Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

632,935 Full-Text Articles 382,785 Authors 286,320,579 Downloads 517 Institutions

All Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Faceted Search

632,935 full-text articles. Page 5 of 15325.

Past Actions And Expertise: How States Infer Enemy Intentions, Yu Aoki 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Past Actions And Expertise: How States Infer Enemy Intentions, Yu Aoki

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Whether and how a state’s past military (in)actions affect perceptions of its resolve and intentions has been disputed. This dissertation argues that non-experts and experts in governments use enemy past actions differently to infer enemy resolve and intentions. Experts are those who have rich knowledge about enemies (e.g., country specialists and intelligence analysts), whereas non-experts are those who do not (e.g., top policymakers). The theory argues that non-experts are influenced by what psychologists call the “negativity bias,” which compels them to pay more attention to negative information than positive information concerning enemies. On the other hand ...


The Politics Of Feminist Citizenship: Violence, Law, And Affect In Post-Revolution Tunisia, Ola Galal 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Politics Of Feminist Citizenship: Violence, Law, And Affect In Post-Revolution Tunisia, Ola Galal

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Taking a historical and ethnographic approach, this dissertation examines citizenship as a historical, political, and ethical problem in Tunisia during a turbulent yet hopeful time of transition. It examines changes in the conceptualization of citizenship from one that is construed as a favor to one that is rights-based, and the political, ethical, and material effects of that shift in both official and popular discourses. I home in on the central and sometimes uneasy role feminists play in articulating and consolidating that discursive, legal, and affective transformation in citizenship by mediating between different legal and moral frameworks and attempting to reconcile ...


A Pilot Feasibility Trial Of Mindfulness And Modification Therapy For Males Who Use Aggression, Jenny Mitchell 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

A Pilot Feasibility Trial Of Mindfulness And Modification Therapy For Males Who Use Aggression, Jenny Mitchell

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Physical aggression incurs substantial harm to victims and witnesses, particularly when it occurs within close relationships such as family, friendships, or intimate partnerships. Men who use aggression against partners and other adults frequently experience high levels of psychopathology, including depression, posttraumatic stress symptoms, anxious/insecure attachment, paranoia, bipolar disorder, intermittent explosive disorder, personality disorders, and substance abuse, which contribute to use of aggressive behaviors. However, existing treatments for aggression often do not address these symptoms. It is important that treatments for aggression are grounded in theoretical literature and backed by empirical support in order to increase treatment engagement and effectiveness ...


Mitigating The Harm Of Public Mass Shooting Incidents Through Situational Crime Prevention, Emily Greene-Colozzi 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Mitigating The Harm Of Public Mass Shooting Incidents Through Situational Crime Prevention, Emily Greene-Colozzi

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation used environmental theoretical frameworks to understand how public mass shooting incidents are impacted by aspects of the crime situation and opportunity. Predatory, public shootings perpetrated by individuals with evidence of mass intent were examined in the United States between 1966 and 2019. This project progressed in several distinct steps with discrete aims: (1) establish an open source database of public mass shooting incidents meeting definitional criteria; (2) perform statistical analysis, including latent class analysis, regression modeling, and structural equational modeling to assess research questions; and (3) perform comparative case studies and crime script analysis to assess situational crime ...


Improved Marginal Likelihood Estimation Via Power Posteriors And Importance Sampling, Yong LI, Nianling WANG, Jun YU 2022 Singapore Management University

Improved Marginal Likelihood Estimation Via Power Posteriors And Importance Sampling, Yong Li, Nianling Wang, Jun Yu

Research Collection School Of Economics

Power posteriors have become popular in estimating the marginal likelihood of a Bayesian model. A power posterior is referred to as the posterior distribution that is proportional to the likelihood raised to a power b∈[0,1]. Important power-posterior-based algorithms include thermodynamic integration (TI) of Friel and Pettitt (2008) and steppingstone sampling (SS) of Xie et al. (2011). In this paper, it is shown that the Bernstein–von Mises (BvM) theorem holds for power posteriors under regularity conditions. Due to the BvM theorem, power posteriors, when adjusted by the square root of the auxiliary constant, have the same limit distribution ...


Belonging Amidst Bias: Embracing Difference On The Path To Common Humanity, Alyssia Sheikh 2022 Lesley University

Belonging Amidst Bias: Embracing Difference On The Path To Common Humanity, Alyssia Sheikh

Mindfulness Studies Theses

The mindfulness community prioritizes self-awareness and common humanity, but is often entrapped by the idea that oneness is equivalent to sameness. This inclination for objectivity is rooted in the same neural propensities that facilitate bias; the brain is a subjective organ, however, and so neurologically speaking, bias is inevitable. This paper asks: Is striving for sameness separating us from interconnectedness? A human experience is a subjective, diverse, and variable one. The path to shared humanity and social justice co-occurs with increasing cultural humility through mindful awareness and acknowledging our subjective nature. Exploring our neurological tendency to make assumptions, we can ...


The Bodhichitta Way: Igniting Mindful Leadership From Within - An 8-Week Online Program, Paula Ledbetter 2022 Lesley University

The Bodhichitta Way: Igniting Mindful Leadership From Within - An 8-Week Online Program, Paula Ledbetter

Mindfulness Studies Theses

This paper investigates ways in which the practice of mindfulness can positively influence workplace leadership. Mindfulness-based approaches, when woven together with compassion, self-awareness, and meditation, cultivate qualities of effective mindful leadership that are essential in today’s workforce. Within this creative thesis, I developed an eight-week online training program for leaders to build foundational mindfulness practices necessary for optimizing meaningful connections in their daily work-life. The online training is based in experiential learning, self-reflection, and meditation practice. Research shows that there is significant benefit to incorporating mindfulness in the workplace. The purpose of this paper and online training is to ...


Pause. Reset. Return. Mental Hygiene And Mindfulness In Daily Routines For The Mental Wellbeing Of Mental Health Professionals, Jamie Tolson 2022 Lesley University

Pause. Reset. Return. Mental Hygiene And Mindfulness In Daily Routines For The Mental Wellbeing Of Mental Health Professionals, Jamie Tolson

Mindfulness Studies Theses

Children and adolescents in the United States are experiencing a mental health crisis which also impacts families, caregivers, including the mental health professionals providing support. This rationale paper expands on the history and limited current research to reintroduce the term “mental hygiene” as a lens to address the ongoing stress, the need for self-care and respite, and the value of incorporating mindfulness in the daily routines of mental health professionals. Intentional use of the term “mental hygiene" seeks to highlight an active and engaged process including mindfulness practices to decrease stress and burnout. The literature supports the inclusion of mindfulness ...


Yoga And Reiki As Self-Care Interventions For Professional Nurses: A Weekend Retreat, Diane Friel 2022 Lesley University

Yoga And Reiki As Self-Care Interventions For Professional Nurses: A Weekend Retreat, Diane Friel

Mindfulness Studies Theses

Nurses provide compassionate care to their patients and often fail to turn that compassion inwards. Nurses are experiencing unprecedented levels of stress in the workplace related to the COVID-19 pandemic and research shows that workplace stress has a negative impact on both nurses and the patients they care for. The wellness of the nursing force is a public health priority. This paper describes the workplace challenges facing nurses today, and the associated impact on nurses and patients is supported with research. Research is offered supporting self-care and self-compassion as vital components to wellness, enhanced emotional resilience, and prevention of burnout ...


Clinicians' Perspectives On The Effectiveness Of Trauma - Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy With African American Children: A Qualitative Study, Jada Carter 2022 University of San Francisco

Clinicians' Perspectives On The Effectiveness Of Trauma - Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy With African American Children: A Qualitative Study, Jada Carter

Doctoral Dissertations

Literature exploring clinicians' perspectives on the effectiveness of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy with African American children who suffer from trauma-related disorders is very limited. The current study examined clinicians' perspectives on the TF-CBT model when utilized with this population, including their experiences working with African American children and families with observable types of trauma-related disorders. This research study also explored the various facets of trauma that African Americans encounter in childhood and the barriers that prevent them from receiving adequate mental health care. Thematic analysis was utilized to explore themes that emerged when treating African American children with TF-CBT. Five ...


“High Spending, Poor Productivity Gains!” Assessing Public Health System (In)Efficiency And Hospital Performance In The State Of Kuwait: Would More Private Delivery Improve Healthcare?, Aljawhara Alsabah 2022 Touro College and University System

“High Spending, Poor Productivity Gains!” Assessing Public Health System (In)Efficiency And Hospital Performance In The State Of Kuwait: Would More Private Delivery Improve Healthcare?, Aljawhara Alsabah

NYMC Student Theses and Dissertations

The healthcare sector in the State of Kuwait has been nurtured for many decades by the government, where the majority of health services in the country are controlled by the Ministry of Health (MoH). Although healthcare services in public sector hospitals are at highly subsidized rates, causing private sector involvement in healthcare to be considerably low, the growing demands for private delivery of care burgeoned participation of private hospitals in Kuwait, and improving hospital efficiency and productivity is more critical and timelier than ever. This dissertation aims to analyze public health system efficiency and hospital performance in the State of ...


The Effects Of Behavioral Skills Training On Skill Acquisition In Autistic Children: A Systematic Review, Kimberly E. Lucchesi 2022 Seton Hall University

The Effects Of Behavioral Skills Training On Skill Acquisition In Autistic Children: A Systematic Review, Kimberly E. Lucchesi

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Using behavioral skills training (BST) to promote skill acquisition to autistic children is seen throughout the literature. There are many research articles that use BST to promote skill acquisition such as safety skills, social skills, and sports skills to children with autism. The aim of the current project was to investigate if BST has a body of research sufficient enough to be considered an evidence based practice (EBP) when it comes to promoting skill acquisition to autistic children. This paper is a systematic search of EBSCO databases as well as Dissertations and Theses Global to determine if BST promotes skill ...


Increasing The Accessibility Of Library Resources & Services For Improved Discovery In The Classroom, Barbara M. Pope 2022 Pittsburg State University

Increasing The Accessibility Of Library Resources & Services For Improved Discovery In The Classroom, Barbara M. Pope

Faculty Submissions

Equitable access to education for students with disabilities is not just a good idea, it is the law. However, all students benefit from having multiple possible ways to learn. I believe the same holds true for library services and resources. However, making courses and library resources and services is easier to imagine than it is to do. Come to this presentation to hear about what I learned in the ADA & Web Accessibility Self-Paced Workshop from Online Learning Consortium and how I have improved the accessibility of library resources and services.


Pandemic Emotion Perception, Rhiannon Novelli, Laura M. Getz PhD 2022 University of San Diego

Pandemic Emotion Perception, Rhiannon Novelli, Laura M. Getz Phd

Research Week

Abstract: Existing research articulates difficulties masks cause in the interpretation of emotions (e.g., Carbon, 2020). The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented time in which the impact of the pandemic on individuals' emotional processing is yet to be determined. Previous work in our lab has looked at interactions between audiovisual perception, emotion recognition, and memory without the use of masks; this work and existing research provide a baseline for my current project investigating the detection of facial emotions based on auditory cues during mask wearing. The Ryerson Audio-Visual Database of Emotional Speech and Song (RAVDESS) is a verified tool to ...


How Gender Affects Perception Of Safety Following Information Of Sexual Assault, Natale Rahmon, Kiara Summers, Anne Koenig PhD 2022 University of San Diego

How Gender Affects Perception Of Safety Following Information Of Sexual Assault, Natale Rahmon, Kiara Summers, Anne Koenig Phd

Research Week

Abstract: The topic of sexual assault is a prevailing social issue and this study focuses on gender differences in how USD students perceive their safety when they are informed about the crime rates of sexual assault. In particular, we compared how safe men and women feel in general, as well as after reading information about sexual assault or general crime rates in a 3 (crime information: sexual assault, general, control) x 2 (participant gender: male, female) between-subjects design. Participants who were randomly assigned to read about sexual assault, for example, learned about the definitions and rates of crimes such as ...


Mapping Governmental Engagement With Community Engaged Learning In Canadian Higher Education: An Environmental Scan Of Key Trends, Hannah R. Argiloff 2022 Western University

Mapping Governmental Engagement With Community Engaged Learning In Canadian Higher Education: An Environmental Scan Of Key Trends, Hannah R. Argiloff

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

This is an environmental survey my supervisor and I conducted pertaining to the landscape of government engagement with Community Engaged Learning in Canadian Universities.

Community Engaged Learning (CEL) is a valuable type of experiential learning characterized by collaboration between student and community partner/ stakeholder for the creation of a mutual outcome.

Given the relations between provincial governments and their influence over publicly funded universities, compounded by a recent uptick in CEL programs across Canada, we wanted to survey government rhetoric, policy, and legislation across the country to create a picture of the interactions between provincial governments and CEL in the ...


Measuring The Exposure And Vulnerability Of Transit Riders To Cold Temperatures In London, Ontario, Armin Mahboubi 2022 Western University

Measuring The Exposure And Vulnerability Of Transit Riders To Cold Temperatures In London, Ontario, Armin Mahboubi

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Due to the expansion of suburban areas in many cities around the world, accessibility to public transit through walking has become a new challenge for riders. Considering the impacts of climate change in creating more extreme weather, such as extreme cold, heat, or flooding, transit riders may thus be at a higher risk of exposure for various weather-related illnesses (Fraser & Chester, 2016).

Using ArcGIS Pro and ArcMap software, and data collected from City of London’s Open Portal, the United States Geological Survey, Open Mobility Data, and Statistics Canada, the exposure and vulnerability of transit riders to cold temperatures in ...


An Explorative Study Of The Methods Used In Dendrochronology And Its Applications, Matthew Bowery 2022 Western University

An Explorative Study Of The Methods Used In Dendrochronology And Its Applications, Matthew Bowery

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The science of dendrochronology involves the dating of tree rings and analysis of their annual growth rates. It is important to conduct field studies to determine what tree species in a given area are suitable for analysis. This project began by coring Acer plantanoides, Acer saccharinum, Acer saccharum, and Picea abies from the Fanshawe Conservation Area in London, Ontario. Each core was prepped using standard procedures and analyzed for the visibility of annual rings. The tree rings of Acer plantanoides and Acer saccharinum were inadequate for accurate dating, and thus, only Acer saccharum and Picea abies were used and included ...


Digital Road Safety Education Intervention For Children: A Pilot Feasibility Study, Julia Pham 2022 Western University

Digital Road Safety Education Intervention For Children: A Pilot Feasibility Study, Julia Pham

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Over the summer, the Active School Travel (AST) Digital Road Safety Education Pilot Feasibility project was developed as part of the School Travel Plan (STP) study, which aims to improve children’s AST behaviour, physical activity, and reduce air pollution around schools. The Pilot Feasibility study will be evaluating the effectiveness of the implementation of an online educational intervention that teaches Grade 4 to 6 students about the rules and skills involved in walking and wheeling to and from school (and around their community) daily. The curriculum is broken up into four modules that will consist of readings, an audio ...


Endorsement (And Rejection) Of Normative Fitness Culture: Qualitative Evidence For A Novel Construct, Sara M. Stanley, Eva Pila, Katarina Huellemann 2022 Western University

Endorsement (And Rejection) Of Normative Fitness Culture: Qualitative Evidence For A Novel Construct, Sara M. Stanley, Eva Pila, Katarina Huellemann

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

“Normative fitness culture” is a phenomenon within the disordered eating literature that comprises the endorsement of sociocultural fitness norms (e.g., “no pain, no gain” rhetoric). Endorsement of normative fitness culture is hypothesized to contribute to maladaptive body, eating, and exercise attitudes and behaviours, though it has never been formally operationalized and examined in the psychological literature. Qualitative explorations of how women endorse (and reject) normative fitness culture may inform how these norms are promoted and maintained, and their impact on individual psychosocial experiences. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to explore and characterize the endorsement and rejection ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress