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Undemocratic Crimes, Paul H. Robinson, Jonathan C. Wilt 2021 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Undemocratic Crimes, Paul H. Robinson, Jonathan C. Wilt

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

One might assume that in a working democracy the criminal law rules would reflect the community’s shared judgments regarding justice and punishment. This is especially true because social science research shows that lay people generally think about criminal liability and punishment in consistent ways: in terms of desert, doing justice and avoiding injustice. Moreover, there are compelling arguments for demanding consistency between community views and criminal law rules based upon the importance of democratic values, effective crime-control, and the deontological value of justice itself.

It may then come as a surprise, and a disappointment, that a wide range of ...


Association Between Incarceration And Incident Cardiovascular Disease Events: Results From The Cardia Cohort Study, Jordan Coleman, Donald M. Lloyd-Jones, Hongyan Ning, Norrina B. Allen, Catarina I. Kiefe, Emily A. Wang, Mark D. Huffman 2021 Northwestern University

Association Between Incarceration And Incident Cardiovascular Disease Events: Results From The Cardia Cohort Study, Jordan Coleman, Donald M. Lloyd-Jones, Hongyan Ning, Norrina B. Allen, Catarina I. Kiefe, Emily A. Wang, Mark D. Huffman

Population and Quantitative Health Sciences Publications

BACKGROUND: Incarceration has been associated with higher cardiovascular risk, yet data evaluating its association with cardiovascular disease events are limited. The study objective was to evaluate the association between incarceration and incident fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events.

METHODS: Black and white adults from the community-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adult (CARDIA) study (baseline 1985-86, n = 5105) were followed through August 2017. Self-reported incarceration was measured at baseline (1985-1986) and Year 2 (1987-1988), and fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease events, including coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure, and all-cause mortality, were captured through 2017. Analyses were ...


Insurrectionist Chic? Montclair State Team Studies How Fashion Feeds Extremist Movements, Bond Benton, Daniela Peterka-Benton 2021 Montclair State University

Insurrectionist Chic? Montclair State Team Studies How Fashion Feeds Extremist Movements, Bond Benton, Daniela Peterka-Benton

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

No abstract provided.


Internal And External Challenges To Culpability, Stephen J. Morse 2021 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Internal And External Challenges To Culpability, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This article was presented at “Guilty Minds: A Virtual Conference on Mens Rea and Criminal Justice Reform” at Arizona State University’s Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law. It is forthcoming in Arizona State Law Journal Volume 53, Issue 2.

The thesis of this article is simple: As long as we maintain the current folk psychological conception of ourselves as intentional and potentially rational creatures, as people and not simply as machines, mental states will inevitably remain central to ascriptions of culpability and responsibility more generally. It is also desirable. Nonetheless, we are in a condition of unprecedented internal ...


Food Justice As Crime Prevention, Avi Brisman 2021 Connecticut School of Law

Food Justice As Crime Prevention, Avi Brisman

Journal of Food Law & Policy

In December 2008, Governor David Paterson (D-NY) proposed an 18 percent tax on nondiet sodas and fruit drinks containing less than 70 percent natural fruit juice. While the tax was part of a broader budget proposal designed to address New York State's fiscal crisis - a plan that that included new taxes and tax hikes on 137 items and services' - state officials promoted the "obesity tax," as the soft drink levy came to be called, as a public health measure.


Effectively Managing Bias In Teacher Preparation, Natasha Johnson 2021 Georgia State University

Effectively Managing Bias In Teacher Preparation, Natasha Johnson

CJC Publications

This is the call for teacher preparation programs to actively incorporate an emphasis on social justice education and the development of teachers committed to creating equitable schools. Education in today's multicultural, pluralistic society must be actively concentrated on and successful at creating more just and unbiased schools for underserved students. Similar to Ladson-Billings' argument for a redefining of ‘good teaching,' there must be a redefinition of that which constitutes social justice teaching. It is the role of today's teacher preparation programs to equip teachers with the essential skills necessary to develop students, manage bias, and create a culture ...


Child Exposure To Intimate Partner Violence In The Latin American Region, Gabriel Alvarado 2021 Grand Valley State University

Child Exposure To Intimate Partner Violence In The Latin American Region, Gabriel Alvarado

McNair Scholars Manuscripts

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a major public health issue that harms thousands of families and communities across the globe. Unlike other forms of violence or criminal behavior, IPV is often concealed within the privacy of one's household, where the public cannot witness the occurrence of spousal abuse. Typically, more women are victims in an intimate relationship than men are based on recent research. However, there is a lack of research that investigates the vulnerability of a child who is exposed to IPV. This systematic literature review relates to the analysis and investigation of children exposed to IPV in ...


Toleration By Victimized Coffeeshops In Amsterdam, Scott Jacques, Kim Moeller 2021 Georgia State University

Toleration By Victimized Coffeeshops In Amsterdam, Scott Jacques, Kim Moeller

CJC Publications

Dutch coffeeshops are quasi-illegal. Their sale of cannabis is de jure prohibited but de facto permitted. In this sense, their criminal acts are tolerated. Less often explored, and less well understood, is that coffeeshops also tolerate crimes against them. “Doing nothing” is a common way to manage drug market conflict. Why and how does it occur? Research has not focused on that question. In this article, we use the opportunity and rationality perspectives to analyze qualitative data obtained during interviews with 50 personnel of coffeeshops in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. After presenting our findings, we discuss their similarities to, and divergences ...


Criminal Justice Update - January 2021, Haley B. Shultz 2021 Gettysburg College

Criminal Justice Update - January 2021, Haley B. Shultz

Criminal Justice Updates

The Criminal Justice Update is a monthly newsletter created by the Adams County Bar Foundation Fellow providing updates in criminal justice policy coming from Pennsylvania's courts and legislature as well as the US Supreme Court.

Contents

  • Updates from PA Governor's Office (no updates this month)
  • Updates from the PA Legislature
  • Updates from the Courts
    • U.S. Supreme Court (no updates this month)
    • PA Supreme Court: Criminal Law & Procedure
    • PA Superior Court: Criminal Law & Procedure


The Specific Deterrent Effects Of Criminal Sanctions For Intimate Partner Violence: A Meta-Analysis, Joel H. Garner, Christopher D. Maxwell, Jina Lee 2021 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

The Specific Deterrent Effects Of Criminal Sanctions For Intimate Partner Violence: A Meta-Analysis, Joel H. Garner, Christopher D. Maxwell, Jina Lee

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

A dozen systematic reviews published since 1978 have sought to clarify the complexities of deterrence theory. These reviews emphasize the general deterrent effects of police presence, arrest, and incarceration on rates of homicide and other serious crimes, such as assault, rape, and burglary. These reviews provide less attention to specific deterrence processes and to the deterrent impacts of intermediate sanctions, such as prosecution or conviction; none of these reviews incorporate any of the research on criminal sanctions for intimate partner violence. To address these limitations, this research uses meta-analytic methods to assess the specific deterrent effects of three post-arrest criminal ...


Visa Fraud In The Commercial Sex Market In The United States: An Overview, Youngbee Dale 2021 Dale Consulting, LLC.

Visa Fraud In The Commercial Sex Market In The United States: An Overview, Youngbee Dale

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

This paper describes various fraudulent visas used by criminals operating in the U.S. sex market. Studies show that many foreign women exploited through commercial sex rely on visa brokers to enter the U.S. However, scholars have not investigated various visa brokers and the techniques they use to bring foreign women into U.S. prostitution as a whole. Therefore, this paper aims to provide an overview of the different types of fraudulent visas and criminal techniques used in the U.S. sex market. In doing so, this paper relies on both primary and secondary sources, such as interviews with ...


Murders In The German Sex Trade: 1920 To 2017, Manuela Schon, Anna Hoheide 2021 Sex Industry Kills

Murders In The German Sex Trade: 1920 To 2017, Manuela Schon, Anna Hoheide

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

This research report is the result of collecting and evaluating data on cases of homicides and attempted homicides in the German sex trade from 1920-2017. The findings show violence against prostituted women and the attitudes of the sex buyers who commit most of the violent acts against the women. The report discusses the media coverage of murder cases, complication of cases, and a critique of methods of criminal evaluation by the police. From 1920 to 2017, 272 victims of murder and attempted murder were identified. Liberalization of prostitution occurred in 2002. From then until 2017, there is a decrease in ...


Prisons, Nursing Homes, And Medicaid: A Covid-19 Case Study In Health Injustice, Mary Crossley 2021 University of Pittsburgh School of Law

Prisons, Nursing Homes, And Medicaid: A Covid-19 Case Study In Health Injustice, Mary Crossley

Articles

The unevenly distributed pain and suffering from the COVID-19 pandemic present a remarkable case study. Considering why the coronavirus has devastated some groups more than others offers a concrete example of abstract concepts like “structural discrimination” and “institutional racism,” an example measured in lives lost, families shattered, and unremitting anxiety. This essay highlights the experiences of Black people and disabled people, and how societal choices have caused them to experience the brunt of the pandemic. It focuses on prisons and nursing homes—institutions that emerged as COVID-19 hotspots –and on the Medicaid program.

Black and disabled people are disproportionately represented ...


Predictors Of Suicidal Ideation Among Formerly Incarcerated People During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Rachel Matthes Gehman 2021 University of Vermont

Predictors Of Suicidal Ideation Among Formerly Incarcerated People During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Rachel Matthes Gehman

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Background and purpose: Formerly incarcerated people die by suicide at a rate 6.75 times higher than the general population, but previous research has not identified factors that contribute to this heightened risk. The conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic may exacerbate both suicide risk factors and the stressors of reentry. In the framework of stress proliferation theory, this study uses path analysis to identify paths from incarceration history to environmental factors (i.e., financial stress), interpersonal factors (i.e., social support and conflict), psychological factors (i.e., depression and existential isolation, the feeling of being alone in one’s subjective ...


Life Without Parole Sentencing In North Carolina, Brandon L. Garrett, Travis M. Seale-Carlisle, Karima Modjadidi, Kristen M. Renberg 2021 Duke Law School

Life Without Parole Sentencing In North Carolina, Brandon L. Garrett, Travis M. Seale-Carlisle, Karima Modjadidi, Kristen M. Renberg

Faculty Scholarship

What explains the puzzle of life without parole (LWOP) sentencing in the United States? In the past two decades, LWOP sentences have reached record highs, with over 50,000 prisoners serving LWOP. Yet during this same period, homicide rates have steadily declined. The U.S. Supreme Court has limited the use of juvenile LWOP in Eighth Amendment rulings. Further, death sentences have steeply declined, reaching record lows. Although research has examined drivers of incarceration patterns for certain sentences, there has been little research on LWOP imposition. To shed light on what might explain the sudden rise of LWOP, we examine ...


An Assessment Of The Impacts Of Social Media Inputs And Court Case Information On Mitigating Insider Threats, Robert Jones 2021 Nova Southeastern University

An Assessment Of The Impacts Of Social Media Inputs And Court Case Information On Mitigating Insider Threats, Robert Jones

CCE Theses and Dissertations

The insider threat is a global problem that impacts organizations and produces a gamut of undesired outcomes. Businesses often experience lost revenue and stolen trade secrets, which can leave a tarnished reputation. Insider threats can also cause harm to individuals and national security. Past efforts have not mitigated the problem in its entirety. Documented instances of insider threats are as recent as March 2020. Many researchers have focused on monitoring technologies and relying on human monitoring in a reactive posture. An ideal solution would scrutinize an individual’s character and ascertain whether unique traits associated with actors of insider threats ...


Wildlife Trade And Covid-19: Towards A Criminology Of Anthropogenic Pathogen Spillover, Piers Beirne PhD 2020 University of Southern Maine

Wildlife Trade And Covid-19: Towards A Criminology Of Anthropogenic Pathogen Spillover, Piers Beirne Phd

Criminology

The general remit of this paper is the role of wildlife trade in pathogen spillover. Its underlying assumption is that, so far from being the exclusive domain of the life sciences, the study of pathogen spillover will be greatly enhanced by multi-perspectival approaches, including One Health and those employed here, namely, non-speciesist green criminology and critical animal studies. The paper moves from discussions of zoonosis, anthroponosis and wildlife trade to the emergence of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. The paper recommends the abolition of all wildlife trade and the reclamation of wildlife habitat and broaches discussion of the extension of legal ...


Effects Of Eye Imagery On Criminal Justice And Forensic Students Cheating In Online Testing, Kortni LaRue 2020 Jacksonville State University

Effects Of Eye Imagery On Criminal Justice And Forensic Students Cheating In Online Testing, Kortni Larue

Theses

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) is a well-established subsection of environmental criminology in which aspects of the environment are altered in order to prevent crimes before they happen. This is primarily accomplished in two ways: physical and psychological. CPTED strategies often utilize both in order to prevent crime, but there is a lack of primarily psychologically based research in circulation. This includes the manipulation of the biopsychological response to gaze detection in order to increase prosocial behavior. Additionally, there is a lack of studies indicating if CPTED strategies are effective in a classroom setting and even less concerning online ...


Impact Of Endangered Animal Protection Rights, Policies, And Practices On Zoonotic Disease Spread, Daniella Fedak-Lengel 2020 Bowling Green State University

Impact Of Endangered Animal Protection Rights, Policies, And Practices On Zoonotic Disease Spread, Daniella Fedak-Lengel

Honors Projects

Building on field research in Costa Rica and Belize, this honors project analyzes environmental and endangered animal protection policies, rights, and practices in Central America and the Caribbean, and assesses the impact of veterinary science and biological research and practice, particularly conservation biology, on animal welfare concerns. Informed by the recent surge in awareness regarding zoonoses and zoonotic disease transmission, prevention and control, resulting from the current global pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, the project assesses the need for new and innovative types of collaboration, particularly involving conservation biologists, environmental scientists, public health experts, law and policy makers, and global trade and ...


Michigan Sex Offender Registry: Implications And Effects, Heather Damuth 2020 Grand Valley State University

Michigan Sex Offender Registry: Implications And Effects, Heather Damuth

Honors Projects

This paper discusses the Michigan Sex Offender Registry Act (SORA) and the ways that it affects offenders, the public, and society. It also discusses the conveniences and the challenges in relation to the SORA including discussions about public safety, and offender rights. The impacts on offenders, victims, and the general public are also discussed. The research was done through the Grand Valley State University Library, the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and Michigan Legislation. Sources were examined and combined to form an integrative research paper about the sex offender registry in Michigan.


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