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The Effects Of Self-Esteem And Motivation On Cognitive Control, Andrea Benavides 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Effects Of Self-Esteem And Motivation On Cognitive Control, Andrea Benavides

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Cognitive control describes a set of mechanisms that guide behavior towards a goal (Cohen, 2017). The successful execution of cognitive control is essential for effective learning, information processing, problem solving, and academic achievement (Visu-Petra et al., 2011). The Expected Value of Control framework (EVC; Shenhav et al., 2013) suggests that control carries an inherent cost, which is weighed against the potential benefits of expending it. This cost-benefit analysis determines the direction and intensity that a goal is pursued. Importantly, motivation plays a role in this cost-benefit analysis and may function as the factor that offsets the cost of control expenditure ...


Body Image Role On Non-Suicidal Self-Injury, Maria Ceja, Stephani Aguiar-Vasquez 2020 California State University - San Bernardino

Body Image Role On Non-Suicidal Self-Injury, Maria Ceja, Stephani Aguiar-Vasquez

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

This study explores the association between adolescents body image concerns and self-injurious behaviors among students enrolled in kindergarten through 12th grade. The study is exploratory in nature and uses a quantitative design. The study collected archival data from counseling services provided through alocal school district’s counseling program. More specifically, the archival data was retrieved from initial assessments gathered from students participating in the local school district’s counseling program. Additionally, this research is a call for action that seeks to examine and support the further development of programs geared towards students. This study seeks to expand on the research ...


Mental Associations And Music Therapy: Including The History Of Associationism And The Neurology Of Associations, Dianna Rose 2020 Lesley University

Mental Associations And Music Therapy: Including The History Of Associationism And The Neurology Of Associations, Dianna Rose

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Associations are formed in our minds based upon three elements: sensory experience, emotions, and memories. These associations, unique to each individual, dictate thoughts, beliefs, behaviors, and actions. Some are necessary and supportive, while others can be maladaptive. Established associations can be changed, and new associations can be formed, to align with a client’s goals. The literature presents a strong history of associationism, as well as a body of research that demonstrates the neurological processes of how mental associations are formed. There are also studies showing how music activates the brain. However, there is a lack of research which draws ...


Exploring Usage Of Web Resources Through A Model Of Api Learning, Finn Voichick 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Exploring Usage Of Web Resources Through A Model Of Api Learning, Finn Voichick

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Application programming interfaces (APIs) are essential to modern software development, and new APIs are frequently being produced. Consequently, software developers must regularly learn new APIs, which they typically do on the job from online resources rather than in a formal educational context. The Kelleher–Ichinco COIL model, an acronym for “Collection and Organization of Information for Learning,” was recently developed to model the entire API learning process, drawing from information foraging theory, cognitive load theory, and external memory research. We ran an exploratory empirical user study in which participants performed a programming task using the React API with the goal ...


Make More, Work Less, Michael Sutton 2020 Brigham Young University

Make More, Work Less, Michael Sutton

Marriott Student Review

Although the status quo in the business world is to work long hours and supposedly produce more each workweek, studies show that working less and taking appropriately regulated breaks actually lead to more productivity in individuals and businesses as a whole. Specifically companies would be wise to implement a limit of 50 work hours per week, encourage frequent breaks (about 15 minute every hour), and encourage patterns of sufficient sleep. By reducing mental fatigue in your employees, their productivity will increase.


Indoctrination And Social Influence As A Defense To Crime: Are We Responsible For Who We Are?, Paul H. Robinson, Lindsay Holcomb 2020 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Indoctrination And Social Influence As A Defense To Crime: Are We Responsible For Who We Are?, Paul H. Robinson, Lindsay Holcomb

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

A patriotic POW is brainwashed by his North Korean captors into refusing repatriation and undertaking treasonous anti-American propaganda for the communist regime. Despite the general abhorrence of treason in time of war, the American public opposes criminal liability for such indoctrinated soldiers, yet existing criminal law provides no defense or mitigation because, at the time of the offense, the indoctrinated offender suffers no cognitive or control dysfunction, no mental or emotional impairment, and no external or internal compulsion. Rather, he was acting purely in the exercise of free of will, albeit based upon beliefs and values that he had not ...


Investigating The Link Between Executive Function And Creativity In School Aged Children, Katherine Crenshaw 2020 University of Mississippi

Investigating The Link Between Executive Function And Creativity In School Aged Children, Katherine Crenshaw

Honors Theses

The primary purpose of this research was to examine links between executive function (i.e., EF or conscious control) and creativity in school aged children. To accomplish this, participants completed measurements of creativity (i.e., Alternative Uses) and EF (i.e., the Backwards Digit Span to test working memory, the Delay of Gratification task to test inhibition). I also examined whether a creative manipulation (i.e., free coloring or coloring task-relevant materials) would impact EF performance in the Dimensional Card Change Sort (DCCS) focused on cognitive flexibility. While I did not find evidence for a relationship between my measures of ...


Relations Between Executive Function And Parenting Behavior, Robin Alexandra Riddick 2020 University of Mississippi

Relations Between Executive Function And Parenting Behavior, Robin Alexandra Riddick

Honors Theses

Past research focused on how harsh parenting related to EF and behavior problems in children when other factors (i.e., maternal stress, household chaos, socioeconomic risk factors) were present. However, the literature was lacking in the examination of the relationship between EF and other parenting styles. This study aimed to examine the relationship between different aspects of executive function and regulation (i.e, inhibition, working memory, cognitive flexibility, problem solving, and impulsivity) and parenting and routines (i.e., laxness, hostility, overreactivity, and sleep and routines). To study this, parents of 18 to 24 month olds were administered a battery of ...


The Effect Of Movement On Convergent And Divergent Thinking, Simmy Vig 2020 University of Mississippi

The Effect Of Movement On Convergent And Divergent Thinking, Simmy Vig

Honors Theses

Research within the field of embodied cognition has primarily focused on the effect of bodily movement on convergent measures such as intelligence and memory, but few studies have explored movement’s effect on convergent thinking ability and divergent creative potential. This study aimed to investigate the effect of embodiment on convergent problem-solving (i.e., vocabulary and similarities tasks) and divergent creativity (i.e., Alternative Uses Task) through the movement conditions of constrained walking (i.e., path-walking) and unconstrained walking (i.e., roaming) in undergraduate college students. Participants simultaneously walked while completing the experimental tasks, and their responses were compared to ...


The Effect Of Story Processing On Memory Performance, Anna Miller 2020 University of Mississippi

The Effect Of Story Processing On Memory Performance, Anna Miller

Honors Theses

The purpose of the present study was to determine how recall performance following story processing compared to both survival processing and pleasantness processing. Participants were provided with a set of instructions depending on the condition they were in, narrative, survival, or pleasantness. Following this, participants rated the words one at a time, completed a brief distractor task, and then attempted to remember as many items as they could. The primary results demonstrated that narrative processing may provide a recall advantage similar to survival processing. These results suggest that similar underlying mechanisms may enhance recall in both sets of instructional conditions.


Effects Of Emotional Valence And Depth Of Processing On Memory, Lauren Tyndall, Matthew Murphy 2020 Coastal Carolina University

Effects Of Emotional Valence And Depth Of Processing On Memory, Lauren Tyndall, Matthew Murphy

Honors Theses

This study looks at the relationship between emotionally charged words and the depth at which information is processed and how this relationship affects memory. It is predicted that emotional stimuli make the depth of processing process easier, resulting in emotionally charged words being recalled most frequently. Participants were presented with stimuli using a word task and then took a memory test. Responses to the memory test were measured via Qualtrics. Due to small sample size, the results did not conclusively indicate whether or not emotional valence and depth of processing interact to affect memory. There was no significant interaction between ...


The Effects Of Narrative Processing On False Recall, Calista Spears 2020 University of Mississippi

The Effects Of Narrative Processing On False Recall, Calista Spears

Honors Theses

The purpose of this study is to test whether false memory intrusions occur at a greater rate when participants encode words in a narrative processing scenario, as compared to a survival scenario or a pleasantness condition. In each condition, the participants were presented with one list of words related to an unlisted critical word adapted from Stadler, Roediger, and McDermott’s (1999) norms. For each condition (narrative, survival, and pleasantness), participants read a set of instructions and processed words by writing things related to the condition (i.e., writing a story line using the word, listing how the word would ...


Developing Civility And Connection In Midland, Michigan, Robin Litster Johnson, Elizabeth Fay Corcoran, Felix Yerace, Caitlin Satterfield, Hillary Chan 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Developing Civility And Connection In Midland, Michigan, Robin Litster Johnson, Elizabeth Fay Corcoran, Felix Yerace, Caitlin Satterfield, Hillary Chan

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Service Learning Projects

Growing loneliness and incivility are on the rise across America. In Midland, Michigan, civic leaders desire to further infuse positive psychology into their community by enhancing positive citizenship through civil discourse and connection. They have identified this need after instances in their community where citizens have engaged in discourteous and unproductive speech. Informed by current psychological research, our team proposes improving civil discourse and increasing positive connections in Midland through holding community discussions using a Communication and Connections Discussion Guide. Community leaders will be trained as facilitators to lead discussions using the Discussion Guide with various groups of any type ...


Cognitive Behavioral Therapy For Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Traumatic Brain Injury, And Associated Sleep Disturbances, Aubretia D. Snyder 2020 Brigham Young University

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy For Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Traumatic Brain Injury, And Associated Sleep Disturbances, Aubretia D. Snyder

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

With an increasing number of veterans returning from combat with significant head injuries, research interests have begun to turn to the neuropsychological relationship between traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder. Research has found that these dysfunctions often occur together and that both disorders may cause an exacerbation of symptoms in one another. This relationship may be negatively affected further by the presence of sleep disturbances. The complexity of this relationship requires extra consideration in regards to treatment, and cognitive behavioral therapy may be effective in treating this comorbid condition. This paper discusses the functional relationship of posttraumatic stress disorder ...


Planning And Navigating In An Unfamiliar Location: Effects Of Outsourcing On Memory, Bailey Hoffer 2020 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Planning And Navigating In An Unfamiliar Location: Effects Of Outsourcing On Memory, Bailey Hoffer

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Outsourcing is the process of using some external tool as a memory aid. There are a whole host of tools to outsource information that we want to remember. The purpose of this study was to better understand how outsourcing impacts memory for information outsourced and the information not outsourced. This study used different methods of navigation: simulated GPS as well as a self-generated route to involve the generation effect—generating the to-be-remembered information by oneself. Route accuracy and route tasks were measured by participants’ memory. The independent variables in the study are navigation source (GPS determined versus self-generated) and test ...


Mode Of Delivery And Infant Cognitive Development, Madison Olson, Laura M. Glynn 2020 Chapman University

Mode Of Delivery And Infant Cognitive Development, Madison Olson, Laura M. Glynn

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The rate of nonindicated cesarean births is increasing each year within the United States. Although cesarean delivery can function as a life- saving intervention, emerging evidence suggests that it may also be associated with deleterious developmental consequences for the child. Here we test the hypothesis that mode of delivery is associated with cognitive development during infancy. 229 pregnant women were recruited and their infants’ cognitive development was assessed at 6, 12 and 24 months with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Medical charts were reviewed by obstetric nurses to determine prenatal medical risk and birth outcomes, including mode of delivery ...


Bilingualism And Emotion: How Do Spanish-English Bilinguals Experience The Two Languages Differently?, Caitlyn Whitesell 2020 William & Mary

Bilingualism And Emotion: How Do Spanish-English Bilinguals Experience The Two Languages Differently?, Caitlyn Whitesell

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Previous literature has suggested that bilingual people react to emotional statements with varying degrees of intensity due to their personal experience with each language. Potential factors affecting emotional differences between languages included fluency, culture, age of acquisition, amount of exposure, language learning environment, and motivation. Isolating the impact of these factors on emotional experience challenges research because the factors cannot be easily controlled or separated. The current study investigated how the factors of age of acquisition, length of language exposure, and language-learning environment played a role in emotional reactions to similar stimuli by manipulating the language of the emotional stimuli ...


Measuring Intergroup Forgiveness: The Enright Group Forgiveness Inventory, Robert D. Enright, Julie Johnson, Fu Na, Tomaz Erzar, Matthew Hirshberg, Tina Huang, John Klatt, Chansoon (Danielle) Lee, Benjamin Boateng, Preston Boggs, Tung-En Hsiao, Chelsea Olson, Mei Ling Shu, Jacqueline Song, Peiying Wu, Baoyu Zhang 2020 University of Wisconsin-Madison and International Forgiveness Institute, Inc.

Measuring Intergroup Forgiveness: The Enright Group Forgiveness Inventory, Robert D. Enright, Julie Johnson, Fu Na, Tomaz Erzar, Matthew Hirshberg, Tina Huang, John Klatt, Chansoon (Danielle) Lee, Benjamin Boateng, Preston Boggs, Tung-En Hsiao, Chelsea Olson, Mei Ling Shu, Jacqueline Song, Peiying Wu, Baoyu Zhang

Peace and Conflict Studies

Until recently, researchers operationalized and measured the psychological construct of forgiveness at the individual, rather than the group, level. Social psychologists started applying forgiveness to groups and examining the role intergroup forgiveness may have in conflict resolution and peace efforts. Initial attempts to define and measure forgiveness at the group level either assumed individual and group capacities were the same, or insufficiently described what intergroup forgiveness meant. We developed a new measure of intergroup forgiveness, and a novel group administration process, that operationalized the construct in a philosophically coherent way. Our conceptualization of intergroup forgiveness was rooted in what groups ...


Searching For Neural Mechanisms Of Social Cognition, Chandler Siemonsma, Cristina Uribe, LouAnne Boyd, Aaron Schurger, Deanna Hughes, Tian Lan 2020 Chapman University

Searching For Neural Mechanisms Of Social Cognition, Chandler Siemonsma, Cristina Uribe, Louanne Boyd, Aaron Schurger, Deanna Hughes, Tian Lan

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Social cognition involves the integration and pruning of perceptual information which leads to the formation of an abstract representation, which is also known as the perceptual gist. This study examined 87 differences in visual perception of Mooney face stimuli of differing sizes and the relationship to gist formation in ten individuals with autism compared to neurotypical controls. Parents of both groups completed the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-2) to assess social functioning in real-world scenarios.


Synesthesia And Its Cognitive Correlates, Bailey Hall 2020 William & Mary

Synesthesia And Its Cognitive Correlates, Bailey Hall

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Synesthesia is a neurological condition involving the pairing of senses. For synesthetes, a stimulus invokes a sensory perception; for instance, the letter “B” may be pink or the name “Susan” may taste like apples. Scientists hypothesize that this condition is caused by neurological differences; synesthetes may have more cross-activation between brain areas, either neuroanatomically, through cross-wiring, or perceptually, through disinhibited feedback from higher to lower multimodal areas, or vice versa. These differences have implications for synesthetic learning, memory, attention and inhibition. In the present experiment Multimodal Perception, participants completed a survey investigating their synesthetic experiences, in addition to five tasks ...


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