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Individual Performance In Solving The Zin Obelisk Problem Solving Task: An Examination Of The Influence Of Cognitive And Personal Factors, Dalia Michelle Arellano Labrada 2010 California State University, San Bernardino

Individual Performance In Solving The Zin Obelisk Problem Solving Task: An Examination Of The Influence Of Cognitive And Personal Factors, Dalia Michelle Arellano Labrada

Theses Digitization Project

The purpose of this study was to bring together the findings to date regarding individual problem solving and to extend previous research in order to add to our understanding of problem solving by examining the factors that lead to effective individual problem solving on an analytical, timed task.


Feeling Of Knowing And Retrieval Failure: Tip-Of-The-Tongue State Is Not The Only Option, Amanda C. Gingerich 2010 Butler University

Feeling Of Knowing And Retrieval Failure: Tip-Of-The-Tongue State Is Not The Only Option, Amanda C. Gingerich

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

We investigated whether individuals are able to differentiate being in a tip-of-the-tongue state from the metacognitive experience of knowing information, but being unable to recall it. Results indicate that being unable to recall known information is separate from, and more common than, experiencing a tip-of-the-tongue state.


The Effect Of Word Sociality On Word Recognition, Sean Seaman 2010 Wayne State University

The Effect Of Word Sociality On Word Recognition, Sean Seaman

Wayne State University Dissertations

While research into the role of semantic structure in the recognition of written and spoken words has grown, it has not looked specifically at the role of conversational context on the recognition of isolated words. This study was a corpus-based and behavioral exploration of a new semantic variable - sociality - and used on-line behavioral testing to obtain new word recognition data using the visual and auditory lexical decision tasks. The results consistently demonstrated that sociality is one of the most robust predictors of lexical decision performance. Overall, it appears that the visual lexical decision task is quite sensitive to …


Developmental Variation In Children's Acquisition Of Metrical Structure: How Early Treatment Of Stressless Syllables Can Inform Phonological Theory, Clifford S. Jones 2010 University of Texas at El Paso

Developmental Variation In Children's Acquisition Of Metrical Structure: How Early Treatment Of Stressless Syllables Can Inform Phonological Theory, Clifford S. Jones

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The present study uses 26 color photos to elicit a total of 14 words conforming to a very specific pattern: a stressless syllable word-initially, followed by a stressed syllable, and at most one more stressless syllable. This was found to be a particularly difficult metrical structure for the two- and three-year old participants to produce in an adult-like manner. Based on the findings that a fairly reliable (if language-particular) order of acquisition is observable for contrasts of both place and manner of articulation, the case is made for a system of six emergent features, which may be characterized as combinable …


The Role Of Generation And Monitoring Processes In Governing The Paradoxical Effects Of Retrieval On Memory For Faces, Kyle Joseph Susa 2010 University of Texas at El Paso

The Role Of Generation And Monitoring Processes In Governing The Paradoxical Effects Of Retrieval On Memory For Faces, Kyle Joseph Susa

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Verbal descriptions of faces can at times impair and at other times facilitate subsequent face identification accuracy. Three experiments were conducted from a retrieval-based theoretical perspective to determine the underlying cognitive processes that can account for these paradoxical findings. Results demonstrated that the verbal description-identification relationship is analogous to other domains of memory where an initial retrieval of memory can have both positive and negative effects on subsequent retrieval attempts. Results of Experiment 1 showed that verbal facilitation is a product of self-generated descriptions that enrich the semantic encoding of the original memory trace. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrated that …


Examination Of The Cognitive Mechanisms Underlying Evaluative And Semantic Priming Effects By Varying Task Instructions: An Erp Study, Jennifer Hilda Taylor 2010 University of Texas at El Paso

Examination Of The Cognitive Mechanisms Underlying Evaluative And Semantic Priming Effects By Varying Task Instructions: An Erp Study, Jennifer Hilda Taylor

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

This study examined the cognitive processes that underlie stimulus identification and the activation of attitudes by investigating behavioral and psychophysiological effects in a priming paradigm. Cognitive mechanisms were investigated by examining evaluative and semantic priming effects on behavioral response times, the N400, and LPP event-related potential (ERP) components by varying tasks between-subjects. Participants either completed an evaluative task, a semantic task, or a feature-detection task. It was hypothesized that the behavioral evaluative priming effect would occur in the evaluative task and that the behavioral semantic priming effect would occur in the semantic and feature-detection tasks. The N400 was hypothesized to …


Two Sides Of The Same Coin: Biculturalism, Cultural Ideologies, And Perceptions Of Cultural Change, Stephanie Ann Quezada 2010 University of Texas at El Paso

Two Sides Of The Same Coin: Biculturalism, Cultural Ideologies, And Perceptions Of Cultural Change, Stephanie Ann Quezada

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Ethnic minorities are adopting a bicultural identity to simultaneously identify with their heritage culture and mainstream American culture. While much research has investigated the extent to which ethnic majority and minority groups differentially respond to cultural ideologies, bicultural reactions to cultural ideologies remain uninvestigated. Bicultural individuals' differential endorsement of cultural ideologies has critical implications for implementation of assimilation and multiculturalism in multicultural societies. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the extent to which the salience of cultural identity predicts bicultural individuals' endorsement of assimilation and multicultural ideologies. Identity saliency was manipulated for bicultural Latino Americans and …


Intelligent Tutoring For Interviewing To Detect Deception: Can Investigators Be Trained To Attain And Detect Accurate Cues To Deception?, Justin Albrechtsen 2010 University of Texas at El Paso

Intelligent Tutoring For Interviewing To Detect Deception: Can Investigators Be Trained To Attain And Detect Accurate Cues To Deception?, Justin Albrechtsen

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The present study examined whether investigators can be trained to elicit and detect cues to deception. The study included two training conditions and a control condition. Participants in the virtual Human Intelligent Tutoring System (vHITS) conditions completed a training program for deception detection and investigative interviewing. The primary components of this training were one-on-one interaction with a virtual human and tutoring tailored to specific participant responses. Participants in the Computer Based Training (CBT) conditions completed a comparable training program for deception detection and investigative interviewing. However, this program provided a more passive training environment with no interaction between student and …


Inspiring Art And Science, Andrea R. Halpern 2010 Bucknell University

Inspiring Art And Science, Andrea R. Halpern

Other Faculty Research and Publications

I read Ralf Dahm's article "Finding Alzheimer's Disease" (March-April) with interest for two reasons. First, as a cognitive neuroscientist, I have studied the effect of early-stage Alzheimer's disease on memory and on the appreciation of music and art. In addition, I am a member of a community chorus here in Pennsylvania, the Susquehanna Valley Chorale, which recently commissioned and premiered a choral work on the topic of the ailment, called Alzheimer's Stories.


A New Perspective On Visual Word Processing Efficiency, Joseph W. Houpt, James T. Townsend 2010 Wright State University - Main Campus

A New Perspective On Visual Word Processing Efficiency, Joseph W. Houpt, James T. Townsend

Psychology Faculty Publications

As a fundamental part of our daily lives, visual word processing has received much attention in the psychological literature. Despite the well established perceptual advantages of word and pseudoword context using accuracy, a comparable effect using response times has been elusive. Some researchers continue to question whether the advantage due to word context is perceptual. We use the capacity coefficient, a well established, response time based measure of efficiency to provide evidence of word processing as a particularly efficient perceptual process to complement those results from the accuracy domain.


A Conceptual Guide To Natural History Museum Visitors’ Understanding Of Evolution, E. Margaret Evans, Amy N. Spiegel, Wendy Gram, Brandy N. Frazier, Medha Tare, Sarah Thompson, Judy Diamond 2010 University of Michigan

A Conceptual Guide To Natural History Museum Visitors’ Understanding Of Evolution, E. Margaret Evans, Amy N. Spiegel, Wendy Gram, Brandy N. Frazier, Medha Tare, Sarah Thompson, Judy Diamond

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

Museum visitors are an ideal population for assessing the persistence of the conceptual barriers that make it difficult to grasp Darwinian evolutionary theory. In comparison with other members of the public, they are more likely to be interested in natural history, have higher education levels, and be exposed to the relevant content. If museum visitors do not grasp evolutionary principles, it seems unlikely that other members of the general public would do so. In the current study, 32 systematically selected visitors to three Midwest museums of natural history provided detailed open-ended explanations of biological change in seven diverse organisms. They …


Threat By Association: Minimal Group Affiliation And Its Outcome For Stereotype Threat, Eric W. Fuller 2010 Wayne State University

Threat By Association: Minimal Group Affiliation And Its Outcome For Stereotype Threat, Eric W. Fuller

Wayne State University Theses

Stereotype threat has been shown to be an important cause of performance detriments in various social groups. It has also been theorized that stereotype threat could be applicable to any group so long as the individual believes their performance may reinforce the negative stereotype. The current work attempts to induce stereotype threat in participants believing they belong to an experimentally created and negatively stereotyped group using a minimal group paradigm. Across two studies there did not appear to be significant performance changes typically observed in stereotype threat research. Various cognitive measures and post-performance inquiries did generally support claims that participants …


Lateral Cognitive Processing And Belief Updating, Erin Marie Holcomb 2010 Wayne State University

Lateral Cognitive Processing And Belief Updating, Erin Marie Holcomb

Wayne State University Theses

Bias in mental representations and belief systems has been linked to asymmetries in information processing by the two hemispheres in research that uses wide variety of methodologies and participant samples. Also, associations have been drawn between such biases in belief systems and sociopolitical orientation leading to the hypothesis that links can be drawn from lateral processing through cognitive style to social and political orientation. This study sought to examine individual differences in laterality - as assessed via a lateralized semantic priming methodology - and manifestations of rigidity and flexibility in belief updating within a sociopolitical context. Analyses revealed that a …


C-Reactive Protein, Homocysteine, And Cognitive Performance In Healthy Adults, Cheryl Dahle 2010 Wayne State University

C-Reactive Protein, Homocysteine, And Cognitive Performance In Healthy Adults, Cheryl Dahle

Wayne State University Dissertations

Elevated blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine (Hcy) have received a great deal of attention as biomarkers for the development of cardiovascular disease. Their utility in predicting cognitive function has also been assessed, though the findings are equivocal. The current study examined the relationship between elevated blood levels of CRP and Hcy and their effect on cognition across several cognitive domains. As baseline blood levels of CRP and Hcy and cognition are in part regulated by genetic factors, the impact of T carrier status for variants in the CRP -286 C>T>A and the MTHFR 677C>T …


Statistical Bootstrapping Of Speech Segmentation Cues, Nicolas O. Planet 2010 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Statistical Bootstrapping Of Speech Segmentation Cues, Nicolas O. Planet

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Various infant studies suggest that statistical regularities in the speech stream (e.g. transitional probabilities) are one of the first speech segmentation cues available. Statistical learning may serve as a mechanism for learning various language specific segmentation cues (e.g. stress segmentation by English speakers). To test this possibility we exposed adults to an artificial language in which all words had a novel acoustic cue on the final syllable. Subjects were presented with a continuous stream of synthesized speech in which the words were repeated in random order. Subjects were then given a new set of words to see if they had …


Modeling Source Memory Decision Bounds, Angela M. Pazzaglia 2010 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Modeling Source Memory Decision Bounds, Angela M. Pazzaglia

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Current Signal Detection Theory models of source memory necessitate assumptions about the underlying distributions of source strengths to describe source memory performance. The current experiments applied a modified version of the same-different task in order to plot individual memory stimuli along a controlled dimension of the average frequency of voices. This technique allowed us to determine that subjects were using an independent-observations strategy rather than a differencing strategy when deciding whether two test words were spoken by the same or different female speakers at study. By including two male and two female voices and changing the task distinction from same …


Communicative Competence In Persons With Aphasia: The Impact Of Executive Function, Judy Marie Mikola 2010 Wayne State University

Communicative Competence In Persons With Aphasia: The Impact Of Executive Function, Judy Marie Mikola

Wayne State University Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between executive function and performance on selected linguistic tasks in persons with aphasia secondary to left frontal lesions.

A group of 15 persons with aphasia (PWA) completed three communication board tasks of varying levels of complexity and structure. The subject's functional use of the picture/word communication board was tested during a Story Retelling task. In addition, the PWA's executive function skills were examined using six nonverbal tests. The PWA group performance scores were compared to that of the neurologically healthy control group.

Results demonstrated that the control group performed significantly …


The Effects Of Associative Interference, Stimulus Type, And Item Familiarity On Associative Recognition Memory, Fahad Naveed Ahmad 2010 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Effects Of Associative Interference, Stimulus Type, And Item Familiarity On Associative Recognition Memory, Fahad Naveed Ahmad

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This study investigated whether recognition memory requires two retrieval processes (i.e., familiarity and recognition) as stated by the Dual process theory or requires one retrieval process (i.e., familiarity) as stated by the Single process theory. The first experiment investigated the effects of A-B, A-C, A-D-, A-E interference on both word and picture pair recognition. As expected, it was found that a picture superiority effect was present in the baseline condition, but was reduced in the interference condition. Moreover, in the baseline condition, a non-mirror pattern (i.e., hits higher for picture pairs, but false alarm rates were the same) was present …


The Role Of Auditory Feedback On The Control Of Voice Fundamental Frequency (F0) While Singing, Dwayne Nicholas Keough 2010 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Role Of Auditory Feedback On The Control Of Voice Fundamental Frequency (F0) While Singing, Dwayne Nicholas Keough

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Whether we are learning how to play a new instrument, song, or even learn a second language, the nervous system relies on various forms of sensory feedback to establish task-specific sensorimotor representations. Over time, the plasticity of the nervous system permits neural reorganization and the formation of an ‘internal model’. It has been suggested that internal models represent neural maps of skilled movement that store the relationship between the motor commands, environment and sensory feedback responsible for their production. These internal representations are often investigated by altering a particular aspect of the sensory feedback associated with a given task. Arguably …


The Effect Of Motivation, Social Support, Stress And Resilience On The Development Of Burnout Symptoms In Elite Athletes, Blythe Gooden 2010 Edith Cowan University

The Effect Of Motivation, Social Support, Stress And Resilience On The Development Of Burnout Symptoms In Elite Athletes, Blythe Gooden

Theses : Honours

The purpose of this review was to provide an overall view of some of the identified determinants of burnout when it occurs in elite athletes. A total of 66 published articles were used to develop an understanding of burnout, its contributors and the combined effects of the contributors. An explanation of the psychological concept of burnout is discussed, followed by a discussion of the implications of burnout in athletes. Current literature in the area is reviewed followed by an overview of three of the identified determinants of athletic burnout: 1. Stress based on theoretic concepts developed by Lazarus and Folkman …


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