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The Depth Of Preferential Trade Agreements, Pao-Li CHANG, Wei JIN, Kefang YAO 2023 Singapore Management University

The Depth Of Preferential Trade Agreements, Pao-Li Chang, Wei Jin, Kefang Yao

Research Collection School Of Economics

Preferential trade agreements (PTAs) have increased rapidly in number since the 1990s, and have extended their traditional focus on tariff reduction to include deeper integration in policy areas such as competition policy, intellectual property rights, investments, and movement of capital. This paper uses a comprehensive dataset on the content of PTAs to quantify the impacts of the depth of trade agreements on bilateral trade flows and national welfare across the world for the period 1980–2015. The results indicate that agreements that are deeper (by different definitions) contribute to larger trade growth and welfare gains. Furthermore, the results imply that the …


Blue Economy Coastal Resources: Economic Valuation And Governance For Achieving Sustainable Development Goals, Unmana Sarangi 2023 Government of India

Blue Economy Coastal Resources: Economic Valuation And Governance For Achieving Sustainable Development Goals, Unmana Sarangi

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

The research paper entitled "Blue Economy Coastal Resources its Economic Valuation and Governance for Achieving Sustainable Development Goals" is an attempt to define and analyze the concept of Blue Economy, Coastal Resources, its Economic Valuation and Governance and its implications for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs) slated by United Nations. The research study covers aspects such as development of coastal resources for building a blue economy to achieve SDGs, economic valuation of coastal resources to develop appropriate and suitable mechanisms for achieving healthy ocean and its importance for current and future generations, sustainability of coastal resources and coastal management …


Essays On International Trade And Economic Growth, Mateo Hoyos 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Essays On International Trade And Economic Growth, Mateo Hoyos

Doctoral Dissertations

In this dissertation I study the relationship between trade and economic growth, with a focus on developing economies. I specifically provide a critical review of the consensus view in trade and growth, according to which a liberal trade regime is generally the best policy stance to promote growth. In the first essay of this dissertation, I provide evidence that the relationship between trade policy and growth may depend on economic structure: tariff reductions are followed by higher levels of GDP per capita for manufacturer countries, but lower levels for nonmanufacturers. Testing for mechanisms, I find the heterogeneity seems to be …


Regulatory Protection And The Role Of International Cooperation, Yuan MEI 2023 Singapore Management University

Regulatory Protection And The Role Of International Cooperation, Yuan Mei

Research Collection School Of Economics

I develop a general equilibrium framework to analyze the welfare consequences of product regulations and their international harmonization. In my model, raising product standards reduces a negative consumption externality, but also increases the marginal and fixed costs of production. When product standards are set noncooperatively, the effects of standards on other countries' wages and number of firms are not internalized, giving rise to an international inefficiency. The World Trade Organization's nondiscrimination principle of national treatment only partly addresses this inefficiency. Welfare losses from abandoning national treatment average 2.8%, whereas the maximum welfare gains from efficient cooperation average 11.8%.


Evaluating The Effectiveness And Efficiency Of U.S. Foreign Aid, Rebecca Baley 2023 Southeastern University - Lakeland

Evaluating The Effectiveness And Efficiency Of U.S. Foreign Aid, Rebecca Baley

Selected Honors Theses

The U.S. is the top spender in the world when it comes to foreign aid, sending billions of dollars around the world each year. There are many different goals and objectives that the U.S. government hopes to accomplish with their spending. This paper is structured as an extended literature review analyzing previous literature on the topic of U.S. foreign aid spending and the results of these funds around the world to test the effectiveness and efficiency. The process of how the foreign aid budget is set will also be discussed as well as the history of why the U.S. started …


Minimum Exchange Rate And A Negative Interest Rate: The Swiss National Bank’S Unconventional Monetary Policy During Eurozone Volatility, Wally Bargeron 2023 SIT Study Abroad

Minimum Exchange Rate And A Negative Interest Rate: The Swiss National Bank’S Unconventional Monetary Policy During Eurozone Volatility, Wally Bargeron

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Monetary policy is one of the most important tools that a government has to influence its economy. This means the ability for a country to determine their own monetary policy is important to that country’s autonomy. Switzerland has consistently based its decisions on what would afford it the highest level of autonomy, including the decision not to join the European Union and subsequently the decision to retain their own currency.

The Swiss National Bank retains the mandate to keep price levels (inflation) stable, but it is challenged by an appreciating currency. Because the Swiss Franc is a safe-haven currency, money …


Analysis Of The Effects Of Nafta On Rural Farmers In Mexico: Agriculture And Immigration, Kevin Xavier Garcia-Galindo 2023 SIT Study Abroad

Analysis Of The Effects Of Nafta On Rural Farmers In Mexico: Agriculture And Immigration, Kevin Xavier Garcia-Galindo

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This research paper examines the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on agricultural workers in rural Mexico and immigration rates from those regions. The paper aims to investigate the validity of claims regarding the impact of NAFTA on immigration and agriculture, which are often interconnected. By focusing on the rural farming communities of Mexico, the study incorporates ethnographic perspectives to complement existing academic research on NAFTA. The research question explores how NAFTA affected agricultural workers in rural Mexico and its implications for immigration patterns. Through a comprehensive literature review and interviews with individuals involved in rural farming, …


Carbon Credibility: Strategic Opportunities For Asean Regional Industrial Policy In Voluntary Carbon Markets, Bryan Jed Soh 2023 SIT Study Abroad

Carbon Credibility: Strategic Opportunities For Asean Regional Industrial Policy In Voluntary Carbon Markets, Bryan Jed Soh

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Carbon offsets have come under increasing scrutiny due to uncertainties in real carbon abatement, transparency, and fears that it will exacerbate global inequality by allowing the global North to ‘pay to pollute’ through ethically questionable projects in the South. Following Article 2.1.C of the Paris Agreement, this paper argues that the global green transition requires private capital to be fully mobilized through voluntary carbon markets (VCMs). Given that ASEAN states face some of the world’s greatest climate risks while being a fast-growing region, this case study answers the question: how can states play a more proactive role in regulating VCMs …


Unveiling The Impact: Mexico's Decree On Genetically Modified Corn And Its Ramifications On Food Security, Lauren McShea 2023 SIT Study Abroad

Unveiling The Impact: Mexico's Decree On Genetically Modified Corn And Its Ramifications On Food Security, Lauren Mcshea

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This research delves into the repercussions of Mexico's presidential decree in late 2020, which imposed a ban on the human consumption of genetically modified (GM) corn by January 2024. In a trade dispute under the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), the decree has sparked tensions between Mexico and the United States, particularly concerning the disruption of GM corn exports. Beyond trade dynamics, the study aims to address the broader impact on Mexico's food security landscape, exploring the intricate connections between the ban and various factors, including agricultural practices, economic implications, and shifts in the corn market dynamics. This research seeks to …


Cross-Border Technology Investments In Recession, Juliana Yu SUN, Huanhuan ZHENG 2023 Singapore Management University

Cross-Border Technology Investments In Recession, Juliana Yu Sun, Huanhuan Zheng

Research Collection School Of Economics

Utilizing industry-level foreign direct investment (FDI) from 72 source markets to 122 destination markets between 2003 to 2018, we evaluate how cross-border technology investments respond to economic recessions. We find that FDI embedded with intensive research and development (R&D) drops when the destination market is in a recession and the source market is in a normal state and recovers to the pre-recession levels when both destination and source markets are in recession. However, there is little evidence that recessions affect cross-border investments in other aspects of technology measured by the penetration of robots, intellectual property products and information and communications …


How Global Value Chains Affect Economic Output And Unemployment: An Empirical Evidence From Asean Countries, Sri Juli Asdiyanti Samuda 2023 BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik)

How Global Value Chains Affect Economic Output And Unemployment: An Empirical Evidence From Asean Countries, Sri Juli Asdiyanti Samuda

Bulletin of Monetary Economics and Banking

This paper examines the effects of Global Value Chains on economic output and unemployment in ten ASEAN countries from 1999 to 2018. This study provides estimation using the system GMM and panel causality test to determine the effect of GVC thoroughly. The results indicate a positive and significant effect of global value chains on economic output in ASEAN countries. However, the findings also show that global value chains increase unemployment during the observation period. Heterogenous panel non-causality findings suggest that economic output does not affect the level of participation of GVC, but unemployment affects the level of participation in ten …


The Impact Of Fdi And Financial Depth On Eu Regional Growth: Income And Spatial Heterogeneity, Marialena Petrakou, Randolph Luca Bruno, Nick Phelps 2023 European Investment Bank, Luxembourg, Luxembourg

The Impact Of Fdi And Financial Depth On Eu Regional Growth: Income And Spatial Heterogeneity, Marialena Petrakou, Randolph Luca Bruno, Nick Phelps

Economic and Business Review

Background and objective: The paper explores the impact of foreign direct investment and financial development on regional growth at the EU regional level for 2005–2017. Both FDI and financial development are important determinants of the regions’ growth, but not for all EU regions homogeneously. Some EU regions seem to benefit more than others, depending on certain characteristics, which implies that FDI attraction policies need to bear in mind not only country specificities, but also regional specificities, hence confirming the need for developing FDI attraction policies at the subnational level: financial development, capacity building, and Investment Promotion Agencies are key, …


Economic Model Of Unipolar World Order: Divestment In Central And Eastern European Countries, Mariia Lavrovna Gorbunova, Igor Dmitrievich Komarov, Tatiana Dmitrievna Komarova 2023 Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Institute of Economics and Entrepreneurship, International Economics and Customs Affairs, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation

Economic Model Of Unipolar World Order: Divestment In Central And Eastern European Countries, Mariia Lavrovna Gorbunova, Igor Dmitrievich Komarov, Tatiana Dmitrievna Komarova

Economic and Business Review

Research relevance: Investment processes are not free from the influence of the political situation and relations between states. The Central and Eastern European countries (CEE) take part in a liberal segment of the global financial system and have a comparatively peripheral position as latecomers to the EU. Due to this fact their economic model is the most consistent with the principles of the liberal world order.

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess and interpret the investment/divestment process in Central and Eastern European countries and comparable financial systems in the political economy and geopolitical framework to consider the …


Macroeconomic Drivers, Governance, And Foreign Direct Investment In Central And Eastern European Countries (Ceecs), Parfait Bihkongnyuy Beri, Gabriel Mhonyera 2023 Nkafu Policy Institute, Economic Affairs, Yaoundé, Cameroon and Socio-Economic Research Applications and Projects, Washington, D.C, USA

Macroeconomic Drivers, Governance, And Foreign Direct Investment In Central And Eastern European Countries (Ceecs), Parfait Bihkongnyuy Beri, Gabriel Mhonyera

Economic and Business Review

Background and objective: The transition to market-oriented economies in CEECs entailed significant structural economic and institutional reforms. Over the past years, studies have investigated how these reforms affected foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows. However, the evidence remains debatable and varies across countries. This study provides new insights by considering the impact of macroeconomic factors, governance, and the moderating effect of governance on the macroeconomic drivers–FDI nexus.

Methods: A panel of 12 countries from 1991 to 2020 are analysed within the framework of conventional methods and Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR).

Results: Results robustly suggest that gross capital formation, macroeconomic stability, and …


Internationalization And Foreign Direct Divestment Flows In Central And Eastern European Economies, Badar Alam Iqbal, Arti Yadav 2023 Tshwane University of Technology, Department of Economics, Pretoria, South Africa

Internationalization And Foreign Direct Divestment Flows In Central And Eastern European Economies, Badar Alam Iqbal, Arti Yadav

Economic and Business Review

No abstract provided.


Global Energy Consumption: An Analysis Of Variables That Shape Per Capita Usage, Or How Pump Price, Urbanization, And Fossil Fuels Imports Impact Fossil Fuels Consumption Per Capita Across Oecd Countries, Mila Demchyk Savage 2023 Old Dominion University

Global Energy Consumption: An Analysis Of Variables That Shape Per Capita Usage, Or How Pump Price, Urbanization, And Fossil Fuels Imports Impact Fossil Fuels Consumption Per Capita Across Oecd Countries, Mila Demchyk Savage

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Among reasons explaining the importance of studying fossil fuel consumption are: crude oil is a subject of the international commodities market, thus, any fluctuation related to its' availability or price would impact the rest of the World; natural resources like oil, gas, and coal are limited; the extensive use of fossil fuels harms our surroundings, creating many environmental concerns; every human (on average) has been using more energy since 1971 and the trend is expected to continue. The upward trend is not consistent among individual countries. Therefore, the core question of my research is, `Why do some countries consume less …


Never Enough: Eu Military Spending Challenges In The Face Of Open Conflict, Katherine Wallentine 2023 Arcadia University

Never Enough: Eu Military Spending Challenges In The Face Of Open Conflict, Katherine Wallentine

The Journal of International Relations, Peace Studies, and Development

The Russian invasion of Ukraine in February 2022 sent a jolt of tension and anxiety throughout the European Union, as well as the rest of the world. Lawmakers and strategists scrambled to find a suitable response in the immediate aftermath and now, a year later, the conversation continues as to what the best course of action is for the EU. Should it amplify and radically increase its supranational defense budget and if so, how should it accomplish this monumental task? How much of it should fall on the Member States to meet the two percent threshold as laid out by …


Regresi Ambang Untuk Mendalami Pengaruh Nonlinier Kekuatan Pasar Terhadap Pinjaman Bank Di Asean-5, Mahjus Ekananda 2023 Departemen Ilmu Ekonomi, Fakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis, Universitas Indonesia

Regresi Ambang Untuk Mendalami Pengaruh Nonlinier Kekuatan Pasar Terhadap Pinjaman Bank Di Asean-5, Mahjus Ekananda

Jurnal Ekonomi dan Pembangunan Indonesia

Credit distribution has developed rapidly in the ASEAN region and it is largely dominated by the banking sector compared to other financial institutions. This study explores the effects of various changes to the GDP growth regime, firm size, and monetary policy. The objects of this research are commercial banks in ASEAN-5 from year 2010 to 2019. This study utilises the threshold regression method and a single proxy to measure market power. Results of this study found that monetary policy and market forces affect productive credit. Changes in impact that occur are mostly due to different behavior between banks in response …


The Reluctant Feminist: Angela Merkel’S Cautious Leadership, LS Gaiek, Marlyn Garcia 2023 Pepperdine University

The Reluctant Feminist: Angela Merkel’S Cautious Leadership, Ls Gaiek, Marlyn Garcia

The Scholarship Without Borders Journal

Abstract: What does it mean to be a modern feminist global leader today? Global leadership research is growing, but less research focuses on female leaders, even though the 21st century thus far contains a significant rise of female leaders. Angela Merkel’s infamously historic reticence and aversion, concerning speaking about feminism, irrevocably dissolves in an interview in January of 2019. This interview offers a glimpse into Angela Merkel’s cageyness, and provides an intimate insight into her circumspect perspective concerning feminism. This article aims to explore barriers and challenges to Angela Merkel’s rise as a global leader, how crisis forged and …


What Russia-Ukraine Conflict May Imply For The Future Of Dollar-Centered Monetary System, Jesus Felipe 2023 De La Salle University, Manila

What Russia-Ukraine Conflict May Imply For The Future Of Dollar-Centered Monetary System, Jesus Felipe

Angelo King Institute for Economic and Business Studies (AKI)

AGLOBAL financial summit held in Paris some days ago reached a "new" global pact to help developing countries deal with poverty, climate change and debt. Part of the solution? More "funds," that is, debt. Ironically, nobody at the Paris summit questioned the current monetary system, which is at the root of the debt problem.

Coincidentally, a recent article in the journal Real-World Economics Review (http://www.paecon.net/PAEReview/issue104/Spano) argues that one of the potential consequences of the Russia-Ukraine war could be the demise of the US dollar as the international unit of account. If this materializes, the international monetary system may change significantly. …


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