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Sprawl, Squatters, And Sustainable Cities: Can Archaeological Data Shed Light On Modern Urban Issues?, Michael E. Smith 2010 Arizona State University

Sprawl, Squatters, And Sustainable Cities: Can Archaeological Data Shed Light On Modern Urban Issues?, Michael E. Smith

Michael E Smith

Ancient cities as documented by archaeologists and historians have considerable relevance for a broader understanding of modern cities and general processes of urbanization. This article reviews three themes that illustrate such relevance: sprawl, squatter settlements and urban sustainability. Archaeology's potential for illuminating these and other topics, however, remains largely unrealized because we have failed to develop the concepts and methods required to analyse such processes in the past. The following aspects are examined for each of the three themes: the modern situation, the potential insights that archaeology could contribute, and what archaeologists would need to do to produce those ...


Collaborative Ethics: Development And Implementation, Celia Emmelhainz, Claire Aliki Collins, Catharina LaPorte, Ali Krzton 2010 Texas A & M University - College Station

Collaborative Ethics: Development And Implementation, Celia Emmelhainz, Claire Aliki Collins, Catharina Laporte, Ali Krzton

Celia Emmelhainz

A short article assessing the need for collaborative ethics in anthropology. We suggest the incorporation of consensus methods in developing a new AAA code of ethics, as well as for collaboration with local scholars.


The Imprint Of China’S First Emperor On The Distant Realm Of Eastern Shandong, Gary M. Feinman, Linda M. Nicholas, Hui Fang 2010 Field Museum of Natural History

The Imprint Of China’S First Emperor On The Distant Realm Of Eastern Shandong, Gary M. Feinman, Linda M. Nicholas, Hui Fang

Gary M. Feinman

Imperial expansion is recurrent in human history. For early empires, such as in ancient China, this process generally is known from texts that glorify and present the perspective of victors. The legacy of the Qin king, Shihuangdi, who first unified China in 221 BC, remains vital, but we have few details about the consequences of his distant conquests or how they changed the path of local histories. We integrate documentary accounts with the findings of a systematic regional survey of archaeological sites to provide a holistic context for this imperialistic episode and the changes that followed in coastal Shandong.


Preindustrial Markets And Marketing: Archaeological Perspectives, Gary M. Feinman, Christopher P. Garraty 2010 Field Museum of Natural History

Preindustrial Markets And Marketing: Archaeological Perspectives, Gary M. Feinman, Christopher P. Garraty

Gary M. Feinman

Markets are key contemporary institutions, yet there is little agreement concerning their history or diversity. To complicate matters, markets have been considered by different academic disciplines that approach the nature of such exchange systems from diametrically opposed perspectives that impede cross-disciplinary dialogue. This paper reviews the theoretical and methodological issues surrounding the detection, development, and significance of markets in the preindustrial past. We challenge both the view that marketing is natural and the perspective that market exchange is unique to modern capitalist contexts. Both of these frameworks fail to recognize that past and present market activities are embedded in their ...


Narratives Of Irony And Failure In Ethnographic Work, Dariusz Jemielniak, Monika Kostera 2010 Kozminski University

Narratives Of Irony And Failure In Ethnographic Work, Dariusz Jemielniak, Monika Kostera

Dariusz Jemielniak

Organizational ethnography is one of the most valued approaches to qualitative studies of organizations. Much attention has been given to the development of the research process, of which the researcher's identity is an integral part. However, we believe that the analysis of research failures has been much less developed in the discourse of ethnographic methods for the study of organizations. Therefore, we have explored some of the “slips” in ethnographic work, as described in accounts of fellow organizational anthropologists. As the study is qualitative, we have adopted a narrative research method. We have divided the “slips” (i.e., errors ...


Huaqueros And Remote Sensing Imagery: Assessing Looting Damage In The Virú Valley, Peru, Daniel A. Contreras 2010 Stanford University

Huaqueros And Remote Sensing Imagery: Assessing Looting Damage In The Virú Valley, Peru, Daniel A. Contreras

Daniel A. Contreras

This article presents a new initiative in combating looting from the air, building on previous work in Iraq and Jordan. Looted sites in the Virú Valley, Peru, are visible as pit clusters on dated versions of Google Earth. Compare these with earlier air photographs and Gordon Willey's famous survey of the 1940s, and we have a dated chronicle of looting events. This makes it possible to demonstrate that modern looting is certainly taking place and linked to an upsurge in the antiquities trade. As well as being a new instrument for managing heritage, the author shows that the looting ...


Reconstructing An Engineered Environment In The Central Andes: Landscape Geoarchaeology At Chavín De Huántar, Peru, Daniel A. Contreras 2010 Stanford University

Reconstructing An Engineered Environment In The Central Andes: Landscape Geoarchaeology At Chavín De Huántar, Peru, Daniel A. Contreras

Daniel A. Contreras

Chavín de Huántar, a Formative Period ceremonial center in the Peruvian Central Andes, has been a focus of archaeological research for more than 70 years. Nevertheless, I argue, its extent and character remain incompletely understood. This is a result of a highly active geologic environment, which both influenced human–environment interactions in Chavín’s prehistory and created a substantial taphonomic challenge to archaeological interpretation. The integration of archaeological and geologic data in a site GIS has been used to reconstruct a pre-Chavín landscape and to estimate the scale of geomorphic and anthropogenic landscape change at Chavín. That reconstruction is used ...


Landscape And Environment: Insights From The Prehispanic Central Andes, Daniel A. Contreras 2010 Stanford University

Landscape And Environment: Insights From The Prehispanic Central Andes, Daniel A. Contreras

Daniel A. Contreras

Attention to human–environment relationships in the central Andes has a long history. Although the area is not a neat microcosm of the globe, wholly representative of worldwide trends in the archaeology of human–environment interactions, it has been the site of both seminal investigations in archaeology and a substantial body of recent work that investigates themes of broad archaeological relevance. Specifically, central Andean environments have been variously conceived as structuring, modified, and sacred. These approaches to some extent reflect broad trends in archaeology, while also suggesting directions in which the archaeology of human–environment interactions is moving and highlighting ...


Field Notes From A Protest: Toronto, Ontario, June 26, 2010, G20 Summit Protests, Denice J. Szafran 2010 SUNY Geneseo

Field Notes From A Protest: Toronto, Ontario, June 26, 2010, G20 Summit Protests, Denice J. Szafran

Denice J Szafran, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Book Review: The Archaeology Of Alcohol And Drinking, Douglas Ross 2010 Simon Fraser University

Book Review: The Archaeology Of Alcohol And Drinking, Douglas Ross

Douglas Ross

No abstract provided.


Tectonic Environments Of Ancient Civilizations: Opportunities For Archaeoseismological And Anthropological Studies, Eric R. Force, Bruce G. McFadgen 2010 University of Arizona

Tectonic Environments Of Ancient Civilizations: Opportunities For Archaeoseismological And Anthropological Studies, Eric R. Force, Bruce G. Mcfadgen

Eric R Force

The close spatial relation between ancient civilizations and active tectonic boundaries is robust in the Eastern Hemisphere but counterintuitive given the seismic dis- advantages it implies. Explanations for the observation remain debatable, and no single explanation seems sufficient. Some possibly important factors are unrelated to seismicity, e.g., the influence of tectonism on local water resources and on resource diversity. When examined on finer spatial scales, the relation is still robust. A quan- tifiable influence of tectonism on civilization locations even along Mediterranean shores is suggested by their distribution. The stronger links of tectonism with derivative civilizations suggests a role ...


Discourse And Wolves: Science, Society, And Ethics, William S. Lynn 2010 Williams College

Discourse And Wolves: Science, Society, And Ethics, William S. Lynn

HUMAN AND ANIMAL BONDING

Wolves have a special resonance in many human cultures. To appreciate fully the wide variety of views on wolves, we must attend to the scientific, social, and ethical discourses that frame our understanding of wolves themselves, as well as their relationships with people and the natural world. These discourses are a configuration of ideas, language, actions, and institutions that enable or constrain our individual and collective agency with respect to wolves.

Scientific discourse is frequently privileged when it comes to wolves, on the assumption that the primary knowledge requirements are matters of ecology, cognitive ethology, and allied disciplines. Social discourse ...


Becoming Rabbit: Living With And Knowing Rabbits, Margo DeMello 2010 Central New Mexico Community College

Becoming Rabbit: Living With And Knowing Rabbits, Margo Demello

HUMAN AND ANIMAL BONDING

Rabbits, like all animals (human and non-human), have rich internal lives, as people who live intimately with rabbits can attest.1 Living with house rabbits—where rabbits live indoors, without a cage or with minimal caging, as part of the human family—is, to me, the best way to gain some understanding of the rabbit psyche. In addition,

living closely with rabbits opens up the possibilities of the humanrabbit relationship—a relationship which, until very recently, was one-sided and based on exploitation. Today, however, with the rise of the house rabbit movement, the subjectivity of rabbits has been exposed, leading ...


Governing With Clean Hands: Automated Public Toilets And Sanitary Surveillance, Irus Braverman 2010 University at Buffalo School of Law

Governing With Clean Hands: Automated Public Toilets And Sanitary Surveillance, Irus Braverman

Journal Articles

To anyone familiar with the story of urban decay in major American cities in the 1980s – and with the subsequent abolition of toilets from city streets – the introduction of automated public toilets (APTs) to urban spaces sounds like very good news. This article explores the re-democratizing message that commonly accompanies the introduction of APTs to North American city streets as well as their on-the-ground manifestations. It focuses on two major components of APTs: privatization and automation. The process of privatization, which characterizes most APT operations in North America, carries with it various exclusionary effects that stand in stark contrast to ...


Newman, Oscar: Defensible Space Theory, Patrick G. Donnelly 2010 University of Dayton

Newman, Oscar: Defensible Space Theory, Patrick G. Donnelly

Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work Faculty Publications

The concept of “defensible space” was first explicated by Oscar Newman in a 1972 book by the same title. The concept, which contains elements of a theory of crime as well as a set of urban design principles, became popular in the 1970s as urban crime problems continued to rise. Defensible space was discussed, utilized, and critiqued widely by criminologists and other social scientists, as well as urban planners, law enforcement officials, and architects.

The design concepts have also been implemented in numerous communities in the United States and around the world. Later works by Newman, including Community of Interest ...


Los Caminos Del Enfermo En Una Comunidad K’Iche’ De Guatemala: Una Contribución Del Análisis De Redes Al Estudio De Los Comportamientos De Búsqueda De Atención En Salud, Alejandro Cerón 2010 University of Denver

Los Caminos Del Enfermo En Una Comunidad K’Iche’ De Guatemala: Una Contribución Del Análisis De Redes Al Estudio De Los Comportamientos De Búsqueda De Atención En Salud, Alejandro Cerón

Anthropology Faculty Scholarship

Introducción: El objetivo de este estudio fue ampliar la comprensión sobre los comportamientos de búsqueda de atención a través del análisis de las transiciones que las personas hacen entre distintas alternativas terapéuticas. Metodología: Una encuesta de prevalencia de enfermedad en 229 unidades domésticas de la comunidad, detectó 92 personas con algún padecimiento agudo, a quienes se entrevistó para establecer las acciones que tomaron respecto a la enfermedad. Las acciones correspondieron a una de las siguientes categorías: esperar, remedios caseros, compra de medicinas, o uso de profesionales (tradicionales, biomedicina o sanación divina). Estas categorías terapéuticas se tabularon en una matriz idéntica ...


Mammal Capture Success Of Scent Stations And Remote Cameras In Prairie And Forest Habitat, Marc N. McKinney, Aaron M. Haines 2010 Upper Iowa University

Mammal Capture Success Of Scent Stations And Remote Cameras In Prairie And Forest Habitat, Marc N. Mckinney, Aaron M. Haines

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Two common noninvasive (i.e., no stress to the animal) methods used to survey mammals include track stations (i.e., track captures of mammals) and remote camera-traps (i.e., photo-captures of mammals). Our objectives were to compare capture effectiveness of both track stations and remote cameras in both forested and prairie habitats. This project was conducted on 4 study sires (2 forested sires and 2 prairie sites) located in Fayette County, Iowa. Each study site had 6 trapping stations 2:: 100 m apart. We monitored traps for a total of 216 trap nights and we recorded a total of 368 ...


Editorial Board & Iowa Academy Of Sciences Officers And Directors, 2010 University of Northern Iowa

Editorial Board & Iowa Academy Of Sciences Officers And Directors

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Gloria E. Anzaldúa’S Decolonizing Ritual De Conocimiento, Sarah S. Ohmer 2010 CUNY Lehman College

Gloria E. Anzaldúa’S Decolonizing Ritual De Conocimiento, Sarah S. Ohmer

Publications and Research

Gloria E. Anzaldúa’s work makes up one of the many Chican@ works that contribute another history, a history repressed by the national discourses on both sides of the border. Influenced by antecedents of U.S. Hispanic Literature who superposed “official” history with another history, Chicano activists had already enacted a retrieval of pre-conquest histories to revive their people’s historical consciousness. As Saldívar-Hull states in “Mestiza Consciousness and Politics: Gloria Anzaldúa’s Borderlands/ La frontera,” the publication of Borderlands/ La Frontera distinguished itself from the Chicano movement’s as it unveiled the curtain that hid the Aztec goddesses and ...


"From: Hell, With Love" The Role Of The Délog Tradition In Tibetan Buddhism, Sommer Disante 2010 University of Redlands

"From: Hell, With Love" The Role Of The Délog Tradition In Tibetan Buddhism, Sommer Disante

Armacost Library Undergraduate Research Award (ALURA)

There was a time in my life when I would have agreed with the above observation of the elusive and separate nature of death. Of course death is of little eonsequence; why worry about that which one cannot predict, control, or understand? Over the years, however, it has become clear to me that the very nature of mankind, as it is observable throughout human history, serves to stand in stark contrast to Epicurus' opinion of death. We exist now, that is undeniable. And death is everywhere, though we may not be able to control or even understand it. Societies have ...


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