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Reconstructing The Demographic History Of The Critically Endangered Black-And-White Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Variegata) In Ranomafana National Park, Aparna Chandrashekar 2019 CUNY Hunter College

Reconstructing The Demographic History Of The Critically Endangered Black-And-White Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Variegata) In Ranomafana National Park, Aparna Chandrashekar

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Due to heavy fragmentation of their remaining range, the Critically Endangered black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata) is facing catastrophic population declines. Skyline analyses at Ranomafana National Park show the ruffed lemur effective population size declining by 84% starting around 1,500 years ago.


Online Hunting Forums Identify Achievement As Prominent Among Multiple Satisfactions, Alena M. Ebeling-Schuld, Chris T. Darimont 2019 University of Victoria

Online Hunting Forums Identify Achievement As Prominent Among Multiple Satisfactions, Alena M. Ebeling-Schuld, Chris T. Darimont

Chris Darimont, PhD

Understanding hunter satisfactions can lead to improved wildlife management policy and practice. Whereas previous work has suggested that hunters often seek multiple satisfactions (achievement, affiliation, appreciation), little is known about how satisfactions might vary with target species. Additionally, past research has mostly gathered data using interviews and surveys, which might limit scope as well as introduce strategic bias for potentially provocative subjects such as hunting. To address these gaps, we analyzed data from online hunting forums, which provide an open-access source of peer-to-peer discussion that is geographically and taxonomically broad. We used directed qualitative content analysis to analyze hunting narratives ...


What Enables Size-Selective Trophy Hunting Of Wildlife?, Chris T. Darimont, K. Rosie Child 2019 University of Victoria

What Enables Size-Selective Trophy Hunting Of Wildlife?, Chris T. Darimont, K. Rosie Child

Chris Darimont, PhD

Although rarely considered predators, wildlife hunters can function as important ecological and evolutionary agents. In part, their influence relates to targeting of large reproductive adults within prey populations. Despite known impacts of sizeselective harvests, however, we know little about what enables hunters to kill these older, rarer, and presumably more wary individuals. In other mammalian predators, predatory performance varies with knowledge and physical condition, which accumulates and declines, respectively, with age. Moreover, some species evolved camouflage as a physical trait to aid in predatory performance. In this work, we tested whether knowledge-based faculty (use of a hunting guide with accumulated ...


The Elephant (Head) In The Room: A Critical Look At Trophy Hunting, Chelsea Batavia, Michael Paul Nelson, Chris T. Darimont, Paul C. Paquet, William J. Ripple, Arian D. Wallach 2019 Oregon State University

The Elephant (Head) In The Room: A Critical Look At Trophy Hunting, Chelsea Batavia, Michael Paul Nelson, Chris T. Darimont, Paul C. Paquet, William J. Ripple, Arian D. Wallach

Chris Darimont, PhD

Trophy hunting has occupied a prominent position in recent scholarly literature and popular media. In the scientific conservation literature, researchers are generally supportive of or sympathetic to its usage as a source of monetary support for conservation. Although authors at times acknowledge that trophy hunting faces strong opposition from many members of the public, often for unspecified reasons associated with ethics, neither the nature nor the implications of these ethical concerns have been substantively addressed. We identify the central act of wildlife “trophy” taking as a potential source of ethical discomfort and public opposition. We highlight that trophy hunting entails ...


Why Men Trophy Hunt, Chris T. Darimont, Brian F. Codding, Kristen Hawkes 2019 University of Victoria

Why Men Trophy Hunt, Chris T. Darimont, Brian F. Codding, Kristen Hawkes

Chris Darimont, PhD

The killing of Cecil the lion (Panthera leo) ignited enduring and increasingly global discussion about trophy hunting. Yet, policy debate about its benefits and costs focuses only on the hunted species and biodiversity, not the unique behaviour of hunters. Some contemporary recreational hunters from the developed world behave curiously, commonly targeting ‘trophies’: individuals within populations with large body or ornament size, as well as rare and/or inedible species, like carnivores. Although contemporary hunters have been classified according to implied motivation (i.e. for meat, recreation, trophy or population control, as well the ‘multiple satisfactions’ they seek while hunting (affiliation ...


Hunting As A Management Tool? Cougar-Human Conflict Is Positively Related To Trophy Hunting, Kristine J. Teichman, Bogdan Cristescu, Chris T. Darimont 2019 University of Victoria

Hunting As A Management Tool? Cougar-Human Conflict Is Positively Related To Trophy Hunting, Kristine J. Teichman, Bogdan Cristescu, Chris T. Darimont

Chris Darimont, PhD

Background: Overexploitation and persecution of large carnivores resulting from conflict with humans comprise major causes of declines worldwide. Although little is known about the interplay between these mortality types, hunting of predators remains a common management strategy aimed at reducing predator-human conflict. Emerging theory and data, however, caution that such policy can alter the age structure of populations, triggering increased conflict in which conflict-prone juveniles are involved.

Results: Using a 30-year dataset on human-caused cougar (Puma concolor) kills in British Columbia (BC), Canada, we examined relationships between hunter-caused and conflict-associated mortality. Individuals that were killed via conflict with humans were ...


Ecology Of Conflict: Marine Food Supply Affects Human-Wildlife Interactions On Land, Kyle A. Artelle, Sean Anderson, John D. Reynolds, Andrew B. Cooper, Paul C. Paquet, Chris T. Darimont 2019 Simon Fraser University

Ecology Of Conflict: Marine Food Supply Affects Human-Wildlife Interactions On Land, Kyle A. Artelle, Sean Anderson, John D. Reynolds, Andrew B. Cooper, Paul C. Paquet, Chris T. Darimont

Chris Darimont, PhD

Human-wildlife conflicts impose considerable costs to people and wildlife worldwide. Most research focuses on proximate causes, offering limited generalizable understanding of ultimate drivers. We tested three competing hypotheses (problem individuals, regional population saturation, limited food supply) that relate to underlying processes of human-grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) conflict, using data from British Columbia, Canada, between 1960–2014. We found most support for the limited food supply hypothesis: in bear populations that feed on spawning salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), the annual number of bears/km2killed due to conflicts with humans increased by an average of 20% (6–32% [95% CI]) for each ...


Healthcare Perceptions Among Patients And Physicians In Kyiv, Ukraine, Lucas Fagre 2019 University of Iowa

Healthcare Perceptions Among Patients And Physicians In Kyiv, Ukraine, Lucas Fagre

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

The objective of this study is to analyze the perceptions and beliefs of Ukrainian patients and physicians regarding access to healthcare within Ukraine. The Ukrainian national healthcare system, like that of many post-Soviet countries, is ostensibly free to all Ukrainian citizens and legally-residing foreigners. That said, it is widely considered inefficient, of poor quality, and corrupt. Healthcare in Ukraine has recently begun to undergo several dramatic changes, including reforms to the nationalized system, and the emergence of a rapidly growing privatized healthcare system. Little research has been done in English language journals regarding the experiences of Ukrainian patients and physicians ...


Effect Of Group Size On The Activity Budget Of Two Captive Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Kaeley Sullins 2019 Central Washington University

Effect Of Group Size On The Activity Budget Of Two Captive Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Kaeley Sullins

All Master's Theses

Captive facilities housing chimpanzees are required to provide adequate care and provisions such as dietary, social, and environmental enrichment to promote the psychological well-being of the apes in their care. Chimpanzees are social creatures and changes in groups as well as relocation to a facility with new social partners, can impact each individual chimpanzee’s welfare. By tracking each chimpanzee’s activity budgets, managers can assess welfare and make improvements or adjustments if necessary. I looked at the activity budgets of two captive chimpanzees after the death of a group member and the two chimpanzees’ subsequent relocation to a novel ...


Private Law Statutory Interpretation, Shyamkrishna Balganesh 2019 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Private Law Statutory Interpretation, Shyamkrishna Balganesh

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This Essay is an attempt to describe the basis and consequences of the disconnect between private law and legislation, both for private law theorizing and legal thinking more generally. It does so by focusing on “private law statutes,” legislation that creates or modifies rights and obligations between parties in their private capacities. Private law statutes do more than merely create private causes of action. While they create private causes, they do so on the basis of principles that are specific to the horizontal interaction between parties, rather than entirely for public-regarding policy reasons. While statutes in the areas traditionally identified ...


Exploring The Urban Infrastructure Of Transnational Labor Migration In Nepal, Alena McIntosh 2019 University of Puget Sound

Exploring The Urban Infrastructure Of Transnational Labor Migration In Nepal, Alena Mcintosh

Summer Research

This project examines the ways in which outmigration from Nepal is impacting the built landscape of Kathmandu. This project employed ethnographic methods to explore transnational labor migration through the lens of the city and the use and construction of urban spaces. While outmigration was the original focus of the project, it became clear through the research process that internal migration, the first step in the transnational migration process, plays a more direct role in the development of the city. This research was based on nineteen interviews conducted in Kathmandu as well as photo ethnography. Transnational labor migration is an exceedingly ...


Janja Majstorovic, Marija Maracic, Josipa Karaca 2019 Cleveland State University

Janja Majstorovic, Marija Maracic, Josipa Karaca

SICANJE

No abstract provided.


The Impacts Of The City And County Of Denver’S Breed Specific Legislation, Sloane M. Hawes, Devrim Ikizler, Katy Loughney, Justin F. Marceau, Philip Tedeschi, Kevin N. Morris 2019 University of Denver

The Impacts Of The City And County Of Denver’S Breed Specific Legislation, Sloane M. Hawes, Devrim Ikizler, Katy Loughney, Justin F. Marceau, Philip Tedeschi, Kevin N. Morris

Speciesism and Breed Discrimination Collection

In August of 1989, the City and County of Denver, CO, USA enacted legislation that prohibits the presence of all “pit bull” type dogs (PBTD) (defined in Denver as: American Pit Bull Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier, or Staffordshire Bull Terrier) within the city limits. In the 30 years the “pit bull ban” has been in place, the City and County of Denver and its animal control agency, Denver Animal Protection, have committed substantial resources to removing PBTDs from the community, including patrolling communities and/or responding to complaints made by neighbors, conducting thorough breed evaluations of suspected PBTDs, and kenneling ...


The Land Of Meat And Potatoes? Exploring Ireland’S Vegan And Vegetarian Foodscape, Corey Lee Wrenn 2019 University of Kent at Canterbury

The Land Of Meat And Potatoes? Exploring Ireland’S Vegan And Vegetarian Foodscape, Corey Lee Wrenn

Dietary Choice and Foods of Animal Origin Collection

While it would not be accurate to suggest that Ireland is a hub of veganism or vegetarianism, too often it is written off as inherently unsympathetic to the ethics of plant-based eating and anti-speciesist politics. While it is true that Irish culture is historically tied to speciesism and its economy is especially dependent upon “meat” and dairy production, Ireland’s relationship with other animals is complex and sometimes forgiving. This essay seeks to bring shape to the Irish vegan ethic, one that can be traced along its history of animism, agrarianism, ascendency, adaptation, and activism. From its pagan roots to ...


Increasing The Transparency Of Animal Experimentation: An Australian Perspective, Monika Merkes, Rob Buttrose 2019 Humane Research Australia

Increasing The Transparency Of Animal Experimentation: An Australian Perspective, Monika Merkes, Rob Buttrose

Animal Law and Legislation Collection

It has been argued that citizen stakeholders would be well served by greater transparency. The Transparency Register of the European Union (eu) (2016), for example, states that “Transparency is […] a key part of encouraging European citizens to participate more actively in the democratic life of the eu”. But why is transparency in non-human animal (hereinafter referred to as animal) research desirable, or indeed vital? Hadley (2012) argues that the public finance much animal research but do not know what impact their taxes and donations have on animals. Furthermore, he suggests that, since “people enjoy the benefits of animal research when ...


Political Campaigning: Where Scientific And Ethical Arguments Meet Public Policy, Emily McIvor 2019 People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA)

Political Campaigning: Where Scientific And Ethical Arguments Meet Public Policy, Emily Mcivor

Animals and Public Policy Collection

The ambition of the paradigm shift we seek is vast, and the obstacles we face are intractable. For anyone opposing the use of non-human animals (hereinafter referred to as animals) in research and testing, the story has been the same from the start. Legitimate concern for animals has been all-too-easily dismissed as misguided sentimentality, and powerful vested interests have claimed scientific, economic, and moral superiority. But the ground is shifting. Animal researchers accept the need to provide scientific justification for their choices, and the protection of animals is increasingly recognized as a public good. Concern among citizens has been translated ...


Disease Prevention With A Plant-Based Lifestyle, Sabina V. Vyas 2019 Public Health Consultant

Disease Prevention With A Plant-Based Lifestyle, Sabina V. Vyas

Dietary Choice and Foods of Animal Origin Collection

Animal experiments are commonly conducted to understand human diseases and responses to treatment. As decades of research indicate, the use of nonhuman animals (hereinafter referred to as animals) to translate the side effects, benefits, and impact of medications and treatments on the human body has been demonstrated to be ineffective; while billions of animals and humans have suffered (Shanks, Greek and Greek, 2009). Due to misleading safety and efficacy data from animal experiments, humans are often prescribed medications that may not be as effective or as safe as the patient, or even physician, may have been led to believe (Akhtar ...


The Quest Of Vision: Visual Culture, Sacred Space, Ritual, And The Documentation Of Lived Experience Through Rock Imagery, Aaron Robert Atencio 2019 University of Montana

The Quest Of Vision: Visual Culture, Sacred Space, Ritual, And The Documentation Of Lived Experience Through Rock Imagery, Aaron Robert Atencio

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

This document will approach the multifaceted concepts that arise through the study of rock art and the cultivation of culture and belief through vision. Through this document the audience will encounter conceptual ideas regarding belief systems, ritual, experience, cognition, sacredness, and space/landscape — and how these are all essential dynamics that take place in the processes that cultivate the Shoshone visual culture. This document will employ an anthropological lens on the mentioned subject matters, while also approaching these concepts with an interdisciplinary curiosity of how they intermingle; creating a cohesive experience that focuses on these processes which empowered these people ...


An Unfinished Dialogue: Congress, The Judiciary, And The Rules For Federal Judicial Misconduct Proceedings, Arthur D. Hellman 2019 University of Pittsburgh School of Law

An Unfinished Dialogue: Congress, The Judiciary, And The Rules For Federal Judicial Misconduct Proceedings, Arthur D. Hellman

Articles

Federal judges can be impeached and removed from office for “high crimes and misdemeanors,” but what can be done to investigate and remedy less serious misconduct? Congress gave its answer 40 years ago when it passed the Judicial Conduct and Disability Act of 1980. The Act emerged from a series of complex interactions between Congress and the judiciary that could hardly be replicated today. Initially there was strong support, particularly in the Senate, for a centralized, “strictly adjudicatory” system, including a provision for removal of judges without impeachment. Over the course of several years, however, the judiciary persuaded Congress to ...


Dna Integrity In Forensic Samples, Samantha L. Ramey 2019 University of Montana, Missoula

Dna Integrity In Forensic Samples, Samantha L. Ramey

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

When packaged genetic evidence samples are stored in close proximity, there is a higher chance for cross-contamination, which can lead to potential false results. The goal of this study was to test DNA storage methods and environments to determine the best way to avoid potential cross-contamination. Established protocols for storing different types of genetic evidence samples were evaluated: biological swabs and DNA cards. A known concentration of pig DNA was introduced to the evidence samples. Three different evidence drying times of the DNA-free swabs and cards were implemented before packaging: immediate packaging, an hour drying, and 24 hours drying. The ...


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