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Public Health Insurance And Pharmaceutical Innovation: Evidence From China, Xuan ZHANG, Huihua NIE 2021 Singapore Management University

Public Health Insurance And Pharmaceutical Innovation: Evidence From China, Xuan Zhang, Huihua Nie

Research Collection School Of Economics

Developing countries are characterized by low levels of pharmaceutical innovation. A likely reason is their small market size, which is not because of the population size but because of low levels of income and lack of health insurance coverage. This study exploits a natural experiment from the implementation of a public health insurance program for rural residents in China (New Cooperative Medical Scheme [NCMS]) to examine whether the pharmaceutical industry increases innovation regarding diseases covered by the NCMS that are prevalent in rural areas. We examine the 1993–2009 patent data to gauge pharmaceutical innovation in China. Diseases with a 10% …


Income Inequality And Workplace Mobility During The Covid-19 Pandemic, John Washburn 2021 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Income Inequality And Workplace Mobility During The Covid-19 Pandemic, John Washburn

Honors Theses and Capstones

With the pandemic being a once in a lifetime event (hopefully), there are many areas of research with purpose that were impossible to research beforehand. This paper looks at how income inequality created a separation between the rich and the poor regarding work and residential movement during the pandemic in the United States. By taking work and residential movement data from the Google Mobility report, which measures movement during the pandemic as a percent change benchmarked against pre pandemic movement and correlating it to the logarithm of Gross domestic product per capita, the effects of income can be seen. By …


Sustainability In The Fashion Industry: Two Case Studies Highlighting Consumer Purchasing Actions Related To Brand Sustainability, Allison Zhang 2020 University of Richmond

Sustainability In The Fashion Industry: Two Case Studies Highlighting Consumer Purchasing Actions Related To Brand Sustainability, Allison Zhang

Environmental Studies Senior Seminar Projects

The rise of competition in the fashion industry has called for companies to differentiate themselves. One way of differentiation that has been seen in recent years is an increase in sustainable and environmentally friendly practices. This paper explores the use of press releases by fashion companies to see if the releases impact the companies’ bottom line. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if sustainability related press releases impact consumers in the United States decision making in purchasing products or supporting certain brands or companies. To conduct this study, yearly and quarterly financial data was collected to find trends …


The Chow Test With Time Series-Cross Section Data, James K. Binkley, Jeffrey Young 2020 Purdue University

The Chow Test With Time Series-Cross Section Data, James K. Binkley, Jeffrey Young

Faculty & Staff Research and Creative Activity

The Chow test is a standard method to test for differences in regression response across groups. In some cases, the groups being tested are composed of a time series of cross sections. If the individual units within the groups have systematic differences, the Chow test is compromised: individual and group effects become confounded. This can cause rejections in the absence of the group effect of interest. We illustrate the problem with Monte Carlo analyses, and propose an alternative bootstrap-like testing procedure that helps eliminate excessive Type I errors.


Density Of Demand And The Consumer Benefit From Uber, Matthew H. SHAPIRO 2020 Singapore Management University

Density Of Demand And The Consumer Benefit From Uber, Matthew H. Shapiro

Research Collection School Of Economics

Uber has attracted the attention of economists and policy makers for its innovations in the taxicab market and its potential for significant consumer welfare gains. The size of this gain depends in part on whether these innovations permit transactions previously costly or infeasible. Using New York City — the largest taxi market in the country — as its context, this paper estimates the level of any technological advantage Uber has over hail taxis in matching to consumers. I combine publicly available transportation data with data scraped from Uber and traffic cameras to estimate a model of the demand for transportation …


The Political Economy Of Small Medium Enterprise Development: Characteristics, Productive Value, And Market Constraints In Industrial Manufacturing, Christine Ngo, Miao Chi 2020 Bucknell University

The Political Economy Of Small Medium Enterprise Development: Characteristics, Productive Value, And Market Constraints In Industrial Manufacturing, Christine Ngo, Miao Chi

Faculty Journal Articles

This paper highlights the importance of small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) development and introduces the theoretical concept of productive value for qualitative analysis of firms. Vietnam’s industrial development experience is used as a case study. Although the Vietnamese government has channelled rents and business opportunities towards the state sector, the domestic private sector has been crucial to the country’s industrial development. Given this context, this study analyses how Vietnamese SMEs in the private sector generate productive value and overcome market failures that constrain their growth. Research findings demonstrate that most local SMEs in the industrial sectors rely on low pricing …


The Convergence Of Water, Electricity And Gas Industries: Implications For Ppp Design And Regulation, Sock Yong PHANG 2020 Singapore Management University

The Convergence Of Water, Electricity And Gas Industries: Implications For Ppp Design And Regulation, Sock Yong Phang

Research Collection School Of Economics

In several countries that have privatised their utilities, power and water are separate industries regulated by sector-specific regulators. In a parallel development, desalination has become an important source of water supply in countries where there is a shortage of cheap and clean freshwater. Where the energy source is gas, the use of gas-fired power plants to supply electricity for desalination links the water, electricity and gas industries. We use the case of the financial collapse of an integrated water and power project to illustrate the problems that can arise from such convergence, and to draw lessons for firms, Public-Private Partnerships …


Firm Productivity And The Variety Of Inputs And Outputs: Evidence From Chinese Trade Data, Ken ONISHI, Jianhuan XU, Guang YANG 2020 Singapore Management University

Firm Productivity And The Variety Of Inputs And Outputs: Evidence From Chinese Trade Data, Ken Onishi, Jianhuan Xu, Guang Yang

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper studies how the trade liberalization in China changes the firm productivity. We develop a framework to estimate revenue productivity (TFPR) and real productivity (TFPQ) with multi-product firms. We find that the aggregate TFPR increases 30\% from 2002-2007 and TFPQ increases 22\%, suggesting that the observed TFPR increase is mainly driven by real productivity change rather than the markup change. We further decompose the change of productivity into three channels: (1) access to foreign inputs; (2) technology upgrade; (3) resource re-allocation within the firm. We find the most significant channel is the last one, which explains half of the …


Aporte De La Industria Automotriz Al Crecimiento Del Sector Secundario Y Cómo Impactan Las Tendencias Actuales En El Crecimiento Económico Del Sector, Luis Vicente Pinillos Romero 2020 Universidad de La Salle, Bogotá

Aporte De La Industria Automotriz Al Crecimiento Del Sector Secundario Y Cómo Impactan Las Tendencias Actuales En El Crecimiento Económico Del Sector, Luis Vicente Pinillos Romero

Economía

En la investigación se hizo un análisis del aporte de la industria automotriz al crecimiento del sector secundario y cómo impactan las tendencias actuales en el crecimiento económico del sector. En vista de que Colombia únicamente ensambla automóviles Renault y Chevrolet, la industria del automóvil en Colombia, a pesar de su tamaño, tiene las características para convertirse en clave para el desarrollo de la economía colombiana. Para el adelanto de la monografía se formulan los siguientes objetivos: Analizar las tendencias actuales de producción de vehículos en Colombia y su aporte al sector secundario de 2015 - 2019. Indagar las preferencias …


Is The Digital Economy Too Concentrated?, Jonathan Klick 2020 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Is The Digital Economy Too Concentrated?, Jonathan Klick

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Concentration in the digital economy in the United States has sparked loud criticism and spurred calls for wide-ranging reforms. These reforms include everything from increased enforcement of existing antitrust laws, such as challenging more mergers and breaking up firms, to an abandonment of the consumer welfare standard. Critics cite corruption and more systemic public choice problems, while others invoke the populist origins of antitrust to slay the digital Goliaths. On the other side, there is skepticism regarding these arguments. This chapter continues much of that skepticism.


Network Effects In Action, Christopher S. Yoo 2020 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Network Effects In Action, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

This Chapter begins by examining and exploring the theoretical and empirical limits of the possible bases of network effects, paying particular attention to the most commonly cited framework known as Metcalfe’s Law. It continues by exploring the concept of network externalities, defined as the positive external consumption benefits that the decision to join a network creates for the other members of the network, which is more ambiguous than commonly realized. It then reviews the structural factors needed for models based on network effects to have anticompetitive effects and identifies other factors that can dissipate those effects. Finally, it identifies alternative …


Managerial Incentives To Repeatedly Collude: Frequency, Partners And Governance Rules, Catarina Marvao Dr., CHLOÉ Le Coq 2020 Technological University Dublin

Managerial Incentives To Repeatedly Collude: Frequency, Partners And Governance Rules, Catarina Marvao Dr., Chloé Le Coq

Articles

Cartel recidivism has been discovered among many convicted firms and is often perceived as a result of the limited efficiency of competition policy. The incentives for managers to collude have been linked to the firm’s organizational structure, the corporate culture, and the type of executive compensation packages in place.

To the extent that undetected cartels differ from detected ones in relevant dimensions, the current empirical results on illegal cartels are biased. To tackle this issue, we use a novel dataset of a population of cartels, which were legal in Sweden up until 1993. We contribute to the current debate on …


Competitive Harm From Vertical Mergers, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2020 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Competitive Harm From Vertical Mergers, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

The antitrust enforcement Agencies' 2020 Vertical Merger Guidelines introduce a nontechnical application of bargaining theory into the assessment of competitive effects from vertical acquisitions. The economics of such bargaining is complex and can produce skepticism among judges, who might regard its mathematics as overly technical, its game theory as excessively theoretical or speculative, or its assumptions as unrealistic.

However, we have been there before. The introduction of concentration indexes, particularly the HHI, in the Merger Guidelines was initially met with skepticism but gradually they were accepted as judges became more comfortable with them. The same thing very largely happened again …


Design And Analysis Of A Low Cost And Easy Operated Leg Mechanism For A Walking Robot, G.V.Phani Babu, N.Amara Nageswara Rao 2020 Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Nimra College of Engineering & Technology, Ibrahimpatnam, Vijayawada

Design And Analysis Of A Low Cost And Easy Operated Leg Mechanism For A Walking Robot, G.V.Phani Babu, N.Amara Nageswara Rao

International Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

In this paper, several walking machines and robots have been conceived, designed and built in the last twenty years to open new fields of application. Compared to wheeled vehicles walking machines show the advantage that they can act in highly unstructured terrain without having prepared this terrain in advance by streets or rails. Legged robots cross obstacles more easily; depend less on the surface conditions and quality and, in general, exhibit better adaptability. In this paper a numerical and experimental analyses of a pantograph-leg are presented. In particular, a suitable model of the leg has been analyzed and Kinematics and …


The Optimal Degree Of Reciprocity In Tariff Reduction, Pao-li Chang 2020 Singapore Management University

The Optimal Degree Of Reciprocity In Tariff Reduction, Pao-Li Chang

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper characterizes the optimal reciprocal trade policy in the environment of Melitz (2003) with firm productivity heterogeneity. With all the conflicting effects of import tariffs on welfare considered, the optimal degree of reciprocity in multilateral tariff reduction is shown to be free trade.


The Optimal Degree Of Reciprocity In Tariff Reduction, Pao-Li CHANG 2020 Singapore Management University

The Optimal Degree Of Reciprocity In Tariff Reduction, Pao-Li Chang

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper characterizes the optimal reciprocal trade policy in the environment of Melitz (2003) with firm productivity heterogeneity. In particular, without making parametric assumptions on firm productivity distribution, this paper derives the optimal degree of reciprocal tariff reductions that maximize the world welfare. A reciprocal import subsidy raises the industry productivity, lowering aggregate price; a reciprocal import tariff helps correct the markup distortion, increasing nominal income. With all the conflicting effects of import tariffs on welfare considered, the optimal degree of reciprocity in multilateral tariff reduction is shown to be free trade.


A Walkthrough Of The Canadian Video Game Industry: An Economic Geography Perspective On The Digital Entertainment Frontier, Grant L. Morin 2020 The University of Western Ontario

A Walkthrough Of The Canadian Video Game Industry: An Economic Geography Perspective On The Digital Entertainment Frontier, Grant L. Morin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The video game industry has been examined since the 1970’s, yet individual country analysis from an economic geography perspective has been lacking. It is the contribution of this dissertation to utilize the agglomeration economy and location theory literature in its application to the Canadian video game industry.

To understand this industry, a mixed-method approach is used. Kernel density maps, standard deviational ellipses, and mapping processes were used to illustrate the dispersion and clustering patterns of studios in Canada. In addition, a Poisson regression was performed using count data of the number of video game firms in census metropolitan areas. The …


Essays On Decision Making Under Risk And Uncertainty, Dong Yan 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Essays On Decision Making Under Risk And Uncertainty, Dong Yan

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation uses economic theory, in tandem with experiments and other empirical methods, to better understand the role of information – for instance, missing information, conflicting information, and information overload – in determining outcomes in decision settings characterized by risk and uncertainty. In my first chapter, I use theory and experiments to compare market outcomes in a setting where the seller has better information on product quality than the buyer, and examine the effects of introducing a third-party who can credibly relay information on product quality. Under a range of conditions, I find market efficiency is higher when the information …


Three Essays On Behavioral Economics And Mechanism Design, Na Zuo 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Three Essays On Behavioral Economics And Mechanism Design, Na Zuo

Doctoral Dissertations

My three essays on behavioral economics and mechanism design introduce two new microeconomic theoretical models.

In the first chapter, we develop an n-player theoretical model applying the concept of Virtual Bargaining to study cooperative behavior in public goods games characterizing team production. Virtual Bargaining is a modeling framework that characterizes how players may construct a tacit agreement to coordinate behavior in the absence of explicit communication. Players identify their worst-possible payoff outcome from any candidate agreement, and mutually best-respond with respect to maximization of their worst-payoff function. Players face uncertainties regarding whether other players will follow through on a candidate …


Antitrust: What Counts As Consumer Welfare?, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2020 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Antitrust: What Counts As Consumer Welfare?, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Antitrust’s consumer welfare principle is accepted in some form by the entire Supreme Court and the majority of other writers. However, it means different things to different people. For example, some members of the Supreme Court can simultaneously acknowledge the antitrust consumer welfare principle even as they approve practices that result in immediate, obvious, and substantial consumer harm. At the same time, however, a properly defined consumer welfare principle is essential if antitrust is to achieve its statutory purpose, which is to pursue practices that injure competition. The wish to make antitrust a more general social justice statute is understandable: …


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