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Public Sector Unions And Public Spending, Michael Marlow, William Orzechowski 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Public Sector Unions And Public Spending, Michael Marlow, William Orzechowski

Michael L. Marlow

This study examines the influence of public sector unions on the expansion of the public sector. Based on public goods theory, our paper models how unions influence the supply of and demand for public sector activities. On the demand side, public sector unions are special interests which advocate public sector expansion to policy makers; on the supply side, they exert pressure to maintain and expand monopoly powers. Empirical evidence supports the hypothesis that a positive relationship exists between public sector unionism and public spending.


Spending, School Structure, And Public Education Quality. Evidence From California, Michael Marlow 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Spending, School Structure, And Public Education Quality. Evidence From California, Michael Marlow

Michael L. Marlow

This paper examines school structure, spending, and performance relationships in California and finds considerable support for the public exchange model that predicts that greater competition improves student performance. The evidence indicates that, despite claims to the contrary by many advocates of public education, higher education spending does not raise student achievement. Education spending is also shown to be highest in those counties exhibiting highest monopoly power as measured by the Herfindahl index. Strong support is also shown for the public exchange view that higher market power leads to lower student achievement in the fourth and eighth grades, but little support ...


Private Sector Shrinkage And The Growth Of Industrialized Economies: Reply, Michael Marlow 2010 U.S. Department of Treasury

Private Sector Shrinkage And The Growth Of Industrialized Economies: Reply, Michael Marlow

Michael L. Marlow

No abstract provided.


Do Expenditures On Tobacco Control Decrease Smoking Prevalence?, Michael L. Marlow 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Do Expenditures On Tobacco Control Decrease Smoking Prevalence?, Michael L. Marlow

Michael L. Marlow

Effectiveness of tobacco control programmes in reducing smoking prevalence during 2001 to 2005 is examined. Tobacco control spending is found to exert no significant effects on smoking prevalence across the 50 states. Cigarette prices are found to lower prevalence of daily smokers, but exert no effect on nondaily smoking prevalence. Several reasons are suggested for why these results might conflict with previous research. These include that most previous studies examined two states (California and Massachusetts) with long-standing tobacco control programmes and that most studies examined periods in which many of the states in their samples did not actively fund their ...


Intergovernmental Competition, Voice And Exit Options And The Design Of Fiscal Structure, Michael Marlow 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Intergovernmental Competition, Voice And Exit Options And The Design Of Fiscal Structure, Michael Marlow

Michael L. Marlow

Taxpayers may reveal their assessment of policy through exercise of available voice and exit options within the fiscal constitution. The voice option is utilized when taxpayers remain within political boundaries and attempt to communicate their assessments regarding the institutionalstatus quo to policymakers. Exercise of the exit option occurs when taxpayers signal discontent with thestatus quo by purchasing from another government supplier. This paper discusses and contrasts theconventional andconstitutional economics views toward fiscal design and argues that a major difference exists regarding the issue of who should be awarded primary responsibility in the policy process: taxpayers or policymakers? Because voice and ...


Measuring Market Power As Competition Over Time, Michael L. Marlow, George E. Wright 2010 U.S. Department of Treasury

Measuring Market Power As Competition Over Time, Michael L. Marlow, George E. Wright

Michael L. Marlow

This paper suggests that the empirical measurement of market structure, particularly the reliance on concentration indexes as an indicator of noncompetitive market power, does not adequately reflect recent advances in theory. This paper integrates the literature of the interaction between market structure and firm behavior with dynamic measures of structure. Our estimation for the savings and loan industry suggests that continued application of traditional static measures in market structure-performance studies are apt to be misleading. We call for more investigation into measures of dynamic structure.


The Public Demand For Smoking Bans, William Boyes, Michael Marlow 2010 Arizona State University

The Public Demand For Smoking Bans, William Boyes, Michael Marlow

Michael L. Marlow

Smoking bans are gaining widespread support in the United States and other countries. While supporters argue that bans are necessary to resolve market failures associated with negative externalities, the Coase Theorem predicts that, under various conditions, private markets internalize negative externalities. We examine the smoking issue within the framework of the Coase Theorem and hypothesize that smoking bans misallocate air space resources shared by smokers and nonsmokers. Because smoking bans shift ownership of scarce resources, they are also hypothesized to transfer income from one party (smokers) to another party (nonsmokers). Supporting evidence for these hypotheses is provided by an examination ...


Incentives And Political Contributions, Michael Marlow, David Joulfaian 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Incentives And Political Contributions, Michael Marlow, David Joulfaian

Michael L. Marlow

No Abstract


A Canonical Correlation Analysis Of Savings And Loan Association Performance., Michael Marlow 2010 George Washington University

A Canonical Correlation Analysis Of Savings And Loan Association Performance., Michael Marlow

Michael L. Marlow

No abstract provided.


The Influence Of Special District Government On Public Spending And Debt, Michael L. Marlow 2010 Florida Atlantic University

The Influence Of Special District Government On Public Spending And Debt, Michael L. Marlow

Michael L. Marlow

Growth in special district governments is examined as a reason behind public sector expansion in the United States. A theoretical model is developed of the optimal mix of government suppliers which predicts how special district governments affect the overall provision of government policies. The hypothesis that expansion of special district governments leads to expansion of the public sector is expirically examined over two time periods.


Epidemiologic And Economic Research, And The Question Of Smoking Bans, Michael Marlow 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Epidemiologic And Economic Research, And The Question Of Smoking Bans, Michael Marlow

Michael L. Marlow

Smoking bans in public places are promoted on the dual basis that they protect the public from “secondhand smoke”— environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and that bans never harm businesses. Evidence shows that ETS does not pose health risks nearly as large as many ban advocates claim, and that bans do harm some businesses. Unintended and adverse consequences of smoking bans include (1) harm to smokers if they compensate by smoking more intensely; (2) an increase in drunk driving when smokers drive longer distances to smoke and drink; and (3) less innovation in air-filtration technology that also slows progress in removing ...


Controlling Leviathan Through Tax Reduction, Michael Marlow, William Orzechowski 2010 U.C. Department of Treasury, Washington DC

Controlling Leviathan Through Tax Reduction, Michael Marlow, William Orzechowski

Michael L. Marlow

No Abstract


The Influence Of Private School Enrollment On Public School Performance, Michael L. Marlow 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

The Influence Of Private School Enrollment On Public School Performance, Michael L. Marlow

Michael L. Marlow

School choice reform refers to changes that allow parents greater freedom to choose schools for their children. School choice reform is contentious because it fundamentally alters the environment in which public and private schools operate and could result in significant changes for both demanders and suppliers of education. This article develops a model of public education with imperfect exit to predict how private school enrollment influences performance of public schools. Empirical evidence from data on all private and public schools in California provides substantial support for the hypothesis that public school test scores are inversely related to private school enrollments ...


Determinants Of State Tobacco-Control Expenditures, Michael Marlow 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Determinants Of State Tobacco-Control Expenditures, Michael Marlow

Michael L. Marlow

While Centers for Disease Control and Prevention believe that most state governments under-fund tobacco-control programs, little is known about why large variation in spending exists between state governments. This study explores reasons for spending variation through an econometric model of per capita spending on tobacco-control programs that explores the effects of smoking prevalence while holding constant tobacco settlement funds, state budget deficits, and other factors that might also be expected to influence spending variation. Empirical evidence indicates no support for the hypothesis that states with high smoking prevalence spend more on tobacco-control than other states. This finding may be quite ...


Expenditures And Receipts: Testing For Causality In State And Local Government Finances, Michael Marlow, Neela Manage 2010 U.S. Department of Treasury, Washington DC

Expenditures And Receipts: Testing For Causality In State And Local Government Finances, Michael Marlow, Neela Manage

Michael L. Marlow

No Abstract


The Separation Of Spending From Taxation: Implications For Collective Choices, Michael L. Marlow, William P. Orzechowski 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

The Separation Of Spending From Taxation: Implications For Collective Choices, Michael L. Marlow, William P. Orzechowski

Michael L. Marlow

Our fiscal process divorces payment from use. While this divorce has led many analysts of government to separate discussion of public expenditures from their funding, or use from payment, we argue that this approach does not provide a useful framework for understanding our public choices. We argue that it is the divorce of payment from use that underlies our fiscal process and, rather than simply 'dismiss out of hand ' study of our fiscal process, it should be an integral part of our study of government. Our framework for describing fiscal institutions indicates how our fiscal process invites rent-seeking because it ...


Public Education Supply And Student Performance, Michael Marlow 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Public Education Supply And Student Performance, Michael Marlow

Michael L. Marlow

This paper develops a model of public exchange whereby voters and education policy makers exchange with one another within school districts. Because school district consolidation lowers alternatives to voters-parents, consolidation is hypothesized to raise public education spending because weakened intergovernmental competition allows policy makers to promote their own utility, rather than that of constituents. Models of public education spending and academic performance are estimated over 1988-1990. While evidence indicates little support for the traditional treatment of the Leviathan hypothesis that greater competition lowers public spending, this paper argues that education spending by itself does not fully provide a valid test ...


Do Crime-Related Expenditures Crowd Out Higher Education Expenditures?, Michael L. Marlow, Alden F. Shiers 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Do Crime-Related Expenditures Crowd Out Higher Education Expenditures?, Michael L. Marlow, Alden F. Shiers

Michael L. Marlow

Fears about insufficient public education spending are often expressed in the area of higher education, whereby it is often argued that increases in expenditures on crime-related programs crowd out expenditures on higher education. This view suggests that higher education and crime-related programs directly compete for government expenditures so that what one program gains the other must lose as in a zero-sum game. A competing hypothesis is that higher crime-related spending leads to higher taxes or public debt issuance or to lower spending on programs other than higher education. We estimate a three-equation model of spending on crime-related programs, spending on ...


Do Smoking Bans Reduce Heart Attacks?, Michael L. Marlow 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Do Smoking Bans Reduce Heart Attacks?, Michael L. Marlow

Michael L. Marlow

Recent newspaper articles have heralded studies concluding that smoking bans lead to dramatic decreases in the annual incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Coupled with studies concluding that bans never harm businesses and that environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) significantly endangers health of nonsmokers, studies claiming AMI reduction have provided governments with additional evidence to support bans in the name of public health. Some communities have expanded bans from workplaces to include parks, beaches, and other open areas, based on this growing body of evidence. This commentary argues that, as with distorted claims regarding economic harm and ETS, recent studies concluding ...


Fiscal Decentralization And Government Size, Michael L. Marlow 2010 U.S. Department of Treasury, Washington DC

Fiscal Decentralization And Government Size, Michael L. Marlow

Michael L. Marlow

Numerous studies have attempted to model the possible factors contributing to universal growth in public sectors. This paper analyzes one device that appears capable of controlling some of that growth: fiscal decentralization. The results reported here also support the use of monopoly government assumptions in models of public policy. The author gratefully acknowledges the comments of Angelo R. Mascaro, Gordon Tullock and an anonymous referee. Views expressed here are of the author alone and do not necessarily represent those of the U.S. Department of Treasury.


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