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General Recognition Theory Extended To Include Response Times: Predictions For A Class Of Parallel Systems, James T. Townsend, Joseph W. Houpt, Noah H. Silbert 2012 Wright State University - Main Campus

General Recognition Theory Extended To Include Response Times: Predictions For A Class Of Parallel Systems, James T. Townsend, Joseph W. Houpt, Noah H. Silbert

Psychology Faculty Publications

General Recognition Theory (GRT; Ashby & Townsend, 1986) is a multidimensional theory of classification. Originally developed to study various types of perceptual independence, it has also been widely employed in diverse cognitive venues, such as categorization. The initial theory and applications have been static, that is, lacking a time variable and focusing on patterns of responses, such as confusion matrices. Ashby proposed a parallel, dynamic stochastic version of GRT with application to perceptual independence based on discrete linear systems theory with imposed noise (Ashby, 1989). The current study again focuses on cognitive/perceptual independence within an identification classification paradigm. We extend ...


Animal Cognition, The Importance Of Touch, And The Cit, Deirdre Yeater 2012 Sacred Heart University

Animal Cognition, The Importance Of Touch, And The Cit, Deirdre Yeater

Presidential Seminar on the Catholic Intellectual Tradition

A presentation of Professor Yeater's incorporation in her class PSCC103 of 5 in- class discussions comparing human and non-human species, particularly dolphins, with an emphasis on the Catholic Intellectual Tradition and the importance of touch. PSCC-103, The Human Community: The Individual and Society, is a 3 credit course which engages students in a study of the relationship between psychology – the science of human behavior and mental processes, and the Catholic intellectual tradition – which is characterized by rigorous intellectual inquiry and an openness to scientific ideas. This course aims to help us understand ourselves as human persons, as well as ...


Understanding Cheating: From The University Classroom To The Workplace, Charles B. Shrader, Jeffrey B. Kaufmann, Sue P. Ravenscroft 2012 Iowa State University

Understanding Cheating: From The University Classroom To The Workplace, Charles B. Shrader, Jeffrey B. Kaufmann, Sue P. Ravenscroft

Management Publications

Cheating is defined as taking information, credit, or reward that one neither deserves nor did the work to achieve. Cheating behavior is often seen as a driver behind many of our current economic problems and the temptation to cheat has been associated with our downward slide in business practice for the past two decades. For example, the current housing crisis has been explained in part as banks cheating in terms of qualifying people for loans. Additionally, current headlines focus on legislators and Wall Street analysts who cheat investors by unfairly taking advantage of inside information not publicly available to others ...


The Relationship Between Positive Beliefs About Post-Event Processing And Social Phobia Symptoms, Amanda N. Hammond 2012 University of North Florida

The Relationship Between Positive Beliefs About Post-Event Processing And Social Phobia Symptoms, Amanda N. Hammond

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Meta-cognitive models have been utilized to explore the relations between worry and generalized anxiety disorder, as well as, the associations between rumination and depression. However, relatively few studies have focused on the role of meta-cognitive variables and social phobia symptoms. It is possible that individuals with social phobia follow a pattern of thinking similar to that of those who experience depressive rumination and worry. Specifically, it may be that individuals with social phobia hold positive beliefs about their highly negative prolonged post-event evaluations of social interactions. The primary goal of this study was the development and assessment of the Positive ...


The Impact Of Three Interfaces For 360-Degree Video On Spatial Cognition, Wutthigrai Boonsuk, Stephen B. Gilbert, Jonathan W. Kelly 2012 Iowa State University

The Impact Of Three Interfaces For 360-Degree Video On Spatial Cognition, Wutthigrai Boonsuk, Stephen B. Gilbert, Jonathan W. Kelly

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

In this paper, we describe an experiment designed to evaluate the effectiveness of three interfaces for surveillance or remote control using live 360-degree video feeds from a person or vehicle in the field. Video feeds are simulated using a game engine. While locating targets within a 3D terrain using a 2D 360-degree interface, participants indicated perceived egocentric directions to targets and later placed targets on an overhead view of the terrain. Interfaces were compared based on target finding and map placement performance. Results suggest 1) non-seamless interfaces with visual boundaries facilitate spatial understanding, 2) correct perception of self-to-object relationships is ...


Explicit Learning In Down Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Developmental Trajectory Approach, B. Allyson Phillips 2012 Ouachita Baptist University

Explicit Learning In Down Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Developmental Trajectory Approach, B. Allyson Phillips

Books and Monographs

The purpose of the current study was to analyze the cross-sectional developmental trajectories of explicit category learning in individuals with Down syndrome compared to individuals with intellectual disability and typically developing individuals. Explicit learning is active, conscious, controlled, and intentional; it is a deliberate attempt to acquire new knowledge or skill from repeated tries with feedback. Explicit learning improves with age throughout childhood and is closely related to intelligence. Because of its relation to intelligence, we expected individuals with Down syndrome to perform below the level expected for their chronological age and nonverbal ability.

The sample was comprised of 41 ...


Toll Booths On The Information Superhighway? Policy Metaphors In The Case Of Net Neutrality, Todd K. Hartman 2012 Appalachian State University

Toll Booths On The Information Superhighway? Policy Metaphors In The Case Of Net Neutrality, Todd K. Hartman

Todd K. Hartman

Scholars have argued for centuries that metaphors are persuasive in politics, yet scant experimental research exists to validate these assertions. Two experiments about the issue of federally regulating the Internet were conducted to test whether metaphors confer a unique persuasive advantage relative to conventional messages. The results of these studies confirm that an apt metaphor can be a powerful tool of persuasion. Moreover, the evidence suggests that metaphor-induced persuasion works particularly well for politically unsophisticated citizens by increasing assessments of message quality. Ultimately, this research concerns how individuals make sense of politics and how policymakers can use what we know ...


Stratégies Verbales Et Gestuelles Dans L’Explication Lexical D’Un Verbe D’Action, Gale Stam, Marion Tellier 2012 National Louis University

Stratégies Verbales Et Gestuelles Dans L’Explication Lexical D’Un Verbe D’Action, Gale Stam, Marion Tellier

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Gestes Et Recherche Lexicale En Langue Seconde, Gale Stam 2012 National Louis University

Gestes Et Recherche Lexicale En Langue Seconde, Gale Stam

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Assessing Mental Skill And Technique Use In Applied Interventions: Recognizing And Minimizing Threats To The Psychometric Properties Of The Tops, Charlottee Woodcock, Joan L. Duda, Jennifer Cumming, Lee-Ann Sharp, Mark J. G. Holland 2012 University of Birmingham

Assessing Mental Skill And Technique Use In Applied Interventions: Recognizing And Minimizing Threats To The Psychometric Properties Of The Tops, Charlottee Woodcock, Joan L. Duda, Jennifer Cumming, Lee-Ann Sharp, Mark J. G. Holland

Jennifer Cumming

Drawing from the experiences of the authors in developing, conducting, and evaluating sport psychology interventions, several considerations are highlighted and recommendations offered for effective psychometric assessment. Using the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS; Thomas, Murphy, & Hardy, 1999) as a working example, opportunities for bias to undermine a measure’s validity and reliability are discussed with reference to a respondent’s four cognitive processes: (a) comprehension, (b) retrieval, (c) decision-making, and (d) response generation. Further threats to an instrument’s psychometric properties are highlighted in the form of demand characteristics athletes perceive in the environment. With these concerns in mind, several ...


Further Validation And Development Of The Movement Imagery Questionnaire, Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming, Nikos Ntoumanis, Sanna M. Nordin-Bates, Richard Ramsey, Craig Hall 2012 University of Birmingham

Further Validation And Development Of The Movement Imagery Questionnaire, Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming, Nikos Ntoumanis, Sanna M. Nordin-Bates, Richard Ramsey, Craig Hall

Jennifer Cumming

This research validated and extended the Movement Imagery Questionnaire- Revised (MIQ-R; Hall & Martin, 1997). Study 1 (N = 400) examined the MIQ-R’s factor structure via multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis. The questionnaire was then modified in Study 2 (N = 370) to separately assess the ease of imaging external visual imagery and internal visual imagery, as well as kinesthetic imagery (termed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3; MIQ-3). Both Studies 1 and 2 found that a correlated-traits correlated-uniqueness model provided the best fit to the data, while displaying gender invariance and no significant differences in latent mean scores across gender. Study 3 (N = 97) demonstrated the MIQ-3’s predictive validity revealing the relationships between imagery ability and observational learning use. Findings highlight the method effects that occur by assessing each type of imagery ability using the same four movements and demonstrate that better imagers report greater use of observational learning.


Complex Problem Solving: More Than Reasoning?, Sascha Wüstenberg, Samuel Greiff, Joachim Funke 2012 University of Heidelberg, Germany

Complex Problem Solving: More Than Reasoning?, Sascha Wüstenberg, Samuel Greiff, Joachim Funke

Joachim Funke

This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a Multiple-Item-Approach. It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS – rule identification (adequateness of strategies), rule knowledge (generated knowledge) and rule application (ability to control a system) – can be empirically distinguished, how (b) reasoning is related to these CPS-facets and if (c) CPS shows incremental validity in predicting school grade point average (GPA) beyond reasoning. N=222 university students completed MicroDYN, a computer-based CPS test and Ravens Advanced Progressive Matrices. Analysis including structural equation models showed that a 2-dimensionsal model of ...


Complex Problem Solving, Joachim Funke 2012 University of Heidelberg, Germany

Complex Problem Solving, Joachim Funke

Joachim Funke

Complex problem solving takes place for reducing the barrier between a given start state and an intended goal state with the help of cognitive activities and behavior. Start state, intended goal state, and barriers prove complexity, change dynamically over time, and can be partially intransparent. In contrast to solving simple problems, with complex problems at the beginning of a problem solution the exact features of the start state, of the intended goal state, and of the barriers are unknown. Complex problem solving expects the efficient interaction between the problem-solving person and situational conditions that depend on the task. It demands ...


Dynamic Problem Solving: A New Assessment Perspective, Samuel Greiff, Sascha Wüstenberg, Joachim Funke 2012 University of Heidelberg, Germany

Dynamic Problem Solving: A New Assessment Perspective, Samuel Greiff, Sascha Wüstenberg, Joachim Funke

Joachim Funke

This article addresses two unsolved measurement issues in dynamic problem solving (DPS) research: (a) unsystematic construction of DPS tests making a comparison of results obtained in different studies difficult and (b) use of time-intensive single tasks leading to severe reliability problems. To solve these issues, the MicroDYN approach is presented, which combines (a) the formal framework of linear structural equation models as a systematic way to construct tasks with (b) multiple and independent tasks to increase reliability. Results indicated that the assumed measurement model that comprised three dimensions, information retrieval, model building, and forecasting, fitted the data well (n = 114 ...


Introspection Of Implicit Attitudes, Adam Hahn 2012 University of Colorado at Boulder

Introspection Of Implicit Attitudes, Adam Hahn

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation addresses the general assumption that the implicit evaluative associations people might hold with social groups (i.e., usually referred to as “implicit attitudes”) are “unconscious” and introspectively unavailable. In the work presented in the current dissertation I directly asked participants to predict their results on five future IATs. I consistently found that participants were highly accurate in their predictions, regardless of whether the IATs were described as revealing true attitudes or cultural associations (Studies 1 and 2); whether predictions were made in the form of specific response patterns (“ease of responding” in Study 1) or a more conceptual ...


A Potential New Locus Of Working Memory Modality Effects, Blu McCormick 2012 University of Colorado at Boulder

A Potential New Locus Of Working Memory Modality Effects, Blu Mccormick

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

In 5 experiments, subjects received and then followed the same navigation instructions presented in either words or arrows, which directed them to move in a 3-dimensional space represented as stacked, 2-dimensional matrices on a computer screen. When neither verbal nor spatial rehearsal was impeded by a dual task, and sufficient processing time was permitted, overall accuracy for implementing the move sequences with a computer mouse was equivalent for processing sequences of directional words and arrows. However, when verbal rehearsal was disrupted by a dual, articulatory suppression task, accuracy for words declined more than for arrows, and when spatial rehearsal was ...


Trait Worry Is Associated With Deletion Difficulty But Not Storage Capacity: Reexamining The Relationship Between Anxiety And Working Memory Updating, Daniel Gustavson 2012 University of Colorado at Boulder

Trait Worry Is Associated With Deletion Difficulty But Not Storage Capacity: Reexamining The Relationship Between Anxiety And Working Memory Updating, Daniel Gustavson

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This research investigates the effects of trait worry, a subcomponent of trait anxiety, on the process of updating information in working memory (WM). A leading theory on anxiety and executive functions (attentional control theory) states that trait anxiety is not related to WM updating, but some important aspects of WM updating have not been studied in this context -- namely, the removal of irrelevant information from WM. In two studies, subjects completed simple (Study 1) and complex (Study 2) WM span tasks, questionnaires measuring trait levels of mood variables, and an updating task requiring the memorization of short lists of words ...


Evaluating The Convergent Validity Of The Measure Of Emotional Connotations, Daniel N. Erosa 2012 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Evaluating The Convergent Validity Of The Measure Of Emotional Connotations, Daniel N. Erosa

McNair Poster Presentations

The Measure of Emotional Connotations (MEC; Barchard, Kirsch, Anderson, Grob, & Anderson, 2012) is a new test that has been developed to measure the ability to perceive the emotional connotations of written language. To examine its convergent validity, the MEC will be correlated with the two emotion perception tasks on the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT; Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, & Sitarenious, 2003). These MSCEIT tasks are valid tests of emotion perception; thus, strong correlations would provide support for the MEC as a valid test of emotion perception.


Choosing Our Words: Neural Mechanisms Supporting Cognitive Control During Language Processing, Hannah R. Snyder 2012 University of Colorado at Boulder

Choosing Our Words: Neural Mechanisms Supporting Cognitive Control During Language Processing, Hannah R. Snyder

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

When we speak, we must constantly retrieve and select words in the face of multiple competing alternatives. Previous research has left many questions unanswered about how we achieve these fundamental cognitive control processes. This dissertation contributes to answering these questions at three levels. First, using well-controlled tasks and measures, we ask what specific aspects of language production drive cognitive control demands, as indexed by slower RTs to produce a verbal response. Second, we apply these unconfounded measures to fMRI experiments, to ask what neural substrates support cognitive control during language production. Third, we ask how these brain areas support cognitive ...


Saving The World For All The Wrong Reasons: Extrinsic Motivation Reduces Favorability Of Prosocial Acts, Laura Camille Johnson-Graham 2012 University of Colorado at Boulder

Saving The World For All The Wrong Reasons: Extrinsic Motivation Reduces Favorability Of Prosocial Acts, Laura Camille Johnson-Graham

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

When observing the prosocial acts of others, people tend to be very concerned with the reasons for act. A charitable donation motivated by concern for the charitable cause is seen as noble, while the same donation motivated by image enhancement is seen as disingenuous. In a series of six studies, participants consistently evaluated extrinsically motivated prosocial acts to be subjectively smaller and less impactful than the identical but intrinsically motivated act, and evaluated the extrinsically motivated actors less favorably than intrinsically motivated actors. These effects were robust across different prosocial domains and across different types of acts, including the donation ...


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