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Companion Animal Statistics In The Usa, Andrew N. Rowan 2018 The Humane Society of the United States

Companion Animal Statistics In The Usa, Andrew N. Rowan

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

Early in 2008, a number of organizations and individuals interested in accurate statistics on pet population numbers and trends gathered in a hotel in Houston, TX to review the available data on estimated pet populations and shelter demographics. While the data and analysis below was produced and subsequently added to by just one of those individuals, the following document takes into account the input from those who attended. For example, it was generally accepted that the AVMA pet population estimates from their quinquennial surveys are likely to be more reliable than the biennial surveys used to produce the APPMA demographic ...


The Elephant (Head) In The Room: A Critical Look At Trophy Hunting, Chelsea Batavia, Michael Paul Nelson, Chris T. Darimont, Paul C. Paquet, William J. Ripple, Arian D. Wallach 2018 Oregon State University

The Elephant (Head) In The Room: A Critical Look At Trophy Hunting, Chelsea Batavia, Michael Paul Nelson, Chris T. Darimont, Paul C. Paquet, William J. Ripple, Arian D. Wallach

Chelsea Batavia, PhD

Trophy hunting has occupied a prominent position in recent scholarly literature and popular media. In the scientific conservation literature, researchers are generally supportive of or sympathetic to its usage as a source of monetary support for conservation. Although authors at times acknowledge that trophy hunting faces strong opposition from many members of the public, often for unspecified reasons associated with ethics, neither the nature nor the implications of these ethical concerns have been substantively addressed. We identify the central act of wildlife “trophy” taking as a potential source of ethical discomfort and public opposition. We highlight that trophy hunting entails ...


Battle Of The Sexes In Best Of Breed: Sex Influences Dogs’ Success In The Show Ring, Bethany J. Wilson, Alicia J. Kasbarian, Navneet Dhand, Paul D. McGreevy 2018 University of Sydney

Battle Of The Sexes In Best Of Breed: Sex Influences Dogs’ Success In The Show Ring, Bethany J. Wilson, Alicia J. Kasbarian, Navneet Dhand, Paul D. Mcgreevy

Competitive Breed Shows Collection

Much of the research on pedigree dog breeding has been directed towards understanding the implications of reduced genetic diversity and the prevalence of inherited disorders. An example is the potential role of the popular sire effect in perpetuating genetic defects. If male dogs are more likely than bitches to be identified as examples of members of a breed that align with breed standard, they may be selected for breeding earlier. This may contribute to the influence of individual males and contribute to popular sire effect. Conversely, if breed standards are written in a sex-neutral fashion, and if dogs are entered ...


High-Precision Lead Isotope Analysis On Modern Populations To Determine Geolocation Reliability, Gennifer M. Goad 2018 University of South Florida

High-Precision Lead Isotope Analysis On Modern Populations To Determine Geolocation Reliability, Gennifer M. Goad

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Forensic anthropologists increasingly use chemical isotope analysis in the investigation of unidentified human remains, as biochemical georeferencing continually improves with the development of modern reference data of known origins. Isotope variations in trace elements such as strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) in human teeth are some of the most useful indicators of past domicile in archaeological research and thus have high potential for modern, forensic applications. In this study, high-precision lead isotope analysis was conducted on 63 modern human teeth, which were previously analyzed for strontium isotopes. The results present new lead isotope data for the following countries: United States ...


Finding Ft. Smith And Ft. Star In Smithland, Ky, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr. 2018 Murray State University

Finding Ft. Smith And Ft. Star In Smithland, Ky, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr.

Student Scholarship & Creative Works

Through the utilization of Light Detection and Ranging data, one can compile 3-dimensional models that can be used to spot anomalies of historical interest. These anomalies, if recognizable by the trained eye, can then be used to geo-reference historic maps to gain a better understanding of historic sites as well as to reveal possible areas of interests or unknown features.

By using a 3-dimensional model compiled by LiDAR data, I was able to geo-reference a December 13th, 1861 map of the Civil War defenses for the town of Smithland, Kentucky. Through this process, I have been able to reveal ...


Life In Lincoln: Deciphering The Archaeological Material Culture Of A Turn Of The 20th Century Neighborhood, Amy Neumann 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Life In Lincoln: Deciphering The Archaeological Material Culture Of A Turn Of The 20th Century Neighborhood, Amy Neumann

Anthropology Department Theses and Dissertations

In June 1999, the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL) conducted a two-week salvage archaeology project during the early construction phase of the Kauffman Residential Center, an honors dormitory on campus. Nineteen archaeological features were discovered and fourteen were excavated from this historically residential area covering approximately one city block. The excavated archaeological materials include a large number of glass bottles, ceramics, metal artifacts, faunal remains, and personal items dating to the turn of the 20th century.

During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Lincoln, Nebraska experienced substantial population growth. The city thrived on manufacturing and purchasing goods allowing the economy ...


Intimate Japan: Ethnographies Of Closeness And Conflict, Allison Alexy, Emma E. Cook 2018 University of Hawai'i Manoa

Intimate Japan: Ethnographies Of Closeness And Conflict, Allison Alexy, Emma E. Cook

UH Press Book Previews

How do couples build intimacy in an era that valorizes independence and self-responsibility? How can a man be a good husband when full-time jobs are scarce? How can unmarried women find fulfillment and recognition outside of normative relationships? How can a person express their sexuality when there is no terminology that feels right? In contemporary Japan, broad social transformations are reflected and refracted in changing intimate relationships. As the Japanese population ages, the low birth rate shrinks the population, and decades of recession radically restructure labor markets, Japanese intimate relationships, norms, and ideals are concurrently shifting.

This volume explores a ...


Variation Among Populations In The Immune Protein Composition Of Mother's Milk Reflects Subsistence Pattern, Laura D. Klein, Jincui Huang, Elizabeth A. Quinn, Melanie A. Martin, Alicia A. Breakey, Michael Gurven, Hillard Kaplan, Claudia Valeggia, Grazyna Jasienska, Brooke Scelza, Carlito B. Lebrilla, Katie Hinde 2018 Harvard University

Variation Among Populations In The Immune Protein Composition Of Mother's Milk Reflects Subsistence Pattern, Laura D. Klein, Jincui Huang, Elizabeth A. Quinn, Melanie A. Martin, Alicia A. Breakey, Michael Gurven, Hillard Kaplan, Claudia Valeggia, Grazyna Jasienska, Brooke Scelza, Carlito B. Lebrilla, Katie Hinde

ESI Publications

Lay Summary: Adaptive immune proteins in mothers’ milk are more variable than innate immune proteins across populations and subsistence strategies. These results suggest that the immune defenses in milk are shaped by a mother’s environment throughout her life.

Background and objectives: Mother’s milk contains immune proteins that play critical roles in protecting the infant from infection and priming the infant’s developing immune system during early life. The composition of these molecules in milk, particularly the acquired immune proteins, is thought to reflect a mother’s immunological exposures throughout her life. In this study, we examine the composition ...


The Psychological Importance Of Forensic Identification To Families Of Victims Of Human Rights Violations, Emma S. Thoms 2018 Gettysburg College

The Psychological Importance Of Forensic Identification To Families Of Victims Of Human Rights Violations, Emma S. Thoms

Student Publications

No one knows how many people are missing in the world. Among cases involving kidnapping, human trafficking, and armed conflicts, even the most scrutinous efforts can never verify the sheer number of missing persons. This mystery is especially true for armed conflicts and human rights abuses as “the reluctance of most states to deal honestly and effectively with this issue” keeps the number unknown (“Missing”). Sadly, a great deal of missing persons are not only missing, but dead and unidentified, often as a result of armed conflicts like genocide, which uses mass graves. Once the mass graves are unearthed, specially ...


Prison-Based Dog Training Programs: Standard Protocol, Tyler M. Han, Erin Flynn, Joseph Winchell, Emily Gould, Jaci Gandenberger, Dana Barattin, Philip Tedeschi, Kevin N. Morris 2018 University of Denver

Prison-Based Dog Training Programs: Standard Protocol, Tyler M. Han, Erin Flynn, Joseph Winchell, Emily Gould, Jaci Gandenberger, Dana Barattin, Philip Tedeschi, Kevin N. Morris

Animal Training and Obedience Collection

Across the United States, the number of prison-based dog training programs (PDPs) has increased substantially over the past several years. Currently, there are approximately 255 PDPs across 47 states that operate in a variety of correctional settings; however, there is little information available on how to successfully develop and implement a PDP. As a result, the research team from the Institute for Human-Animal Connection (IHAC) has developed a standard protocol to help guide PDP development and implementation.

This report identifies common practices of PDPs and incorporates both general and context-specific recommendations that were gathered from interviews with PDP staff, relevant ...


Demographics Regarding Belief In Non-Human Animal Sentience And Emotional Empathy With Animals: A Pilot Study Among Attendees Of An Animal Welfare Symposium, Amelia Cornish, Bethany Wilson, David Raubenheimer, Paul McGreevy 2018 University of Sydney

Demographics Regarding Belief In Non-Human Animal Sentience And Emotional Empathy With Animals: A Pilot Study Among Attendees Of An Animal Welfare Symposium, Amelia Cornish, Bethany Wilson, David Raubenheimer, Paul Mcgreevy

Societal Attitudes Toward Animals Collection

Attitudes to animals are linked to beliefs about their ability to experience pain and suffering, their cognition, and their sentience. Education and awareness-raising play a pivotal role in increasing society’s consideration of non-human animal welfare. The current pilot study explores the attitudes towards animal welfare among a unique population of people who attended an animal welfare symposium at the University of Sydney. It involved administration of a validated questionnaire that assessed attitudes to animals; specifically exploring participants’ (n = 41) beliefs about the sentience of animals and their emotional empathy with animals. The resultant data revealed significant associations between participants ...


“We Always Hurt The Things We Love”—Unnoticed Abuse Of Companion Animals, Bernard E. Rollin 2018 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

“We Always Hurt The Things We Love”—Unnoticed Abuse Of Companion Animals, Bernard E. Rollin

Animal Cruelty and Abuse Collection

Despite the fact that companion animals enjoy the status of “members of the family” in contemporary society, there are numerous diseases affecting the longevity of these animals and their quality of life. Some of the most pervasive and damaging problems accrue to pedigreed animals whose genetic lines contain many major and severe diseases which are detrimental to both the quality and length of life. If one considers the most popular dog breeds in the United States, the top 10 include the Labrador Retriever, German Shepherd, Golden Retriever, French Bulldog, Beagle, Poodle, Rottweiler, Yorkshire Terrier, and German Shorthaired Pointer. Some idea ...


Welfare-Adjusted Life Years (Waly): A Novel Metric Of Animal Welfare That Combines The Impacts Of Impaired Welfare And Abbreviated Lifespan, Kendy Tzu-Yun Teng, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Charline Maerten De Noordhout, Peter Bennett, Paul McGreevy, Po-Yu Chiu, Jenny-Ann L.M.L. Toribio, Navneet Dhand 2018 University of Sydney

Welfare-Adjusted Life Years (Waly): A Novel Metric Of Animal Welfare That Combines The Impacts Of Impaired Welfare And Abbreviated Lifespan, Kendy Tzu-Yun Teng, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Charline Maerten De Noordhout, Peter Bennett, Paul Mcgreevy, Po-Yu Chiu, Jenny-Ann L.M.L. Toribio, Navneet Dhand

Assessment of Animal Welfare Collection

Currently, separate measures are used to estimate the impact of animal diseases on mortality and animal welfare. This article introduces a novel metric, the Welfare-Adjusted Life Year (WALY), to estimate disease impact by combining welfare compromise and premature death components. Adapting the Disability-Adjusted Life Year approach used in human health audits, we propose WALY as the sum of a) the years lived with impaired welfare due to a particular cause and b) the years of life lost due to the premature death from the same cause. The years lived with impaired welfare are the product of the average duration of ...


Marital Violence And Fertility In A Relatively Egalitarian High-Fertility Population, Jonathan Stieglitz, Benjamin C. Trumble, Hillard Kaplan, Michael Gurven 2018 Université Toulouse

Marital Violence And Fertility In A Relatively Egalitarian High-Fertility Population, Jonathan Stieglitz, Benjamin C. Trumble, Hillard Kaplan, Michael Gurven

ESI Publications

Ultimate and proximate explanations of men’s physical intimate partner violence (IPV) against women have been proposed. An ultimate explanation posits that IPV is used to achieve a selfish fitness-relevant outcome, and predicts that IPV is associated with greater marital fertility. Proximate IPV explanations contain either complementary strategic components (for example, men’s desire for partner control), non-strategic components (for example, men’s self-regulatory failure), or both strategic and non-strategic components involving social learning. Consistent with an expectation from an ultimate IPV explanation, we find that IPV predicts greater marital fertility among Tsimané forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia (n = 133 marriages, 105 ...


Relational Identities And Other-Than-Human Agency In Archaeology, Eleanor Harrison-Buck, Julia A. Hendon 2018 University of New Hampshire

Relational Identities And Other-Than-Human Agency In Archaeology, Eleanor Harrison-Buck, Julia A. Hendon

Gettysburg College Faculty Books

Relational Identities and Other-than-Human Agency in Archaeology explores the benefits and consequences of archaeological theorizing on and interpretation of the social agency of nonhumans as relational beings capable of producing change in the world. The volume cross-examines traditional understanding of agency and personhood, presenting a globally diverse set of case studies that cover a range of cultural, geographical, and historical contexts.

Agency (the ability to act) and personhood (the reciprocal qualities of relational beings) have traditionally been strictly assigned to humans. In case studies from Ghana to Australia to the British Isles and Mesoamerica, contributors to this volume demonstrate that ...


Navigating Mental Health Care Access In Louisville : An Ethnography Of Local Resources And Care Assemblages., Laura Drabelle Valentine 2018 University of Louisville

Navigating Mental Health Care Access In Louisville : An Ethnography Of Local Resources And Care Assemblages., Laura Drabelle Valentine

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines barriers to care access present in Louisville, Kentucky's community mental health care infrastructure, and how individuals who seek mental health care experience and navigate those barriers. This thesis expands research about the impacts of health care reform following the Affordable Care Act and adds to literature about the political economy of health-seeking behaviors. Drawing on assemblage theory and ethnographic research with both care-providers and care-recipients of Community Mental Health Care Organizations, I argue that both groups attempt to alleviate barriers to care access and facilitate mental health recovery through the development of formal and informal strategies ...


Report On Owned Dog Population Survey In Zamboanga, Philippines, Tamara Kartal, Lynne U. Sneddon, Amit Chaudhari 2018 Humane Society International

Report On Owned Dog Population Survey In Zamboanga, Philippines, Tamara Kartal, Lynne U. Sneddon, Amit Chaudhari

Demography and Statistics for Companion Animal Populations Collection

The Philippines is among the Southeast Asian countries that has a long-standing problem with rabies. About 200 people die of rabies each year in the Philippines, and most are attributed to dog bite cases (Deray, 2015). The sources of infection of more than 95% of human rabies cases worldwide have been reported to be domestic dogs (Cleaveland, et al., 2006). Focusing on the main source rather than the human population, is therefore, the best strategy to eliminate rabies. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends covering at least 70% of the existing domestic dog population with rabies vaccination in the shortest ...


Companion Animal Statistics In The Usa, Andrew N. Rowan 2018 The Humane Society of the United States

Companion Animal Statistics In The Usa, Andrew N. Rowan

Demography and Statistics for Companion Animal Populations Collection

Early in 2008, a number of organizations and individuals interested in accurate statistics on pet population numbers and trends gathered in a hotel in Houston, TX to review the available data on estimated pet populations and shelter demographics. While the data and analysis below was produced and subsequently added to by just one of those individuals, the following document takes into account the input from those who attended. For example, it was generally accepted that the AVMA pet population estimates from their quinquennial surveys are likely to be more reliable than the biennial surveys used to produce the APPMA demographic ...


Report On Owned Dog Population Survey In Lingayen, Philippines, Tamara Kartal, Lynne U. Sneddon, Amit Chaudhari 2018 Humane Society International

Report On Owned Dog Population Survey In Lingayen, Philippines, Tamara Kartal, Lynne U. Sneddon, Amit Chaudhari

Demography and Statistics for Companion Animal Populations Collection

The Philippines is among the Southeast Asian countries that has a long-standing problem with rabies. About 200 people die of rabies each year in the Philippines, and most are attributed to dog bite cases (Deray, 2015). The sources of infection of more than 95% of human rabies cases worldwide have been reported to be domestic dogs (Cleaveland, et al., 2006). Focusing on the main source rather than the human population, is therefore, the best strategy to eliminate rabies. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends covering at least 70% of the existing domestic dog population with rabies vaccination in the shortest ...


Greater Wealth Inequality, Less Polygyny: Rethinking The Polygyny Threshold Model, Cody T. Ross, Monique Borgerhoff Mulder, Seung-Yun Oh, Samuel Bowles, Bret Beheim, John Bunce, Mark Caudell, Gregory Clark, Heidi Colleran, Carmen Cortez, Patricia Draper, Russell D. Greaves, Michael Gurven, Thomas Headland, Janet Headland, Kim Hill, Barry Hewlett, Hillard Kaplan, Jeremy Koster, Karen Kramer, Frank Marlowe, Richard McElreath, David Nolin, Marsha Quinlan, Robert Quinlan, Caissa Revilla-Minaya, Brooke Scelza, Ryan Schacht, Mary Shenk, Ray Uehara, Eckart Voland, Kai Willführ, Bruce Winterhalder, John Ziker, Christopher von Rueden 2018 Santa Fe Institute

Greater Wealth Inequality, Less Polygyny: Rethinking The Polygyny Threshold Model, Cody T. Ross, Monique Borgerhoff Mulder, Seung-Yun Oh, Samuel Bowles, Bret Beheim, John Bunce, Mark Caudell, Gregory Clark, Heidi Colleran, Carmen Cortez, Patricia Draper, Russell D. Greaves, Michael Gurven, Thomas Headland, Janet Headland, Kim Hill, Barry Hewlett, Hillard Kaplan, Jeremy Koster, Karen Kramer, Frank Marlowe, Richard Mcelreath, David Nolin, Marsha Quinlan, Robert Quinlan, Caissa Revilla-Minaya, Brooke Scelza, Ryan Schacht, Mary Shenk, Ray Uehara, Eckart Voland, Kai Willführ, Bruce Winterhalder, John Ziker, Christopher Von Rueden

ESI Publications

Monogamy appears to have become the predominant human mating system with the emergence of highly unequal agricultural populations that replaced relatively egalitarian horticultural populations, challenging the conventional idea—based on the polygyny threshold model—that polygyny should be positively associated with wealth inequality. To address this polygyny paradox, we generalize the standard polygyny threshold model to a mutual mate choice model predicting the fraction of women married polygynously. We then demonstrate two conditions that are jointly sufficient to make monogamy the predominant marriage form, even in highly unequal societies. We assess if these conditions are satisfied using individual-level data from ...


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