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The Impact Of U.S. Family Planning Programs On Fertility And Mortality: Evidence From The War On Poverty And Title X, Martha Bailey 2010 University of Michigan - Ann Arbor

The Impact Of U.S. Family Planning Programs On Fertility And Mortality: Evidence From The War On Poverty And Title X, Martha Bailey

University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series

Over forty years ago, the U.S. government adopted a policy of funding domestic family planning services, and the effects of these programs have been debated ever since. Within an event-study framework, I exploit community-level variation in the timing of federal grants for family planning services under the Economic Opportunity Act (1965 to 1974) and Title X (1970 to 1980) to evaluate their impact. The results provide robust evidence that federal family planning grants reduced birth rates in funded communities by four percent within six years. I find no evidence that family planning grants reduced maternal or infant mortality rates.


Where The Ends Don’T Meet: Measuring Poverty And Self-Sufficiency Among Oregon’S Families, Melissa Rowe, Sheila A. Martin, Danan Gu, Webb Sprague 2010 Portland State University

Where The Ends Don’T Meet: Measuring Poverty And Self-Sufficiency Among Oregon’S Families, Melissa Rowe, Sheila A. Martin, Danan Gu, Webb Sprague

Institute of Portland Metropolitan Studies Publications

This report uses the Self-Sufficiency Standard developed by Dr. Diana Pearce at the University of Washington to analyze the extent to which Oregon households earn enough money to meet their basic needs without a public subsidy. This standard, a vast improvement on the federal poverty level, accounts for differences in the cost of living based on family structure, age of children, and county of residence. Dr. Pearce has defined the income required to meet basic needs for every county in Oregon and a number of household types. A large number of Oregon households not considered poor by the federal poverty …


Mothers' Work And Children's Lives: Low-Income Families After Welfare Reform, Rucker C. Johnson, Ariel Kalil, Rachel E. Dunifon 2010 University of California, Berkeley

Mothers' Work And Children's Lives: Low-Income Families After Welfare Reform, Rucker C. Johnson, Ariel Kalil, Rachel E. Dunifon

Upjohn Press

This book examines the effects of work requirements imposed by welfare reform on low-income women and their families. The authors pay particular attention to the nature of work—whether it is stable or unstable, the number of hours worked in a week and the regularity and flexibility of work schedules. They also show how these factors make it more difficult for low-income women to balance their work and family requirements.


Notes On Poverty Traps And Appalachia, Steven Durlauf 2010 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Notes On Poverty Traps And Appalachia, Steven Durlauf

University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series

In these notes, I provide some general ideas on how to conceptualize poverty traps and speculate on their applicability to understanding Appalachian poverty. My goal is to stimulate thinking on Appalachia that exploits contemporary perspectives in economics on the sources of persistent poverty and inequality. To do this, I focus on both the theory of poverty traps as well as issues in the econometric assessment of their empirical salience.


Assessing The Impact Of A Modernized Application Process On Florida’S Food Stamp Caseload, Colleen Heflin, Peter Mueser 2010 University of Missouri

Assessing The Impact Of A Modernized Application Process On Florida’S Food Stamp Caseload, Colleen Heflin, Peter Mueser

University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series

In 2005, Florida implemented an internet-based service delivery system for eligibility determination in public assistance programs, including the Food Stamp, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), and the Medicaid programs. At the same time, Florida switched from a caseworker model to a technology-driven model and decreased staffing levels of employees involved in social service delivery. We conduct an evaluative case study of the effects of these policy changes on the Food Stamp caseload. In particular, we consider the impact on applications and the flows onto and off of the program. To answer these questions, we use administrative data from the …


De La Desigualdad, Sus Determinantes Y Su Efecto En El Crecimiento, Luis A. Villasenor 2010 University of East Anglia

De La Desigualdad, Sus Determinantes Y Su Efecto En El Crecimiento, Luis A. Villasenor

Adrián Villaseñor

No abstract provided.


The Gettysburg Economic Review, Volume 4, Spring 2010, 2010 Gettysburg College

The Gettysburg Economic Review, Volume 4, Spring 2010

Gettysburg Economic Review

No abstract provided.


The Trend Of The Gender Wage Gap Over The Business Cycle, Nicholas J. Finio 2010 Gettysburg College

The Trend Of The Gender Wage Gap Over The Business Cycle, Nicholas J. Finio

Gettysburg Economic Review

Even after the close of the first decade of the 21st century, there is still significant gender bias in labor market composition and compensation. As the events of the last two years have proven, even drastic efforts of monetary and fiscal policy have not tamed the business cycle. Previous research has reached no definite conclusions on the effect of business cycle trends on the gender wage gap. Over the period from 1979:1 to 2009:3, it is found that increases in the growth rate of GDP yield decreases in women‘s earnings relative to men‘s, and it is also found that increases …


The Economic Impact Of The University Of Arkansas, Katherine A. Deck, Viktoria Riiman 2010 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Economic Impact Of The University Of Arkansas, Katherine A. Deck, Viktoria Riiman

Publications and Presentations

Founded in 1871, the University of Arkansas was established in the city of Fayetteville as both the state university and the major land‐grant university for Arkansas. The University of Arkansas is a flagship university for the integration of student engagement, scholarship and research, and innovation that collectively transforms lives and inspires leadership for a global society. As such, the impact of the University of Arkansas extends far beyond the transfer of knowledge from professors to students and is far reaching in social and economic terms. As leading research universities across the country engage in the process of enumerating the socio‐economic …


What About These Children? Assessing Poverty Among The ‘Hidden Population’ Of Multiracial Children In Single-Mother Families, Jenifer Bratter, Sarah Damaske 2010 Rice University

What About These Children? Assessing Poverty Among The ‘Hidden Population’ Of Multiracial Children In Single-Mother Families, Jenifer Bratter, Sarah Damaske

University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series

Capturing the conditions of children of color living in single-parent families has become more complex due to the growing presence of interracial households. This analysis assesses the size and poverty status of single-female headed families housing multiracial children. Using data from the 2000 Census, we find that 9 percent of female-headed families house either children who are classified with more than one race or are classified as a single race different than their mother’s compared to only 3 percent of married couple families. Logistic regression analyses assessing the odds of poverty status for families finds that being a multiracial family …


Household Living Arrangements And Economic Resources Among Mexican Immigrant Families With Children, Mark A. Leach 2010 The Pennsylvania State University

Household Living Arrangements And Economic Resources Among Mexican Immigrant Families With Children, Mark A. Leach

University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series

Using data from the 2000 Census, this study examines the relationship between household living arrangements and economic resources among Mexican immigrant families with children. I model separately the relationships between family income and household structure and proportion of total household income contributed and household structure. The results show that families that coreside with extended kin and non-kin have higher incomes, all else equal, relative to those that reside in single-family households. In addition, Mexican immigrant families that reside in extendedhousehold living arrangements contribute about three quarters of total household income. While families may gain some economic efficiency through extended household …


State Employment Protection Statutes For Victims Of Domestic Violence As An Employment Matter, Jennifer E. Swanberg, Mamta U. Ojha 2010 University of Kentucky

State Employment Protection Statutes For Victims Of Domestic Violence As An Employment Matter, Jennifer E. Swanberg, Mamta U. Ojha

University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series

Evidence indicates that domestic violence has negative consequences on victims’ employment; yet employers lag in recognizing this as a workplace issue. To address the problem, some states have established several policy solutions. To understand the scope of the public sector’s response to domestic violence as a workplace issue, a content analysis of state-level employment protection policies for domestic violence victims (N=369) was conducted. Results indicate three broad policy categories: 1) policies that offer work leave for victims; 2) policies that aim to reduce employment discrimination of domestic violence victims; and 3) policies that aim to increase awareness and safety in …


Imprisonment And (Inequality In) Population Health, Christopher Wildeman 2010 Yale University

Imprisonment And (Inequality In) Population Health, Christopher Wildeman

University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series

This article extends research on the consequences of mass imprisonment and the factors shaping population health and health inequities by considering the effects of the imprisonment rate on population health and black-white inequality in population health using state-level panel data from the United States (1980-2004). My results imply that increases in the imprisonment rate harm population health, though the effects on the infant mortality rate and female life expectancy are more consistent than are the effects on male life expectancy. My results also imply that these health effects are concentrated among blacks, implicating mass imprisonment in the persistence of black-white …


An Exploratory Analysis Of The Relationship Between Student Earnings And Postsecondary Retention, Christopher Jepsen, Darshak P. Patel, Kenneth R. Troske 2010 University of Kentucky

An Exploratory Analysis Of The Relationship Between Student Earnings And Postsecondary Retention, Christopher Jepsen, Darshak P. Patel, Kenneth R. Troske

University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series

Policy makers are becoming increasingly concerned about the high percentage of students who attend postsecondary education without completing a degree. Researchers have studied numerous potential determinants of retention behavior for postsecondary students, such as financial aid, socioeconomic status, academic preparedness, academic and social integration, and expected future wages. However, none of these studies considers students’ earnings while in school as a potential determinant of retention. Using an administrative data from postsecondary institutions matched with administrative earnings data from the state’s unemployment insurance department, our results indicate that student earnings are negatively correlated to student retention in Kentucky postsecondary institutions. Our …


Family Change And Poverty In Appalachia, Daniel Lichter, Lisa Cimbulak 2010 Cornell University

Family Change And Poverty In Appalachia, Daniel Lichter, Lisa Cimbulak

University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series

The current economic and political climate provides a vivid contrast with the circumstances of the 1990s, when the passage of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) ushered in welfare reform during a period of unprecedented economic expansion and job growth (Blank 2002; Ziliak 2009). This legislation sought to “end the dependence of needy parents on government benefits by promoting job preparation, work, and marriage.” Among PRWORA’s goals were to reduce out-of-wedlock births and encourage the formation of two-parent families. For most states, much of the initial emphasis on self-sufficiency was placed on “work first” programs (i.e., …


China And Brazil: Potential Allies Or Just Brics In The Wall?, Anthony Petros Spanakos 2010 Montclair State University

China And Brazil: Potential Allies Or Just Brics In The Wall?, Anthony Petros Spanakos

Department of Political Science and Law Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Brazil is an increasingly important actor in global governance and for China specifically. Sino-Brazilian relations have deepened considerably but they remain concentrated in areas of trade and investment. There is also considerable overlap in interests between the two countries in other areas, such as diplomatic and political relations. At the same time, China must manage carefully important differences that exist over the enlargement of the UN and the potential challenge to the Brazilian industry.


Earnings And Income Volatility In America: Evidence From Matched Cps, James P. Ziliak, Bradley L. Hardy, Christopher Bollinger 2010 University of Kentucky

Earnings And Income Volatility In America: Evidence From Matched Cps, James P. Ziliak, Bradley L. Hardy, Christopher Bollinger

University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series

In this paper we offer new evidence on earnings and income volatility in the United States over the past four decades by using matched data from the March Current Population Survey. We find that between 1973 and 2008 family income volatility rose by 38 percent, primarily as a result of higher volatility of husbands earnings and non means-tested nonlabor income. Rising family income volatility is in evidence across race, education, and family structure, and after declining sharply while young, it is increasing in the latter part of the life cycle among the skilled. The Federal tax and transfer system dampens …


Domestication Alone Does Not Lead To Inequality: Intergenerational Wealth Transmission Among Horticulturalists, Michael Gurven, Monique Borgerhoff Mulder, Paul L. Hooper, Hillard Kaplan, Robert Quinlan, Rebecca Sear, Eric Schniter, Christopher von Rueden, Samuel Bowles, Tom Hertz, Adrian Bell 2010 University of California - Santa Barbara

Domestication Alone Does Not Lead To Inequality: Intergenerational Wealth Transmission Among Horticulturalists, Michael Gurven, Monique Borgerhoff Mulder, Paul L. Hooper, Hillard Kaplan, Robert Quinlan, Rebecca Sear, Eric Schniter, Christopher Von Rueden, Samuel Bowles, Tom Hertz, Adrian Bell

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

We present empirical measures of wealth inequality and its intergenerational transmission among four horticulturalist populations. Wealth is construed broadly as embodied somatic and neural capital, including body size, fertility and cultural knowledge, material capital such as land and household wealth, and relational capital in the form of coalitional support and field labor. Wealth inequality is moderate for most forms of wealth, and intergenerational wealth transmission is low for material resources and moderate for embodied and relational wealth. Our analysis suggests that domestication alone does not transform social structure; rather, the presence of scarce, defensible resources may be required before inequality …


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