailorshop and MicroDYN, are presented to illustrate the concept by means of their measurement devices. Also, the relation of complex cognition and emotion in the CPS context is discussed. The question if CPS requires complex cognition is answered with a tentative “yes.”


Negative Affective Environments Improve Complex Solving Performance, Carola Barth, Joachim Funke 2009 University of Heidelberg, Germany

Negative Affective Environments Improve Complex Solving Performance, Carola Barth, Joachim Funke

Joachim Funke

Based on recent affect-cognition theories (Bless et al., 1996; Fiedler, 2001; Sinclair, 1988), the present study predicts and shows a differentiated influence of nice and nasty environments on complex problem solving (CPS). Environments were constructed by manipulating the target value ‘capital’ of a complex scenario: Participants in the nice environment (N = 42) easily raised the capital and received positive feedback, whereas those in the nasty environment (N = 42) hardly enhanced the capital and got negative feedback. The results showed that nasty environments increased negative and decreased positive affect. The reverse was true for nice environments. Furthermore, nasty environments influenced CPS ...


Teaching With Emotion: Enriching The Educational Experience Of First-Year Law Students, Grant Morris 2009 Univerisity of San Diego School of Law

Teaching With Emotion: Enriching The Educational Experience Of First-Year Law Students, Grant Morris

Grant H Morris

Through the case method and Socratic dialogue, first year law students are taught to develop critical legal analytic skills–to “think like a lawyer.” Those skills, however, are primarily, if not entirely, intellectual. This article discusses the need to address emotional issues in educating law students. Unlike other articles, my article does not merely urge professors to raise such issues in their classes and discuss them analytically. Rather, I want students to actually experience emotion in the classroom setting as they discuss various fact situations and the legal principles involved in the resolution of disputes involving those facts. Law students ...


Factors Of Successful Marriage: Accounts From Self Described Happy Couples, mohammad Asoodeh 2009 Teachers College

Factors Of Successful Marriage: Accounts From Self Described Happy Couples, Mohammad Asoodeh

mohammad Hosein Asoodeh

The purpose of this study is to identify the factors of successful marriage that accounts from self-described happy couples. For this purpose 300 couples were selected from among the staff of the several companies, and the parents of students. The procedure undertaken is cluster sampling. So far three couples who got a high score from ECS (1989) and described themselves as happy couples underwent an in-depth, semi-structured interview. The results show that successful couples trust and consult each other, are honest, believe in God, make decisions together, are commitment to each other, and have friendly relationship. Traditional couples and non-traditional ...


Identity Politics, Cigdem Sirin 2009 University of Texas at El Paso

Identity Politics, Cigdem Sirin

Cigdem V. Sirin

No abstract provided.


Student-Initiated Group Management Strategies For More Effective And Enjoyable Group Work Experiences, Jennifer Cumming 2009 University of Birmingham

Student-Initiated Group Management Strategies For More Effective And Enjoyable Group Work Experiences, Jennifer Cumming

Jennifer Cumming

This study examined whether group processes and task cohesion mediated the relationship between student-initiated group management strategies and three specific outcomes of working in groups. Undergraduate students completed a multi-section questionnaire to measure group management strategies, perceptions about group processes, task cohesion, group effectiveness, enjoyment, and learning benefits. Use of group management strategies was positively related to all three outcomes. Further, group process and task cohesion mediated this relationship when the outcomes were effectiveness and enjoyment, but not learning benefits. These results indicate the importance of group management strategies for developing positive group working experiences in higher education.


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