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Free Trade Is Not Free: A Case For Fair Trade, Wardah Javaid Cheema 2023 University of Denver

Free Trade Is Not Free: A Case For Fair Trade, Wardah Javaid Cheema

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

To this day, mainstream economists favor free trade policies as the best way to generate economic development. They do so at the expense of their unjustified romanticization of reductionist classical trade theories. This thesis seeks to comprehend the constraints of traditional trade theories and their inability to be applied to practical contemporary problems. Further, contrary to the fundamental assumption of free trade theory, there is ample evidence of government intervention in free trade agreements. These interventions solely encourage and protect large corporations and investors rather than the actual development and sustainability factors, namely labor and the environment. It all adds …


Provisional Measures In Aid Of Arbitration, Ronald A. Brand 2023 University of Pittsburgh School of Law

Provisional Measures In Aid Of Arbitration, Ronald A. Brand

Articles

The success of the New York Convention has made arbitration a preferred means of dispute resolution for international commercial transactions. Success in arbitration often depends on the extent to which a party may secure assets, evidence, or the status quo between parties prior to the completion of the arbitration process. This makes the availability of provisional measures granted by either arbitral tribunals or by courts fundamental to the arbitration. In this Article, I consider the existing legal framework for provisional measures in aid of arbitration, with particular attention to the sources of the rules providing for such measures. Those sources …


Leadership And Performance In Informal Institutions: The Internal Dynamics Of Brics, Zhen 'Arc' Han, Mihaela Papa 2023 Sacred Heart University

Leadership And Performance In Informal Institutions: The Internal Dynamics Of Brics, Zhen 'Arc' Han, Mihaela Papa

Political Science & Global Affairs Faculty Publications

How does leadership affect the performance of informal institutions? Leadership in BRICS is particularly puzzling: this informal institution rapidly grows despite the disparate interests of its members, some of which are in longstanding conflict. This article examines how three forms of leadership – intellectual, entrepreneurial, and structural – affect institutional performance using BRICS cooperation data. It demonstrates the importance of intellectual leadership, particularly in strategically framing the cooperation problem in a way that creates mutual gains, as essential for realising collective outcomes in informal institutions. Collective action is catalyzed through the interplay of the three leadership forms. However, the activating …


Determinants Of Profitability Of Commercial Bank In Afghanistan, Mohammad Osman Saeedi 2023 Bard College

Determinants Of Profitability Of Commercial Bank In Afghanistan, Mohammad Osman Saeedi

Senior Projects Fall 2023

Over the past two decades, the global financial sector, particularly the banking industry, has undergone significant transformations impacting its performance. Recognizing the pivotal role of the financial sector in economic growth, this study focuses on Afghanistan's banking sector, tracing its roots to the establishment of the first commercial banking institution, Bank Millie Afghan, in 1933. Following decades of war, the banking sector experienced revitalization after 2001, marked by the emergence of a new government, international aid inflow, and increased business activities. Despite remarkable growth, Afghanistan's banking sector faces challenges such as security concerns, cultural issues, and a developing banking culture. …


Growth And Risk: A View From International Trade, Pravin KRISHNA, Andrei A. LEVCHEKO, Lin MA, William F. MALONEY 2023 Johns Hopkins University

Growth And Risk: A View From International Trade, Pravin Krishna, Andrei A. Levcheko, Lin Ma, William F. Maloney

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper studies the cross-country patterns of risky innovation and growth through the lens of international trade. We use a simple theoretical framework of risky quality upgrading by firms under varying levels of financial development to derive two predictions. First, the mean rate of quality growth and the corresponding cross-sectional variance of quality growth in a country are positively correlated. Second, both the mean and variance of quality changes are positively correlated with the country’s level of financial development. We then test these two hypotheses using data on disaggregated (HS10) bilateral exports to the United States. The patterns in the …


Climate Justice In The Anthropocene And Its Relationship With Science And Technology: The Importance Of Ethics Of Responsibility, Paolo Davide Farah, Alessio Lo Giudice 2023 West Virginia University (WV, USA); gLAWcal - Global Law Initiatives for Sustainable Development (UK); University of Pittsburgh School of Law (PA, USA)

Climate Justice In The Anthropocene And Its Relationship With Science And Technology: The Importance Of Ethics Of Responsibility, Paolo Davide Farah, Alessio Lo Giudice

Articles

Climate change is a global phenomenon. Therefore, globalization is the necessary hermeneutical horizon to develop an analysis of the metamorphosis climate change could cause at a political, social, and economic level. Within this horizon, this Article shows how the relationship between the concept of the Anthropocene epoch and the request for justice allows for framing a climate-justice and intergenerational equity–focused political interpretation of the effects of climate change. In order to avoid reducing such an interpretation to merely an ideological critique of capitalism, the conception of climate justice needs to be grounded in a rational, ethical model. This Article proposes …


Are Debt-Holders Effective Monitoring Agents In Strategic Alliance Formations?, Malika Chaudhuri, Jay J. Janney 2023 Oakland University

Are Debt-Holders Effective Monitoring Agents In Strategic Alliance Formations?, Malika Chaudhuri, Jay J. Janney

International Review of Business and Economics

When undertaking strategic alliances, managers face a fundamental choice to pursue alliances that allow them to exploit the value of current firm assets or alliances that allow them to explore new trajectories for the firm. To answer this question, we tested our proposed theoretical framework using 652 US-based publicly traded pharmaceutical firms between 1990 and 2012. Findings suggest that exploitation alliances have higher impact on firm performance in the short and long run than exploration alliances. Consistent with the debt overhang problem presented by Myers (1977), our findings confirm that high-leverage firms have a higher inclination toward exploitation alliance formations …


What Type Of Central Banker Dampens The Political Business Cycle? The Case Of Africa, Christine Strong 2023 Old Dominion University

What Type Of Central Banker Dampens The Political Business Cycle? The Case Of Africa, Christine Strong

Economics Faculty Publications

This article investigates the extent to which central bank independence can help to reduce political business cycles in Africa. Like previous studies, we find evidence of political cycles in our sample of 34 African countries for the period 1980–2018, but our findings show that politicians' ability to manipulate both fiscal and monetary policy depends on the degree of alliance between the fiscal authority and the monetary authority. Indeed, our analysis reveals that the political business cycle worsens when the central banker is an ally whereas a non‐ally central banker is associated with a decrease in the ability of the incumbent …


Chinese Yuan Interest Rate Swap Yields, Tanweer Akram, Khawaja Mamun 2023 Citibank

Chinese Yuan Interest Rate Swap Yields, Tanweer Akram, Khawaja Mamun

WCBT Faculty Publications

This paper models the dynamics of Chinese yuan–denominated long-term interest rate swap yields. It shows that the short-term interest rate exerts a decisive influence on the long-term swap yield after controlling for various macrofinancial variables, such as core inflation, the growth of industrial production, the percent change in the equity price index, and the percentage change in the Chinese yuan exchange rate. The autoregressive distributed lag approach is applied to model the dynamics of the long-term swap yield. The findings reinforce and extend John Maynard Keynes’s conjecture that in advanced countries, as well as emerging market economies such as China, …


Balancing Trade And Security During The Us-China Trade War: A Gravity Model Approach To South Korea’S Relations With The United States And China, Nathalie Chavez 2023 Claremont Colleges

Balancing Trade And Security During The Us-China Trade War: A Gravity Model Approach To South Korea’S Relations With The United States And China, Nathalie Chavez

CMC Senior Theses

In analyzing monthly trade and gross domestic product (GDP) data for South Korea, China, and the United States from January 2016 to December 2019, this paper attempts to quantify the effects of the US-China Trade War on Korea’s security and economic considerations. By using a three-country gravity model with both monthly and HS Code (harmonized system) fixed effects, it finds the following. First, increases in both real GDP for the United States and China, as well as real GDP for Korea, are positively associated with increases in Korean exports at statistically significant levels. Thus, the general predictions of the gravity …


Noneconomic Objectives, Global Value Chains And International Cooperation, Bernard M. Hoekman, Petros C. Mavroidis, Douglas R. Nelson 2023 European University Institute, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies (RSCAS)

Noneconomic Objectives, Global Value Chains And International Cooperation, Bernard M. Hoekman, Petros C. Mavroidis, Douglas R. Nelson

Faculty Scholarship

Systemic conflicts increasingly affect the global value chains (GVCs) underpinning globalization by creating policy uncertainty and politicizing trade and investment decisions. Unilateral policies to attain competitiveness and noneconomic objectives (NEOs), including national security, create incentives for international cooperation to attenuate policy spillovers. Recent initiatives seeking to do so are organized around supply chain governance and need not be anchored in trade agreements. Whether such cooperation is feasible and can be designed to be effective in realizing NEOs is unclear. Plurilateral GVC-centered cooperation offers a potential path for states to pursue NEOs and reduce policy uncertainty for international business. Research offers …


Carbon Leakage: Evidence From French Trade Data, Jared Gibbs 2023 University of Montana

Carbon Leakage: Evidence From French Trade Data, Jared Gibbs

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Pollution leakage has existed as a concern of both trade theory and domestic policy since questions of the environmental impact of economic activity entered the literature. With the growing threat of climate change and the proliferation of carbon pricing policies around the world, the value of robust estimate of the extent of carbon leakage is particularly acute. Using a pseudo poisson maximum-likelihood (PPML) estimator, I examine French trade volumes to identify potential evidence of carbon leakage. To that end, the net carbon tax between France and its trading partners is regressed on the trade volume in 318 carbon intensive goods. …


Subjective Well-Being And Intergenerational Mobility In South Africa, Alison J. Monroe 2023 University of Montana, Missoula

Subjective Well-Being And Intergenerational Mobility In South Africa, Alison J. Monroe

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Using data on individuals from the National Income Dynamics Study (NIDS), this paper analyzes the relationship between intergenerational mobility and subjective well-being for two cohorts of South Africans. Subjective well-being has been measured using a multitude of factors, but the impact of changing economic mobility on reported life satisfaction has been less explored in the context of South Africa. Education and social mobility are the two mobility variables used to understand how changes in economic status relative to one’s parents affect self-reported well-being. This paper utilizes three methods of regression analysis for comparisons: cross-sectional, pooled cross-sectional, and panel (fixed effects …


A Philosophical And Empirical Investigation Into Buddhist Economics, Hannah Doyle 2023 Claremont Colleges

A Philosophical And Empirical Investigation Into Buddhist Economics, Hannah Doyle

CMC Senior Theses

There is a growing body of literature on Buddhist economics from a philosophical perspective; however, no work to date has sought to empirically validate it as an effective economic theory at a global scale. In my paper, I draw on the long history of Buddhist metaphysics to construct an account of Buddhist ethics and then proceed to derive a set of Buddhist economic principles. I draw on the World Happiness Report’s methodology to quantitatively demonstrate the relationship between Buddhist economic principles and the psychological wellbeing of a country’s citizens, as measured through their own evaluation of their quality of life …


Finding Answers In Gaps: The Relationship Between Drugs And Mexico's Economy, Mariela Centeno 2023 Claremont McKenna College

Finding Answers In Gaps: The Relationship Between Drugs And Mexico's Economy, Mariela Centeno

CMC Senior Theses

This paper sets out to understand the economic conditions that paved the way for the evolution and resilience of a powerful and resilient drug economy in Mexico. To do this, I examine the relationship between a proxy for drug movement from Mexico and large economic variables in the country. I use a dataset that incorporates the drug seizures from 1997 to 2022 to understand whether privatization and the resulting rising economic inequalities in Mexico paved the way for a growing drug economy. This paper builds on current literature regarding drug market estimates and drug economy interactions. Using an OLS regression …


The Effect Of Free Trade Agreements On Innovation: Evidence From Us Bilateral Free Trade Agreements With Australia, Chile, Singapore, And South Korea, Cameron Stevens 2023 Claremont Colleges

The Effect Of Free Trade Agreements On Innovation: Evidence From Us Bilateral Free Trade Agreements With Australia, Chile, Singapore, And South Korea, Cameron Stevens

CMC Senior Theses

This paper combines two datasets to identify the effect of joining a bilateral Free Trade Agreement with the United States on innovation in four select countries: Australia, Chile, Singapore, and South Korea. Using an probability concordance developed by Lybbert and Zolas (2014), I map the number of patents recorded by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) into four digit North-American-Industry-Classification-System (NAICS) codes, which are then combined with industry level trade data from the US International Trade Committee (USITC). Using a difference-in-differences regression model, I estimate that joining an FTA increases the number of annual patent filings by 44 in a …


Did Demonetization Have A Bigger Impact On Ppis (Prepaid Payment Instruments) Or Mobile Banking In India?, Ansh Vora 2023 Claremont Colleges

Did Demonetization Have A Bigger Impact On Ppis (Prepaid Payment Instruments) Or Mobile Banking In India?, Ansh Vora

CMC Senior Theses

On November 8, 2016, Narendra Modi, prime minister of India, tele-advertised the entire nation and announced that India's highest value banknotes, the 500 and 1000 rupee “Rs” notes would be demonetized and taken out of circulation, effective midnight. Modi stated that this is an effort to reduce the large economy of black money, transition India into a digital economy, abolish funding of terrorist groups and illicit circulation of counterfeit notes. In this study, I choose to analyze the impact of demonetization on two digital payment methods - Prepaid Payment Instruments, “PPI” and Mobile Banking. The data used in this study …


Impact Of Demand For H1b Visas In The Us On The Performance Of Listed Indian Firms, Jayaditya Shekhar Maliye 2023 Claremont Colleges

Impact Of Demand For H1b Visas In The Us On The Performance Of Listed Indian Firms, Jayaditya Shekhar Maliye

CMC Senior Theses

This thesis examines the relationship between Indian firm performance and the demand for H1B visas in the US. To test this relationship, a fixed effects model has been used on a panel dataset of 104 Indian firms listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and National Stock Exchange of India (NSE) over the period 2009 to 2021. The results show that an increase in H1B visa demand is negatively and significantly associated with Indian firm performance. These findings suggest that the US’s demand for high skilled labor overseas has consequences for firms in the home country.


Southeast Asia & The Hidden Green Revolution: A Study On Foreign Direct Investment In Eco-Investments In Asean, Ravi Chailertborisuth 2022 The University of San Francisco

Southeast Asia & The Hidden Green Revolution: A Study On Foreign Direct Investment In Eco-Investments In Asean, Ravi Chailertborisuth

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper aims to find: To what extent foreign direct investment is fueling the renewable energy transition in ASEAN. The year 1966 saw the founding of ASEAN, the Association for Southeast Asian Nations. The five founding member nations were: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Over time, this group of nations grew to include nations such as: Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Brunei, and Myanmar. The IGO (inter-governmental organization) aims to foster “economic, social, cultural, technical, educational and other fields” (ASEAN). The IGO is successful, allowing capital to flow cross-borders with more ease, and encourage economic corporation across all nations. Since …


Trade And Transfer Of Environmentally Sound Technology In Asean: Mapping Priorities To Economic Treaty Negotiations, Locknie HSU 2022 Singapore Management University

Trade And Transfer Of Environmentally Sound Technology In Asean: Mapping Priorities To Economic Treaty Negotiations, Locknie Hsu

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

The 10 members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (“ASEAN”) share common objectives in economic, sociocultural and political-security integration. Addressing environmental concerns is animportant consideration which traverses different areas of integration policymaking. ASEAN has, in recent years, emphasised the importance of environmental considerations, including environmentally sound technologies (“ESTs”) which may contribute to its climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts, in its law and policymaking. This article discusses the nexus between ASEAN’s needs for the transfer of ESTs and the group’s economic treaty negotiations. Through a “mapping” of such needs to free trade agreementareas, it aims to provide a pathway …


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