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Exports And Productivity Selection Effects For Dutch Firms, Henk LM Kox, Hugo Rojas Romogosa 2009 CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis

Exports And Productivity Selection Effects For Dutch Firms, Henk Lm Kox, Hugo Rojas Romogosa

Henk LM Kox

The paper tests whether recent theories of international trade with heterogeneous firms can explain the export patterns in Dutch firm- and plant- level data in manufacturing and services. Recent trade models with heterogeneous firms predict that the export decision of firms is affected by sunk entry costs in foreign markets, with only the most productive firms self-selecting into exports. We test a latent variable model of the export decision by probit regressions and standard OLS panel regressions. Our results support the self-selection prediction. The process further appears to be conditioned by scale effects, market structure and multinational affiliation. Regarding alternative ...


Analytical General Equilibrium Effects Of Energy Policy On Output And Factor Prices, Don Fullerton, Garth Heutel 2009 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Analytical General Equilibrium Effects Of Energy Policy On Output And Factor Prices, Don Fullerton, Garth Heutel

Don Fullerton

Using an analytical general equilibrium model, we find solutions for the effect of energy policy on factor prices as well as output prices. We calibrate the model to the U.S. economy, and we consider a tax on carbon dioxide. By looking at expenditure and income patterns across household groups, we quantify the uses-side and sources-side incidence of the tax. When households are categorized either by annual income or by total annual consumption as a proxy for permanent income, the uses-side incidence is regressive. This result is robust to sensitivity analysis over various parameter values. The sources-side incidence can be ...


Combinations Of Instruments To Achieve Low-Carbon Vehicle-Miles, Don Fullerton, Daniel Karney 2009 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Combinations Of Instruments To Achieve Low-Carbon Vehicle-Miles, Don Fullerton, Daniel Karney

Don Fullerton

In cases where the first-best carbon tax and a reasonable second-best gasoline tax are unavailable, this paper demonstrates how alternative combinations of instruments can form economically-sound, environmentally-motivated policies for substantial reductions in vehicle carbon emissions. In order to implement alternative approaches successfully, our point is that policymakers may need to take a holistic approach when designing policy. This holistic approach would recognise that policies to reduce carbon emissions must be politically feasible, and that all sectors of the economy generate carbon emissions. A holistic approach would not focus just on one method of abatement, like encouraging low-carbon vehicle technologies, but ...


Tax And Subsidy Combinations For The Control Of Car Pollution, Don Fullerton, Sarah West 2009 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Tax And Subsidy Combinations For The Control Of Car Pollution, Don Fullerton, Sarah West

Don Fullerton

Despite technological advances, an individual car’s emissions still cannot be measured reliably enough to impose a Pigovian tax. This paper explores alternative market incentives that could be used instead. We solve for second-best combinations of uniform taxes on gasoline, engine size, and vehicle age. For 1,261 individuals and cars in the 1994 Consumer Expenditure Survey, we record the car’s model, year, and number of cylinders. We then seek a corresponding car in data from the California Air Resources Board that shows the car’s engine size, fuel efficiency, and emissions per mile. We calculate the welfare improvement ...


The General Equilibrium Incidence Of Environmental Mandates, Don Fullerton, Garth Heutel 2009 University of Texas at Austin

The General Equilibrium Incidence Of Environmental Mandates, Don Fullerton, Garth Heutel

Don Fullerton

Pollution regulations affect factor demands, relative returns, production, and output prices. In our model, one sector includes pollution as an input that can be a complement or substitute for labor or capital. For each type of mandate, we find conditions where more burden is on labor or on capital. Stricter regulation does not always place less burden on the better substitute for pollution. Also, restrictions on pollution per unit output create an “output-subsidy effect” on factor prices that can reverse the usual output and substitution effects. We find analogous effects for a restriction on pollution per unit capital.


Environmental Taxes, Don Fullerton, Andrew Leicester, Stephen Smith 2009 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Environmental Taxes, Don Fullerton, Andrew Leicester, Stephen Smith

Don Fullerton

This paper provides an overview of key economic issues in the use of taxation as an instrument of environmental policy. Part A reviews economic arguments for using taxes and other market mechanisms in environmental policy, discusses the choice between taxes directly on measured emissions or less-directly related to emissions, and considers the value of the revenue from environmental taxes. We argue that environmental tax revenues do not significantly alter economic constraints on tax policy, and that environmental taxes need to be designed and justified primarily by the cost-effective achievement of environmental goals. Part B discusses key areas where environmental taxes ...


Spatial Variations In The Character Of Off-The-Books Entrepreneurship: Lessons From A Study Of Contrasting Districts In Moscow, Colin C. Williams 2009 University of Sheffield

Spatial Variations In The Character Of Off-The-Books Entrepreneurship: Lessons From A Study Of Contrasting Districts In Moscow, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

Although there is growing recognition that many entrepreneurs start-up trading partially or wholly off-the-books, few have evaluated whether the character of this hidden enterprise culture varies spatially. To begin to do so, this paper evaluates whether and how the nature of off-the-books entrepreneurship differs across an affluent, mixed and deprived district of Moscow. Drawing upon 313 face-to-face interviews, the finding is that wholly legitimate enterprises represent just the tip of the iceberg in Moscow. Beneath the surface in all the districts is a large hidden enterprise culture. However, off-the-books entrepreneurship in the affluent district is comprised more of registered businesses ...


Explaining The Off-The-Books Enterprise Culture Of Ukraine: Reluctant Or Willing Entrepreneurship?, Colin C. Williams 2009 University of Sheffield

Explaining The Off-The-Books Enterprise Culture Of Ukraine: Reluctant Or Willing Entrepreneurship?, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

In recent years, there has been a growing realisation that beyond the realm of legitimate entrepreneurship is a large hidden enterprise culture composed of entrepreneurs conducting some or all of their trade off-the-books. Until now, however, few have evaluated how many entrepreneurs start-up their ventures trading off-the-books and why they do so. Reporting face-to-face interviews conducted in Ukraine during 2005-06 with 331 entrepreneurs, the finding is not only that the vast majority (90%) operate partially or wholly off-the-books but also that they are not all driven by necessity and as a last resort and survival strategy into entrepreneurship. Revealing how ...


Joining Up The Fight Against Undeclared Work In Europe, Colin C. Williams 2009 University of Sheffield

Joining Up The Fight Against Undeclared Work In Europe, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

Report to the European Commission on the feasibility of creating a platform for cooperation between labour inspectorates and other relevant monitoring and enforcement bodies, to prevent and fight undeclared work


Entrepreneurship And The Informal Economy: An Overview, Colin C. Williams 2009 University of Sheffield

Entrepreneurship And The Informal Economy: An Overview, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

In recent decades, the field of entrepreneurship studies has become increasingly interested in the relationship between entrepreneurship and the informal economy. This paper reviews this burgeoning sub-field of entrepreneurship studies that recognizes how entrepreneurs do not always conduct their business affairs wholly by the rulebook. Evaluating this rapidly growing body of literature, it reviews the findings regarding the preponderance of entrepreneurs to engage in the informal economy, the nature of such informal entrepreneurship, the characteristics of informal entrepreneurs and the motives underpinning participation in such endeavor, along with the competing theories that have sought to explain engagement in this type ...


Should Income Transfers Be Targeted Or Universal? Insights From Public Pension Influences On Elderly Mortality In Canada, 1921–1966, Jesse A. Matheson, J.C. Herbert Emery 2009 University of Calgary

Should Income Transfers Be Targeted Or Universal? Insights From Public Pension Influences On Elderly Mortality In Canada, 1921–1966, Jesse A. Matheson, J.C. Herbert Emery

Jesse A Matheson

We investigate the impact of Canada’s means-tested and universal public pension programs on the mortality rates of recipient age groups for the period 1921–1966. We find that only the universal program significantly reduced recipient age group mortality rates. The implied social value of the mortality risk reduction from this program is onetenth of the value per statistical life associated with contemporary government policy, meaning that Canadians did not need to place a high value on the life of a senior to justify the higher cost of the universal program.


Innovations, Off-Shoring And Specialization, Ioannis Bournakis, Michela Vecchi, Francesco Venturini 2009 Middlesex University - U.K.

Innovations, Off-Shoring And Specialization, Ioannis Bournakis, Michela Vecchi, Francesco Venturini

Francesco Venturini

This paper investigates the role of innovations in affecting specialisation by allowing countries to rely not only on their traditional factor endowments but also on their abilities to increase their stock of knowledge (R&D) and technologically advanced (ICT) capital, and on their abilities to access resources in other countries (off-shoring). By looking at measures of specialisation based on industry shares of GDP or total employment, we present evidence for 18 manufacturing and service industries, using data for the US, Japan and the largest EU countries for the period 1990-2005. Our results suggest that accumulating ICT or R&D at the industry level enhances both relative employment and value added and that, in some cases, national endowments of such inputs may reinforce this effect. On the other side, intraindustry purchases of off-shored inputs (so called narrow off-shoring) are more beneficial for value added than for occupation shares; this contrasts with evidence obtained for the broad off-shoring of material and service inputs, whose occupational effects translate one-to-one into changes in industry shares of GDP.


El Mercado De Valores Chileno: Análisis Y Propuestas En El Ámbito Tributario, Claudio A. Agostini, Carlos Budnevich 2009 Universidad Adolfo Ibañez

El Mercado De Valores Chileno: Análisis Y Propuestas En El Ámbito Tributario, Claudio A. Agostini, Carlos Budnevich

Claudio A. Agostini

A partir de un marco tributario que considera tanto los objetivos de la política tributaria de un país como sus efectos, en este trabajo se analizan los distintos impuestos que afectan al mercado de capitales en Chile. Dicho análisis, junto a una exhaustiva revisión de la literatura económica en este tema, tanto teórica como empírica, dan lugar a un conjunto de propuestas que permitirían reducir las potenciales distorsiones que introducen los impuestos en el mercado de valores en Chile actualmente, y que harían más eficiente su funcionamiento.


Europe, Like America. The Challenges Of Building A Democratic Federation, Josep M. Colomer 2009 Georgetown University

Europe, Like America. The Challenges Of Building A Democratic Federation, Josep M. Colomer

Josep M. Colomer

No abstract provided.


Naar Een Monitor Voor De Sociale Economie In Vlaanderen, Wim Van Opstal, Eva Deraedt 2009 CESOC, Leuven University College

Naar Een Monitor Voor De Sociale Economie In Vlaanderen, Wim Van Opstal, Eva Deraedt

Wim Van Opstal

In de loop van 2009 werd aan het HIVA – Onderzoeksinstituut voor Arbeid en Samenleving (KULeuven) in de schoot van het Steunpunt Werk en Sociale Economie een monitor voor de sociale inschakelingseconomie opgesteld (Deraedt & Van Opstal, 2009a, b). Het ontwerp van deze monitor volgt daarbij de conceptualisering van de sociale economie, zoals eerder uitgewerkt in een technisch voorrapport door Gijselinckx & Van den Broeck (2008). Bij de uitdraai van de monitor werden verschillende administratieve databanken aan elkaar gekoppeld, wat ons toelaat een profielschets van de sector op te stellen op ondernemingsniveau en op het niveau van haar doelgroepmedewerkers. Daarnaast werd ook een ...


The Journey To Safety: Conflict-Driven Migration Flows In Colombia, Gianfranco Piras, Nancy Lozano-Gracia, Geoffrey Hewings, Ana Maria Ibanez 2009 Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University

The Journey To Safety: Conflict-Driven Migration Flows In Colombia, Gianfranco Piras, Nancy Lozano-Gracia, Geoffrey Hewings, Ana Maria Ibanez

Gianfranco Piras

No abstract provided.


Del Baldo In Baldarelli Mg Civil Economy Democracy And Social And Environmental Accounting Research Role, Mara Del Baldo 2009 University of Urbino

Del Baldo In Baldarelli Mg Civil Economy Democracy And Social And Environmental Accounting Research Role, Mara Del Baldo

mara del baldo

No abstract provided.


Book Review: The Street Porter And The Philosopher: Conversations On Analytical Egalitarianism, Karl Widerquist 2009 Georgetown University-Qatar

Book Review: The Street Porter And The Philosopher: Conversations On Analytical Egalitarianism, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


On Equilibrium Existence With Endogenous Restricted Financial Participation, Abdelkrim Seghir Dr., Juan Pablo Torres-Martinez 2009 University of Chile

On Equilibrium Existence With Endogenous Restricted Financial Participation, Abdelkrim Seghir Dr., Juan Pablo Torres-Martinez

Abdelkrim Seghir Dr.

Without requiring either financial survival assumptions or linear spanning conditions over financial spaces, we prove equilibrium existence in an abstract incomplete market economy with endogenous restricted financial participation. We apply our results to general financial structures including nominal, real and collateralized asset markets.


The Elasticity Of Substitution Between Skilled And Unskilled Labor In Developing Countries Is About 2, Alberto Behar 2009 International Monetary Fund

The Elasticity Of Substitution Between Skilled And Unskilled Labor In Developing Countries Is About 2, Alberto Behar

Alberto Behar

We develop a model of endogenous skill-biased technical change in developing countries. The model reconciles wildly dispersed existing estimates of the elasticity of substitution between more and less educated workers. It also produces an estimating equation for the elasticity, which allow us to produce overdue estimates for developing countries. With four types of data, elasticity estimates for developing countries are consistently about 2. In a skill-biased technical change framework, this estimate makes sense of what appears to be little or no correlation between relative skill supply and wage inequality.


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