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Event Segmentation And Memory Retrieval In Reading Comprehension, Charles Baker Brenner 2010 Macalester College

Event Segmentation And Memory Retrieval In Reading Comprehension, Charles Baker Brenner

Linguistics Honors Projects

Comprehending text involves the convergence of top-down, expectation-driven processes and bottom-up, stimulus-driven processes. The precise nature of this convergence, however, is not well understood. The current study used narrative time shifts and shifts in protagonist goal, both hypothesized to encourage event-segmented memory representations, to investigate the interaction between automatic and constructive memory processes during reading. The addition of time and goal shifts was found to have no effect on the automatic retrieval of information from memory. The results are interpreted as support for the bottom-up account of retrieval of information during reading, and for the idea that the top-down account ...


Speech And Gesture In Language Acquisition Studies, Gale Stam 2010 National-Louis University

Speech And Gesture In Language Acquisition Studies, Gale Stam

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Speech And Gesture In Language Acquisition Studies, Gale Stam 2010 National Louis University

Speech And Gesture In Language Acquisition Studies, Gale Stam

Gale Stam, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Selective Attention For Masked And Unmasked Threatening Words In Anxiety: Effects Of Trait Anxiety, State Anxiety And Awareness, Mark Edwards, Jennifer S. Burt, Ottmar V. Lipp 2010 Bond University

Selective Attention For Masked And Unmasked Threatening Words In Anxiety: Effects Of Trait Anxiety, State Anxiety And Awareness, Mark Edwards, Jennifer S. Burt, Ottmar V. Lipp

Humanities & Social Sciences papers

We investigated the effects of awareness on selective attention for masked and unmasked verbal threat material using a computerised version of the emotional Stroop. Participants were assigned to the high trait anxious (HTA) and low trait anxious (LTA) groups on the basis of questionnaire scores, and state anxiety was manipulated within participants through the threat of electric shock. To investigate the effects of awareness on responses to threat, the mode of exposure was blocked such that half the participants received masked trials before the unmasked trials, whereas the other half received the reverse order. The results revealed that there was ...


Against The State Governance, Governance From Below & Governing Through Terrorism: Analytically Investigating The Technologies Of Power Within The Terrorist Arsenal., Allen Gnanam 2010 University of Windsor

Against The State Governance, Governance From Below & Governing Through Terrorism: Analytically Investigating The Technologies Of Power Within The Terrorist Arsenal., Allen Gnanam

Allen Gnanam

Terrorism as a violent and destabilizing act performed by terrorists, meaning loyal followers of political or religious agendas who hold resent and animosity toward a certain authority/ government (Lin, Liou, & Wu, 2007, pg. 149), will be explored and analyzed through the utilization of the governmentality perspective. For the purposes of this paper terrorism governance will refer to the governance/ control/ influence exerted by terrorists and terrorism. The focus of this explorative and analysis paper will be to identify diverse terrorism oriented technologies of governance, and analyze the ways in which these technologies enable terrorist to exert governance both indirectly and ...


Can An L2 Speaker's Patterns Of Thinking For Speaking Change?, Gale Stam 2010 National Louis University

Can An L2 Speaker's Patterns Of Thinking For Speaking Change?, Gale Stam

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Because You Can't Teach It All And They Won't Read It All: Student Response Systems Do Improve Learning, Steven G. Luke, Sarah Grison, Aya Shigeto, Patrick D.K. Watson 2010 Parkland College

Because You Can't Teach It All And They Won't Read It All: Student Response Systems Do Improve Learning, Steven G. Luke, Sarah Grison, Aya Shigeto, Patrick D.K. Watson

Psychology Faculty

In Introductory Psychology, 30 graduate TAs/faculty teach 2700 students annually. This year we developed an assessment program to improve student learning and graduate teaching training (Shigeto et al., 2010). Part of the program studied the pedagogical value of using student response systems to answer in-class multiple choice questions. Prior research lacks scientific rigor and provides equivocal evidence that SRSs improve learning (Caldwell, 2007).


Practice Makes Perfect: Improving Learning Of At-Risk Students, Patrick D.K. Watson, Sarah Grison, Steven G. Luke, Aya Shigeto 2010 Parkland College

Practice Makes Perfect: Improving Learning Of At-Risk Students, Patrick D.K. Watson, Sarah Grison, Steven G. Luke, Aya Shigeto

Psychology Faculty

29 graduate TAs and 1 faculty member teach 2700 Introductory Psychology students annually. This year we developed an assessment program to improve student learning and graduate teaching training (Shigeto et al., 2010). We studied the value of pedagogical tools developed for students in the Educational Opportunities Program (EOP). EOP selects students based on demographics and academic vulnerabilities for a special intro psych section. This section has an extra day per week for content presentation and additional student development support. These interventions have been demonstrated to enhance learning in minority students (Treisman, 1992).


Research Domain Criteria (Rdoc): Toward A New Classification Framework For Research On Mental Disorders, Thomas R. Insel, Bruce N. Cuthbert, Marjorie A. Garvey, Robert K. Heinssen, Daniel S. Pine, Kevin J. Quinn, Charles A. Sanislow, Philip S. Wang 2010 National Institute of Mental Health

Research Domain Criteria (Rdoc): Toward A New Classification Framework For Research On Mental Disorders, Thomas R. Insel, Bruce N. Cuthbert, Marjorie A. Garvey, Robert K. Heinssen, Daniel S. Pine, Kevin J. Quinn, Charles A. Sanislow, Philip S. Wang

Division III Faculty Publications

Current versions of the DSM and ICD have facilitated reliable clinical diagnosis and research. However, problems have increasingly been documented over the past several years, both in clinical and research arenas (e.g., 1, 2). Diagnostic categories based on clinical consensus fail to align with findings emerging from clinical neuroscience and genetics. The boundaries of these categories have not been predictive of treatment response. And, perhaps most important, these categories, based upon presenting signs and symptoms, may not capture fundamental underlying mechanisms of dysfunction. One consequence has been to slow the development of new treatments targeted to underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.


Can An Ethical Person Be An Ethical Prosecutor? A Social Cognitive Approach To Systemic Reform, Lawton P. Cummings 2010 University of Maryland School of Law

Can An Ethical Person Be An Ethical Prosecutor? A Social Cognitive Approach To Systemic Reform, Lawton P. Cummings

Faculty Scholarship

This Article argues that certain key structural factors within the prosecutorial system in the United States lead to prosecutorial misconduct by systematically encouraging 'moral disengagement' in prosecutors. 'Moral disengagement' refers to the social cognition theory developed by Albert Bandura and others, which identifies the mechanisms that operate to disengage an individual’s moral self-sanctions that would otherwise inhibit the individual from engaging in injurious conduct. Empirical studies have shown that a person’s level of moral disengagement, as a dispositional trait, is an accurate predictor of the person’s level of aggression and anti-social behavior, and that an individual’s ...


Cortical Underconnectivity Coupled With Preserved Visuospatial Cognition In Autism: Evidence From An Fmri Study Of An Embedded Figures Task, Saudamini Damarla, Timothy A. Keller, Rajesh K. Kana, Vladimir L. Cherkassky, Diane L. Williams, Nancy J. Minshew, Marcel Adam Just 2010 Carnegie Mellon University

Cortical Underconnectivity Coupled With Preserved Visuospatial Cognition In Autism: Evidence From An Fmri Study Of An Embedded Figures Task, Saudamini Damarla, Timothy A. Keller, Rajesh K. Kana, Vladimir L. Cherkassky, Diane L. Williams, Nancy J. Minshew, Marcel Adam Just

Department of Psychology

No abstract provided.


Long-Term Effects Of Testing On The Recall Of Nontested Materials, Jason C.K. Chan 2010 Iowa State University

Long-Term Effects Of Testing On The Recall Of Nontested Materials, Jason C.K. Chan

Psychology Publications

Testing, or memory retrieval, is a powerful way to enhance long-term retention of studied material. Recent studies have shown that testing can also benefit later retention of related but nontested material (a finding known as retrieval-induced facilitation, Chan, McDermott, & Roediger, 2006), but the long-term consequences of this benefit is unknown. In the current experiment three retention intervals—20 minutes, 24 hours, 7 days—were used to assess the effects of testing on subsequent recall of the nontested material. The results indicate that the magnitude of retrieval-induced facilitation, like that of the testing effect (i.e., the memorial benefit of testing ...


C-Reactive Protein, Homocysteine, And Cognitive Performance In Healthy Adults, Cheryl Dahle 2010 Wayne State University

C-Reactive Protein, Homocysteine, And Cognitive Performance In Healthy Adults, Cheryl Dahle

Wayne State University Dissertations

Elevated blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine (Hcy) have received a great deal of attention as biomarkers for the development of cardiovascular disease. Their utility in predicting cognitive function has also been assessed, though the findings are equivocal. The current study examined the relationship between elevated blood levels of CRP and Hcy and their effect on cognition across several cognitive domains. As baseline blood levels of CRP and Hcy and cognition are in part regulated by genetic factors, the impact of T carrier status for variants in the CRP -286 C>T>A and the MTHFR 677C>T ...


Communicative Competence In Persons With Aphasia: The Impact Of Executive Function, Judy Marie Mikola 2010 Wayne State University

Communicative Competence In Persons With Aphasia: The Impact Of Executive Function, Judy Marie Mikola

Wayne State University Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between executive function and performance on selected linguistic tasks in persons with aphasia secondary to left frontal lesions.

A group of 15 persons with aphasia (PWA) completed three communication board tasks of varying levels of complexity and structure. The subject's functional use of the picture/word communication board was tested during a Story Retelling task. In addition, the PWA's executive function skills were examined using six nonverbal tests. The PWA group performance scores were compared to that of the neurologically healthy control group.

Results demonstrated that the control ...


Threat By Association: Minimal Group Affiliation And Its Outcome For Stereotype Threat, Eric W. Fuller 2010 Wayne State University

Threat By Association: Minimal Group Affiliation And Its Outcome For Stereotype Threat, Eric W. Fuller

Wayne State University Theses

Stereotype threat has been shown to be an important cause of performance detriments in various social groups. It has also been theorized that stereotype threat could be applicable to any group so long as the individual believes their performance may reinforce the negative stereotype. The current work attempts to induce stereotype threat in participants believing they belong to an experimentally created and negatively stereotyped group using a minimal group paradigm. Across two studies there did not appear to be significant performance changes typically observed in stereotype threat research. Various cognitive measures and post-performance inquiries did generally support claims that participants ...


Lateral Cognitive Processing And Belief Updating, Erin Marie Holcomb 2010 Wayne State University

Lateral Cognitive Processing And Belief Updating, Erin Marie Holcomb

Wayne State University Theses

Bias in mental representations and belief systems has been linked to asymmetries in information processing by the two hemispheres in research that uses wide variety of methodologies and participant samples. Also, associations have been drawn between such biases in belief systems and sociopolitical orientation leading to the hypothesis that links can be drawn from lateral processing through cognitive style to social and political orientation. This study sought to examine individual differences in laterality - as assessed via a lateralized semantic priming methodology - and manifestations of rigidity and flexibility in belief updating within a sociopolitical context. Analyses revealed that a theoretical inference ...


The Effect Of Word Sociality On Word Recognition, Sean Seaman 2010 Wayne State University

The Effect Of Word Sociality On Word Recognition, Sean Seaman

Wayne State University Dissertations

While research into the role of semantic structure in the recognition of written and spoken words has grown, it has not looked specifically at the role of conversational context on the recognition of isolated words. This study was a corpus-based and behavioral exploration of a new semantic variable - sociality - and used on-line behavioral testing to obtain new word recognition data using the visual and auditory lexical decision tasks. The results consistently demonstrated that sociality is one of the most robust predictors of lexical decision performance. Overall, it appears that the visual lexical decision task is quite sensitive to the likelihood ...


A Differential Deficit In Time- Versus Event-Based Prospective Memory In Parkinson's Disease, Sarah Raskin, Stephen Paul Woods, Amelia Poquette, April McTaggart, Jim Sethna, Rebecca Williams, Alexander Troster 2010 Trinity College

A Differential Deficit In Time- Versus Event-Based Prospective Memory In Parkinson's Disease, Sarah Raskin, Stephen Paul Woods, Amelia Poquette, April Mctaggart, Jim Sethna, Rebecca Williams, Alexander Troster

Faculty Scholarship

Objective: The aim of the current study was to clarify the nature and extent of impairment in time- versus
event-based prospective memory in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Prospective memory is thought to involve
cognitive processes that are mediated by prefrontal systems and are executive in nature. Given that
individuals with PD frequently show executive dysfunction, it is important to determine whether these
individuals may have deficits in prospective memory that could impact daily functions, such as taking
medications. Although it has been reported that individuals with PD evidence impairment in prospective
memory, it is still unclear whether they show a ...


The Relationship Between Indecisiveness And Eye Fixations In A Decision Related Informational Search Task, Andrea L. Patalano, Barbara J. Juhasz, Joanna Dicke 2010 Wesleyan University

The Relationship Between Indecisiveness And Eye Fixations In A Decision Related Informational Search Task, Andrea L. Patalano, Barbara J. Juhasz, Joanna Dicke

Division III Faculty Publications

Indecisiveness is a trait-related general tendency to experience decision difficulties across a variety of situations, leading to decision delay, worry, and regret. Indecisiveness is proposed (Rassin, 2007) to be associated with an increase in desire for information acquisition and reliance on compensatory strategies—as evidenced by alternative-based information search—during decision making. However existing studies provide conflicting findings. We conducted an information board study of indecisiveness, using eye tracking methodology, to test the hypotheses that the relationship between indecisiveness and choice strategy depends on being in the early stage of the decision making process, and that it depends on being ...


Can Personality Disorder Experts Recognize Dsm-Iv Personality Disorders From Five-Factor Model Descriptions Of Patient Cases?, Benjamin M. Rottman, Nancy S. Kim, Woo-kyoung Ahn, Charles A. Sanislow PhD 2010 Yale University

Can Personality Disorder Experts Recognize Dsm-Iv Personality Disorders From Five-Factor Model Descriptions Of Patient Cases?, Benjamin M. Rottman, Nancy S. Kim, Woo-Kyoung Ahn, Charles A. Sanislow Phd

Division III Faculty Publications

Background: Dimensional models of personality are under consideration for integration into the next Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), but the clinical utility of such models is unclear.

Objective: To test the ability of clinical researchers who specialize in personality disorders to diagnose personality disorders using dimensional assessments and to compare those researchers’ ratings of clinical utility for a dimensional system versus for the DSM-IV.

Method: A sample of 73 researchers who had each published at least 3 (median = 15) articles on personal- ity disorders participated between December 2008 and January 2009. The Five-Factor Model (FFM), one of ...


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