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Physical and Environmental Geography Commons

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Fisheries’ Property Regimes And Environmental Outcomes: A Realist Synthesis Review, Rebecca J. McLain, Steven Lawry, Maria Ojanen 2018 Portland State University

Fisheries’ Property Regimes And Environmental Outcomes: A Realist Synthesis Review, Rebecca J. Mclain, Steven Lawry, Maria Ojanen

Geography Faculty Publications and Presentations

Our paper describes the application of a realist approach to synthesizing evidence from 31 articles examining the environmental outcomes of marine protected areas governed under different types of property regimes. The development of resource tenure interventions that promote sustainable management practices has been challenged by the difficulties of determining how contextual factors affect environmental outcomes given the complexity of socio-ecological systems. Realist synthesis is a promising evidence review technique for identifying the mechanisms that influence policy intervention outcomes in complex systems. Through a combination of inductive and deductive analysis of the links between context, mechanisms, and outcomes, realist synthesis can ...


Holocene Dynamics Of Temperate Rainforests In West-Central Patagonia, Virginia Iglesias, Simon G. Haberle, Andrés Holz, Cathy Whitlock 2018 Montana State University-Bozeman

Holocene Dynamics Of Temperate Rainforests In West-Central Patagonia, Virginia Iglesias, Simon G. Haberle, Andrés Holz, Cathy Whitlock

Geography Faculty Publications and Presentations

Analyses of long-term ecosystem dynamics offer insights into the conditions that have led to stability vs. rapid change in the past and the importance of disturbance in regulating community composition. In this study, we (1) used lithology, pollen, and charcoal data from Mallín Casanova (47°S) to reconstruct the wetland, vegetation, and fire history of west-central Patagonia; and (2) compared the records with independent paleoenvironmental and archeological information to assess the effects of past climate and human activity on ecosystem dynamics. Pollen data indicate that Nothofagus-Pilgerodendronforests were established by 9,000 cal yr BP. Although the biodiversity of the ...


Impact Of Drought On Land Cover Changes In Diné Bikéyah – A Study Through Remote Sensing, Anjanette A.J. Hawk 2018 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Impact Of Drought On Land Cover Changes In Diné Bikéyah – A Study Through Remote Sensing, Anjanette A.J. Hawk

Geography ETDs

This study identifies land cover changes associated with a ten-year drought period and discusses the importance of vegetation change in Diné Bikéyah, a semi-arid land located in a remote part of the southwestern United States (US). This study concludes that drought produced slight changes in vegetation within a 540 km2 study area in the Tselani-Cottonwood Chapter (TCC) in Diné Bikéyah. The data for this study consist of three Landsat images for the years 1998, 2002, and 2009. The methods used to analyze these Landsat images included image pre-processing, calculation of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images, and supervised (maximum ...


A Directory Of Cartographic Inventors: Clever People Who Were Awarded A Us Patent For A Map-Related Device Or Method, Mark Monmonier, Adrienne Lee Atterberry, Kalya Fermin, Gabreille E. Marlzolf, Madeleine Hamlin 2018 Syracuse University

A Directory Of Cartographic Inventors: Clever People Who Were Awarded A Us Patent For A Map-Related Device Or Method, Mark Monmonier, Adrienne Lee Atterberry, Kalya Fermin, Gabreille E. Marlzolf, Madeleine Hamlin

Geography - Faculty Publications

As its title and subtitle imply, this book is a collection of short biographies of people awarded United States patents for inventions intended to improve map use or map making. We say “intended” because, as with most patented innovations, their clever ideas seldom made it to store shelves, magazine ads, or mail order catalogs—a fate shared with most improvements proposed in cartography’s scientific-technical journals.

This collection is a spinoff of a project focused on inventions rather than inventors. The project’s principal product was Monmonier's book Patents and Cartographic Inventions: A New Perspective for Map History, published ...


Data: Pre-Fire Disturbance History Modulates Relationships Between Ground Cover And Post-Fire Conifer Regeneration, Nathan Gill, Dan Jarvis, Tom Veblen, John Rogan, Dominik Kulakowski 2018 Clark University

Data: Pre-Fire Disturbance History Modulates Relationships Between Ground Cover And Post-Fire Conifer Regeneration, Nathan Gill, Dan Jarvis, Tom Veblen, John Rogan, Dominik Kulakowski

Student Works

Understory vegetation and ground cover drive many important ecosystem processes, including tree seedling regeneration. The exact effect of ground cover on tree seedling establishment, survival, and growth depends on biophysical context. In subalpine forests, this context is largely determined by disturbances such as beetle outbreak, blowdown, and fire. Compounded disturbances that overlap in short succession can alter stand properties and trajectories in ways that are not predictable from the additive impact of individual disturbances. The aim of this study is to examine how compounded Dendroctonus rufipennis (spruce beetle; SB) outbreak followed by fire and compounded wind blowdown followed by fire ...


The Sylvan Blindspot: The Archaeological Value Of Surface Vegetation And A Critique Of Its Documentation, John S. Harris 2018 The University Of Montana

The Sylvan Blindspot: The Archaeological Value Of Surface Vegetation And A Critique Of Its Documentation, John S. Harris

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Surface vegetation at archaeological sites is a resource overlooked in cultural resource management. Drawing upon comparative documentary surveys of site forms and human surveys of 161 archaeologists in 12 U.S. states, this thesis explores why surface vegetation offers archaeological data potential; how archaeological documentation is an artifact of archaeologists, shaped by various subjectivities; and how improvements can be made for vegetal description in cultural inventory site forms. The surveys offer a critique on how the site form records are a product of disciplinary training oversights, differing work background experience, cultural bias, limitations in botanical knowledge, regional differences in U ...


Emerging Use Of Single-Channel Short Wave Infrared Imaging For Sea Ice Detection, Nicholas S. Lewis 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Emerging Use Of Single-Channel Short Wave Infrared Imaging For Sea Ice Detection, Nicholas S. Lewis

Geography Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This work assesses the feasibility of using a single channel shortwave infrared (SWIR) approach to detect and chart sea ice in Hudson Bay using GOES-16 data as a proxy for overhead persistent infrared. While not traditionally exploited for sea ice remote sensing, the availability of near continuous shortwave infrared data streams over the Arctic from overhead persistent infrared (OPIR) satellites could provide an invaluable source of information regarding the changing Arctic climate. Traditionally used for the purpose of missile warning and strategic defense, characteristics of OPIR make it an attractive source for Arctic remote sensing as the temporal resolution can ...


Variability Of Ground Heat Flux At Tiksi Station, Sara Marie Morris 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Variability Of Ground Heat Flux At Tiksi Station, Sara Marie Morris

Geography Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This study examines the spatial variability in ground heat flux measured at four sites in the vicinity of the Russian Arctic meteorological observatory at Tiksi during a full annual cycle in 2016. Nine land cover types were identified surrounding the Tiksi observatory using a map acquired from World View via the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). FMI found that land cover types vary in the vicinity of the observatory on scales of meters, implying that this information needs to be taken into account to properly upscale point measurements for comparisons to models. The ground heat flux was calculated using flux plates ...


Rapid Expansion Of Greenland’S Low-Permeability Ice Slabs In A Warming Climate, Michael John MacFerrin 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Rapid Expansion Of Greenland’S Low-Permeability Ice Slabs In A Warming Climate, Michael John Macferrin

Geography Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Recent increases in Greenland’s glacial melt have accelerated runoff and become Greenland’s dominant mechanism of ice loss. More meltwater is being generated in the ice sheet’s lower accumulation zone, which has begun to anneal ice lenses found within the porous firn and form continuous low-permeability ice slabs (LPISs). LPISs are layers of ice meters thick that inhibit water percolating beneath them, extend horizontally for tens of kilometers, and can cause runoff from regions where water previously refroze. LPISs form on decadal timescales and have the potential to quickly increase the extent of Greenland’s runoff zone. I ...


Geochemistry Of Archaeological And Marine Environments In Southwest Maine, Heather L. Bushie 2018 University of Southern Maine

Geochemistry Of Archaeological And Marine Environments In Southwest Maine, Heather L. Bushie

Thinking Matters Symposium

Two archaeological excavations for the University of Southern Maine collected sediment columns from select units for geological and chemical analysis. The Spiller Farms site is a Native American site located in Wells, Maine marking a transition period between the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs, 12,000 BP. The Malaga Island site was a historic mixed-race community at the north end of Casco Bay where sediment columns were obtained in near-shore and subtidal zones. The samples obtained from Malaga Island have been radiocarbon dated to 3800 +/- 30 BP at 23 meters below the low-tide line. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is being conducted ...


Landscape And Climate Drivers Of Harmful Algal Blooms In Iowa, Aaron Padilla 2018 University of Northern Iowa

Landscape And Climate Drivers Of Harmful Algal Blooms In Iowa, Aaron Padilla

Theses and Dissertations @ UNI

Insuring the safety of our water for consumption and recreation is a crucial but extremely difficult and resource intensive activity of environmental protection agencies. One of the ways our water is at risk is through the increased frequency, and intensity of harmful algal blooms (HABs). When CyanoHABs occur, they can produce a toxic byproduct, most notably microcystin in freshwater, which can be harmful to humans and animals. Previous research has indicated these blooms are driven by increased eutrophication of water bodies, the excess loading of nutrients. In Iowa, the main driver of CyanoHABs in most watersheds is agricultural runoff, which ...


Consideration Of Elevation Uncertainty In Coastal Flood Models, Christopher Joseph Amante 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Consideration Of Elevation Uncertainty In Coastal Flood Models, Christopher Joseph Amante

Geography Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Digital elevation models (DEMs) are critical components of coastal flood models. Both present-day storm surge models and future flood risk models require these representations of the Earth’s elevation surface to delineate potentially flooded areas. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) develops DEMs for United States’ coastal communities by seamlessly integrating bathymetric and topographic data sets of disparate age, quality, and measurement density. A current limitation of the NOAA NCEI DEMs is the accompanying non-spatial metadata, which only provide estimates of the measurement uncertainty of each data set utilized in the development of ...


Regional Climate Model Evaluation System Powered By Apache Open Climate Workbench V1.3.0: An Enabling Tool For Facilitating Regional Climate Studies, Huikyo Lee, Alexander Goodman, Lewis McGibbney, Duane E. Waliser, Jinwon Kim, Paul C. Loikith, Peter B. Gibson, Elias C. Massoud 2018 California Institute of Technology

Regional Climate Model Evaluation System Powered By Apache Open Climate Workbench V1.3.0: An Enabling Tool For Facilitating Regional Climate Studies, Huikyo Lee, Alexander Goodman, Lewis Mcgibbney, Duane E. Waliser, Jinwon Kim, Paul C. Loikith, Peter B. Gibson, Elias C. Massoud

Geography Faculty Publications and Presentations

The Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES) is an enabling tool of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to support the United States National Climate Assessment. As a comprehensive system for evaluating climate models on regional and continental scales using observational datasets from a variety of sources, RCMES is designed to yield information on the performance of climate models and guide their improvement. Here, we present a user-oriented document describing the latest version of RCMES, its development process, and future plans for improvements. The main objective of RCMES is to facilitate the climate model evaluation process at regional scales. RCMES ...


Satellite Remote Sensing Of Woody And Herbaceous Leaf Area For Improved Understanding Of Forage Resources And Fire In Africa, Milkah Njoki Kahiu 2018 South Dakota State University

Satellite Remote Sensing Of Woody And Herbaceous Leaf Area For Improved Understanding Of Forage Resources And Fire In Africa, Milkah Njoki Kahiu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) tree-grass systems commonly referred to as savannas dominating drylands, play a critical role in social, cultural, economic and environmental systems. These coupled natural-human systems support millions of people through pastoralism, are important global biodiversity hotspots and play a critical role in global biogeochemical cycles. Despite the importance of SSA savannas, they have been marginalized for years as most governments neglect dryland resources in favor of agricultural research and development assistance. Hence, lack of spatially and temporally accurate information on the status and trends in savanna resources has led to poor planning and management. This scenario calls ...


Quantification Of Understory Fuels In The Superior National Forest Using Lidar Data, Jeffrey R. irwin 2018 South Dakota State University

Quantification Of Understory Fuels In The Superior National Forest Using Lidar Data, Jeffrey R. Irwin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fire is a natural part of the ecosystems in the Great Lakes region. Several factors including harvesting, insect outbreaks, and fire suppression have had an impact on these ecosystems. Of particular concern is the rise in the proportion of shade tolerant species, such as balsam fir. Because of its resinous bark and easily ignited needles, balsam fir is flammable. Additionally, balsam fir is vulnerable to spruce budworm infestation, which leads to additional fuel loading from needle cast. Detecting increases in fire risk is important to fire managers in Superior National Forest for many reasons. Determining the amount and extent of ...


Expansion Of Major Urban Areas In The Us Great Plains From 2000 To 2009 Using Satellite Scatterometer Data, Lan H. Nguyen, Son V. Nghiem, Geoffrey M. Henebry 2018 South Dakota State University

Expansion Of Major Urban Areas In The Us Great Plains From 2000 To 2009 Using Satellite Scatterometer Data, Lan H. Nguyen, Son V. Nghiem, Geoffrey M. Henebry

GSCE Faculty Publications

A consistent dataset delineating and characterizing changes in urban environments will be valuable for socioeconomic and environmental research and for sustainable urban development. Remotely sensed data have been long used to map urban extent and infrastructure at various spatial and spectral resolutions. Although many datasets and approaches have been tried, there is not yet a universal way to map urban extents across the world. Here we combined a microwave scatterometer (QuikSCAT) dataset at ~1 km posting with percent impervious surface area (%ISA) data from the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) that was generated from Landsat data, and ambient population data ...


Quantifying Undisturbed (Native) Lands In Northwestern South Dakota: 2013, Pete Bauman, Benjamin Carlson, Tanner Butler, Brad Richardson 2018 South Dakota State University

Quantifying Undisturbed (Native) Lands In Northwestern South Dakota: 2013, Pete Bauman, Benjamin Carlson, Tanner Butler, Brad Richardson

Quantifying Undisturbed (Native) Lands in Northwestern South Dakota: 2013

We employed simple GIS methods primarily utilizing the South Dakota Farm Service Agency’s Common Land Unit (CLU) data layers from 2013 and the 2012 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) county mosaic aerial imagery to evaluate 7,347,812 acres of land in northwestern South Dakota. The analysis area includes: Harding, Perkins, and Butte counties along with portions of Lawrence and Meade counties outside of the Black Hills Core Highlands and Plateau Ecoregions.

We utilized the FSA CLU data layer queried to show current and former cropland to identify and remove any areas with ...


Mapping And Risk Assessment Of Juniper Encroachment Into A Prairie Landscape, Kyle D. Kaskie 2018 South Dakota State University

Mapping And Risk Assessment Of Juniper Encroachment Into A Prairie Landscape, Kyle D. Kaskie

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Juniper encroachment is a considerable threat to the prairie ecosystems of the Great Plains because it has the potential to alter native grasslands by changing soil characteristics, limiting herbaceous biomass, and hindering native community regeneration. Accurate maps of juniper cover and predictions of areas at risk for future expansion are needed to support proactive management measures. Therefore, our objectives are to: (1) Develop a practical workflow for large-scale juniper mapping using Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) imagery and partial unmixing techniques, (2) Compare the classification accuracies from the resulting map based on different juniper density thresholds and different types ...


Geomorphic Consequences Of Hydroelectricity And Transportation Development Near Celilo Falls, Lower Mid-Colombia River, Washington, Noah I. Oliver 2018 Central Washington University

Geomorphic Consequences Of Hydroelectricity And Transportation Development Near Celilo Falls, Lower Mid-Colombia River, Washington, Noah I. Oliver

All Master's Theses

Along the Columbia River, hundreds of miles of transportation infrastructure and over sixty hydroelectric dams have been constructed. This altered a rich cultural landscape with evidence of 10,000 years of continuous occupation. Researchers have attempted to understand the impacts of anthropogenic factors on the Columbia River, focusing on the riverine environment. However, the effect of transportation and hydroelectricity developments to eolian landforms on the floodplains and adjoining slopes have not been studied. Focusing on 2,800 acres near Celilo Falls, this study 1) establishes a baseline condition of eolian landforms from 1805 to 1900; 2) conducts an air photo ...


The Origin Of Dark Mats At The Sunrise Ridge Borrow Pit Site (45pi408) Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, Sean Stcherbinine 2018 Central Washington University

The Origin Of Dark Mats At The Sunrise Ridge Borrow Pit Site (45pi408) Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, Sean Stcherbinine

All Master's Theses

The Sunrise Ridge Borrow Pit Site is a precontact archaeological site located in the upland forest soils of Mount Rainier National Park. Site stratigraphy is complicated, consisting of tephra deposits from mostly known origins that are intercalated with dark sediments of unknown origin, referred to here as dark mats. Precontact occupation has been split previously into two components based on the ambiguous depositional history of the dark mats, notably their unknown parent material, depositional environment, and relationship with adjacent tephra strata. Stratigraphic samples from excavation units, features, and one off-site excavation unit was used to investigate these data gaps. Grain ...


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