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First Thirty Days Of Life: Examining Calf Behavioral Development In Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus Leucas) And Pacific White-Sided Dolphins (Lagenorhyncus Obliquidens) At One Zoological Facility, Kendal Smith 2019 University of Southern Mississippi

First Thirty Days Of Life: Examining Calf Behavioral Development In Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus Leucas) And Pacific White-Sided Dolphins (Lagenorhyncus Obliquidens) At One Zoological Facility, Kendal Smith

Master's Theses

Cetacean development is important for general comparative understanding and the implementation of informed husbandry policies. Due to the inaccessibility of many of these species in the wild, researchers can study managed care populations to better understand basic developmental patterns of cetaceans, as well as to improve husbandry policies for facility animals. However, no previous studies have attempted to observe the behavioral development of Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhyncus obliquidens). Eight beluga whale calves and four Pacific white-sided dolphin calves were observed for the first 30 days of life to determine the developmental trajectory of several typically monitored behaviors. The first occurrence ...


Estradiol And Daily Affective Experiences In Trauma-Exposed Women, Jenna Rieder 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Estradiol And Daily Affective Experiences In Trauma-Exposed Women, Jenna Rieder

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

People who experience trauma can develop enduring trauma-related symptoms. In daily life, post-trauma symptoms (e.g., elevated physiological arousal) can be triggered by affectively salient cues in the environment, especially by cues that act as trauma reminders. Trauma exposure is associated with enduring changes in two biological stress systems: the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In women, activity in both systems is additionally modulated by fluctuations in levels of sex hormones (e.g., estradiol), which could influence physiological responses to trauma reminders. Additionally, previous work has linked the sex hormone estradiol with affect, suggesting that menstrual ...


Circadian Variations And Risky Decision Making, Sana Sra 2019 Claremont Colleges

Circadian Variations And Risky Decision Making, Sana Sra

Scripps Senior Theses

Over the past decades, decision making under risk has garnered a great amount of attention both in the field of economics and psychology. Although state-dependent variabilities of risk taking are well-documented, little is known about the effects of a person’s preferred time of day, or chronotype, in risky decision making. Under circumstances of circadian mismatch (e.g., when an “early bird” makes decisions in the evening), research suggests that decision making may reflect a greater reliance on heuristics, such as using stereotypes in social judgments. However, the effects of circadian mismatch on heuristics in risky decision making are relatively ...


Sentience Is The Foundation Of Animal Rights, Michael L. Woodruff 2019 East Tennessee State University

Sentience Is The Foundation Of Animal Rights, Michael L. Woodruff

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman argue that the cognitive differences between humans and nonhuman animals do not make humans superior to animals. I suggest that humans have domain-general cognitive abilities that make them superior in causing uniquely complex changes in the world not caused by any other species. The ability to conceive of and articulate a claim of rights is an example. However, possession of superior cognitive ability does not entitle humans to superior moral status. It is sentience, not cognitive complexity, that is the basis for the assignment of rights and the protections under the law that accompany them.


Exercise Engagement And Longitudinal Change In Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers, Regional Brain Structure, And Cognitive Functioning, Marta Stojanovic 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Exercise Engagement And Longitudinal Change In Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers, Regional Brain Structure, And Cognitive Functioning, Marta Stojanovic

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Diurnally Active Rodents For Laboratory Research, Roberto Refinetti, G. J. Kenagy 2018 Boise State University

Diurnally Active Rodents For Laboratory Research, Roberto Refinetti, G. J. Kenagy

Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Although inbred domesticated strains of rats and mice serve as traditional mammalian animal models in biomedical research, the nocturnal habits of these rodents make them inappropriate for research that requires a model with human-like diurnal activity rhythms. We conducted a literature review and recorded locomotor activity data from four rodent species that are generally considered to be diurnally active, the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), the degu (Octodon degus), the African (Nile) grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus), and the antelope ground squirrel (Ammospermophilus leucurus). Our data collected under 12L:12D light-dark cycles confirmed and expanded the existing literature in showing that the ...


Effects Of Naltrexone On Alcohol And Nicotine Use In Female P Rats, Usman Z. Hamid, Michael T. Bardo Ph.D. 2018 University of Kentucky

Effects Of Naltrexone On Alcohol And Nicotine Use In Female P Rats, Usman Z. Hamid, Michael T. Bardo Ph.D.

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Title: Effects of Naltrexone on Alcohol and Nicotine Use in Female P Rats

Author: Usman Z. Hamid, Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky

Faculty Mentor: Michael T. Bardo, Ph.D., Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky

Alcohol is the most commonly abused substance worldwide. It is often co-abused with nicotine, which increases the difficulty of cessation of both alcohol and nicotine. Despite having similar mechanisms of action, there is no single medication to treat the co-abuse. The objective of the current study is to analyze the effects of the opiate antagonist naltrexone on alcohol consumption and the co-use of alcohol ...


Diversity And Inclusion In The Science Classroom, Sowmya Anjur 2018 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

Diversity And Inclusion In The Science Classroom, Sowmya Anjur

Faculty Publications & Research

A Diversity, Epidemiology and social justice unit was incorporated into the Physiology and Disease curriculum in Fall 2016. Students discussed topics such as social and cultural influences on diversity thinking, and selective treatment in hospitals based on race. It was very noteworthy that students were united in their thinking regarding diversity and inclusion, despite the fact that they were from different backgrounds and diverse cultures. In 2017, additional discussions were held on equity in education. Students who were otherwise reserved were encouraged enough to express their views, and everyone appreciated the fact that they had been included.


Temporal Information Guides Prefrontal Preparatory Activity, Jacqueline R. Janowich 2018 University of New Mexico

Temporal Information Guides Prefrontal Preparatory Activity, Jacqueline R. Janowich

Shared Knowledge Conference

Proactive preparation for an upcoming goal differs from last-minute reactive adaptation, but it is unclear how preparatory mechanisms change based on when in the future a goal needs to be executed. To assess how timing information is integrated into preparatory control, we designed a novel variant of the Dot Pattern Expectancy task, where each cue signaled both task rule and delay duration (known short, known long, or unknown) between cue and probe. We recorded EEG while healthy young adult participants (n=36) performed this task, and found that delay demands elicited distinct prefrontal preparatory activities. Medial prefrontal amplitude was sensitive ...


Electrocortical Responses During Script-Driven Emotional Imagery, Nicholas Best, Cassandra Gonzalez, David Herring Ph.D. 2018 Murray State University

Electrocortical Responses During Script-Driven Emotional Imagery, Nicholas Best, Cassandra Gonzalez, David Herring Ph.D.

Scholars Week

Emotional imagery is a common induction technique used in the laboratory and also employed in various exposure therapy treatments across the anxiety spectrum (e.g., specific and social phobias). Despite its clinical uses, there is a surprising dearth of literature regarding the basic central neural processes underlying emotional imagery, though other peripheral physiological processes have been investigated extensively using heart rate, skin conductance, and startle-blink responses. One imagery study that used a central nervous system psychophysiological measure -event specific brainwave or the event-related potential (ERP) technique- suggests the late positive potential (LPP) of the ERP is larger for unpleasant versus ...


Cannabinoid-Induced Behavioral Sensitization In Adolescent Sprague-Dawley Rats, Michelle Stone 2018 California State University, San Bernardino

Cannabinoid-Induced Behavioral Sensitization In Adolescent Sprague-Dawley Rats, Michelle Stone

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Adolescent cannabis use has grown because of increased availability and higher societal acceptance. This increase in cannabis use is problematic as adolescents who experiment with cannabis are more likely to abuse cannabis and experiment with other illicit drugs such as cocaine. The reason for the greater susceptibility to drugs use is unclear and may be the result of altered drug sensitivity after cannabis exposure. Thus, the present investigation used the behavioral sensitization paradigm to examine the behavioral response of early adolescent rats to the cannabinoid agonist CP 55,940 (CP) or cocaine after repeated cannabinoid administration. It was hypothesized that ...


Efficaciousness Of Mindfulness Interventions For Trauma Using Psychophysiological Measures: A Review, Sherief Y. Eldeeb 2018 Clark University

Efficaciousness Of Mindfulness Interventions For Trauma Using Psychophysiological Measures: A Review, Sherief Y. Eldeeb

Scholarly Undergraduate Research Journal at Clark

In recent decades the efficaciousness of mindfulness has been proven in a wide variety of contexts, but some crucial populations remain understudied. This review critically examines the literature on mindfulness in individuals with trauma using psychophysiological measures. Psychophysiological measures offer critical insight into this intersection of mindfulness and trauma due to the known somatic components in each, as well as serving as an objective response. Mindfulness-based treatments seem to show great promise in treating trauma, however there are significant limitations in the literature. Future studies should standardize the minimum length of treatment, utilize gender-balanced and ethnically diverse samples, and introduce ...


Dietary Curcumin Promotes Resilience To Chronic Social Defeat Stress In A Highly Susceptible Mouse Strain, Antonio V. Aubry 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Dietary Curcumin Promotes Resilience To Chronic Social Defeat Stress In A Highly Susceptible Mouse Strain, Antonio V. Aubry

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Chronic exposure to stress is a risk factor for the development of major depression and post traumatic stress disorder in humans and induces depressive- and anxiety-like phenotypes in rodents. However, there are few pharmacological interventions available that effectively treat maladaptive responses to chronic stress in the clinical setting. One therapeutic agent that has recently shown promise in treating psychiatric disorders is curcumin, a yellow-pigmented polyphenol compound found in the turmeric plant. Curcumin has been shown to prevent the development of stressed-induced depressive-like behavior in rodents and reduce symptoms of depression in clinically diagnosed patients. In this dissertation, I investigated whether ...


The Relationship Between Cognitive And Neural Bases Of Metamemory Judgments, Alexandra M. Gaynor 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Relationship Between Cognitive And Neural Bases Of Metamemory Judgments, Alexandra M. Gaynor

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Metamemory monitoring, the process of making subjective assessments of the status of one’s own memory, is crucial to guiding behavior and effective learning. Past cognitive research has shown that subjective confidence judgments are inferential in nature, and based on cues available at the time of the judgment. When confidence is based on cues that are related to objective memory performance, metamemory accuracy is high. However, past studies have shown that metamemory monitoring tends to be inaccurate because individuals base their confidence on information that is not predictive of memory success, such as the fluency with which items were encoded ...


The Effect Of A Voice Treatment On Facial Expression In Parkinson’S Disease: Clinical And Demographic Predictors, Amanda D. Bono 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Effect Of A Voice Treatment On Facial Expression In Parkinson’S Disease: Clinical And Demographic Predictors, Amanda D. Bono

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with a wide range of motoric, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms. Impairments in facial mobility and emotional expressivity are common and can impair communication, in turn, affecting daily functioning and quality of life. Previous research suggests that the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment © (LSVT LOUD; Ramig et al., 2001, 2011) increases vocal loudness and facial expressivity in individuals with PD compared to PD and healthy controls. This study extends the literature by examining the effects of LSVT and an articulation-based control treatment (i.e., ARTIC) on multiple aspects of facial expressivity (i.e ...


A Functional Neuroimaging Study Of Self-Regulatory Control In Adults With Gambling And Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders, Nidhi Parashar 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

A Functional Neuroimaging Study Of Self-Regulatory Control In Adults With Gambling And Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders, Nidhi Parashar

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Objective: Recent findings suggest phenomenological similarities across gambling and obsessive-compulsive disorders. The key similarity between the disorders is the failure to inhibit or control a repetitive behavior (or urges to engage in a behavior) and intrusive thoughts. Our current understanding of the neural pathophysiological mechanisms linking gambling and obsessive-compulsive disorders is limited. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the functioning of frontostriatal brain regions that support self-regulatory control in adults with gambling and obsessive-compulsive disorders.

Methods: The study compared functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygen level dependent response in 19 adults with pathological gambling (PG), 29 ...


Curcumin Inhibits The Ikk:Nf-Kappa B Pathway In Neural Fear Circuits, Miguel A. Briones 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Curcumin Inhibits The Ikk:Nf-Kappa B Pathway In Neural Fear Circuits, Miguel A. Briones

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The study of how the brain acquires fearful memories has attracted considerable experimental attention, due in part to the promise of discovering novel therapeutic approaches for psychiatric disorders that are characterized by unusually strong and persistent traumatic memories. In recent years, extensive research has focused on studying the neural and molecular mechanisms by which fear memories are acquired, stored, and retrieved in the brain. Once acquired, fear memories may be attenuated using one of 2 procedures: 1) fear extinction, which involves repeated presentation of the fear-arousing stimulus in the absence of an aversive consequence, or 2) interference with the reconsolidation ...


Wellness And Karate, Cristina Kumpf 2018 Duquesne University

Wellness And Karate, Cristina Kumpf

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The promotion of wellness is an integral part of the counseling field and is considered to be a central focus to the counseling process (Barden, Conley, & Young, 2015; Myers, 1992). The counseling profession adopted the concept of wellness because it harmonizes with many of the founding principles of the ACA and is seen as a process of questing toward optimal health and well-being in body, mind, and spirit (Barden, Conley, & Young, 2015; Myers, 1992; Myers, Sweeney, & Witmer, 2000). Additionally, ACA Code of Ethics (2014) state that counselors “engage in self-care activities to maintain and promote their own emotional, physical, and mental well-being to best ...


Yardwork: A Biography Of An Urban Place By Daniel Coleman, Vivian M. Hansen 2018 University of Calgary

Yardwork: A Biography Of An Urban Place By Daniel Coleman, Vivian M. Hansen

The Goose

Review of Daniel Coleman's Yardwork: A Biography of an Urban Place.


Developmental Seizures And Mortality Result From Reducing Gabaa Receptor Α2-Subunit Interaction With Collybistin, Rochelle M. Hines, Hans Michael Maric, Dustin J. Hines, Amit Modgil, Patrizia Panzanelli, Yasuko Nakamura, Anna J. Nathanson, Alan Cross, Tarek Deeb, Nicholas J. Brandon, Paul Davies, Jean-Marc Fritschy, Hermann Schindelin, Stephen J. Moss 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Tufts University School of Medicine

Developmental Seizures And Mortality Result From Reducing Gabaa Receptor Α2-Subunit Interaction With Collybistin, Rochelle M. Hines, Hans Michael Maric, Dustin J. Hines, Amit Modgil, Patrizia Panzanelli, Yasuko Nakamura, Anna J. Nathanson, Alan Cross, Tarek Deeb, Nicholas J. Brandon, Paul Davies, Jean-Marc Fritschy, Hermann Schindelin, Stephen J. Moss

Psychology Faculty Publications

Fast inhibitory synaptic transmission is mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs) that are enriched at functionally diverse synapses via mechanisms that remain unclear. Using isothermal titration calorimetry and complementary methods we demonstrate an exclusive low micromolar binding of collybistin to the α2-subunit of GABAARs. To explore the biological relevance of collybistin-α2-subunit selectivity, we generate mice with a mutation in the α2-subunit-collybistin binding region (Gabra2-1). The mutation results in loss of a distinct subset of inhibitory synapses and decreased amplitude of inhibitory synaptic currents. Gabra2–1 mice have a striking phenotype characterized by increased susceptibility to seizures and early ...


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