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Cross-Sectional Morphology And Mechanical Loading In Plio-Pleistocene Hominins: Implications For Locomotion And Taxonomy, Michele M. Bleuze Ms. 2010 The University of Western Ontario

Cross-Sectional Morphology And Mechanical Loading In Plio-Pleistocene Hominins: Implications For Locomotion And Taxonomy, Michele M. Bleuze Ms.

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study explores locomotion and locomotor variability in Plio-Pleistocene hominins by examining cross-sectional properties and mechanical loading patterns in the proximal and midshaft femur of Paranthropus, fossil Homo sp. and H. erectus. Modern human and Pan models are used for comparative purposes. Cross-sectional properties in the proximal and midshaft femur of fossil hominins are examined to test the hypothesis that members of the same genus should exhibit similar locomotor behavior. In the proximal femur, fossil Homo sp. cluster with modern humans to the exclusion of Paranthropus, and East and South African Paranthropus cluster together. Group differences are primarily due to …


How Are The Torres Strait Islander's Traditional Hunting Practices Affected By The Current Rate Of Decline In Dugong And Sea Turtle Populations And The Australian Government's Co-Management Policies On Marine Preservation?, Katilyn Price 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

How Are The Torres Strait Islander's Traditional Hunting Practices Affected By The Current Rate Of Decline In Dugong And Sea Turtle Populations And The Australian Government's Co-Management Policies On Marine Preservation?, Katilyn Price

Environmental Studies Undergraduate Student Theses

This paper will attempt to identify the extent to which the Torres Strait Islanders traditional hunting practices have been disrupted by the overall decline in dugong and sea turtle populations, which has directly correlated to an increase in hunting restrictions put in place by the Australian Government. The traditional hunting of dugongs and sea turtles provides not only a food source, but brings prestige to the men who catch them and serves as an educational platform to teach the younger generations about their culture. There are many environmental threats that impact the populations of sea turtles and dugongs though the …


Human Decomposition Ecology At The University Of Tennessee Anthropology Research Facility, Franklin Edward Damann 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Human Decomposition Ecology At The University Of Tennessee Anthropology Research Facility, Franklin Edward Damann

Doctoral Dissertations

The University of Tennessee Anthropology Research Facility (ARF) is well known for its unique history as a site of human decomposition research in a natural environment. It has been integral to our understanding of the processes of human decomposition. Over the last 30 years 1,089 bodies have decomposed at this 1.28 acre facility, producing a density of 850 corpses per acre of land. This project evaluated the abiotic and biotic characteristics of the soil exposed to various levels of human decomposition in order to determine the effect on the physicochemical properties and the indigenous bacterial communities.

Specifically, 75 soil samples …


Blood Lipids, Infection, And Inflammatory Markers In The Tsimane Of Bolivia, Sarinnapha Vasunilashorn, Eileen M. Crimmins, Jung KI Kim, Jeff Winking, Michael Gurven, Hillard Kaplan, Caleb Finch 2010 University of Southern California

Blood Lipids, Infection, And Inflammatory Markers In The Tsimane Of Bolivia, Sarinnapha Vasunilashorn, Eileen M. Crimmins, Jung Ki Kim, Jeff Winking, Michael Gurven, Hillard Kaplan, Caleb Finch

ESI Publications

Objectives—Little is known about blood cholesterol (blood-C) levels under conditions of infection and limited diet. This study examines blood-C and markers of infection and inflammation in the Tsimane of the Bolivian Amazon, indigenous forager farmers living in conditions that model preindustrial European populations by their short life expectancy, high load of infections and inflammation, and limited diets.

Methods—We use multivariate models to determine the relationships between lipid levels and markers of infection and inflammation. Adult Tsimane (N = 418, age 20–84) were characterized for blood lipids, cells, and inflammatory markers in relation to individual loads of parasites and …


The Quantification Of Displacement Of The Anterior Teeth In The Human Dentition, Peggy Jean Van Scotter-Asbach 2010 Marquette University

The Quantification Of Displacement Of The Anterior Teeth In The Human Dentition, Peggy Jean Van Scotter-Asbach

Dissertations (1934 -)

The credibility of bite mark analysis as a forensic science is under fire in our legal system. The basis of opinions regarding the probability of a dental pattern observed in bite mark evidence matching a suspect's dentition has not been objectively substantiated. Though guidelines and standards are in place, bite mark analyses have failed to provide basic scientific methods in order to be deemed of evidentiary value. Forensic scientists need to take a step back and develop valid and reliable methodologies that provide a statistical approach for defining dental characteristics in the human dentition.

For this study, three computer-generated, mathematically …


Tooth Chipping Can Reveal The Diet And Bite Forces Of Fossil Hominins, Paul J. Constantino, James Jin-Wu Lee, Herzl Chai, Bernhard Zipfel, Charles Ziscovici, Brian R. Lawn, Peter W. Lucas 2010 Biological Sciences

Tooth Chipping Can Reveal The Diet And Bite Forces Of Fossil Hominins, Paul J. Constantino, James Jin-Wu Lee, Herzl Chai, Bernhard Zipfel, Charles Ziscovici, Brian R. Lawn, Peter W. Lucas

Biological Sciences Faculty Research

Mammalian tooth enamel is often chipped, providing clear evidence for localized contacts with large hard food objects. Here, we apply a simple fracture equation to estimate peak bite forces directly from chip size. Many fossil hominins exhibit antemortem chips on their posterior teeth, indicating their use of high bite forces. The inference that these species must have consumed large hard foods such as seeds is supported by the occurrence of similar chips among known modern-day seed predators such as orangutans and peccaries. The existence of tooth chip signatures also provides a way of identifying the consumption of rarely eaten foods …


Diggin' Uncle Ben And Aunt Jemima: Battling Myth Through Archaeology, Kelley Deetz 2010 Roanoke College

Diggin' Uncle Ben And Aunt Jemima: Battling Myth Through Archaeology, Kelley Deetz

African Diaspora Archaeology Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Mitochondrial Dna Diversity In Mennonite Communities From The Midwestern United States, Phillip Edward Melton, M.J. Mosher, Rohina C. Rubicz, Mark Zlojutro, Michael H. Crawford 2010 Centre for Genetic Origins of Health and Disease

Mitochondrial Dna Diversity In Mennonite Communities From The Midwestern United States, Phillip Edward Melton, M.J. Mosher, Rohina C. Rubicz, Mark Zlojutro, Michael H. Crawford

Anthropology Faculty and Staff Publications

We examined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in six Mennonite communities from Kansas (Goessel, Lone Tree, Garden View, Meridian, and Garden City) and Nebraska (Henderson) to determine their genetic structure and its relationship to population history. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup and haplotype information were obtained from blood samples from 118 individuals. Molecular genetic variation was analyzed using diversity measures, neutrality test statistics, spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA), and multidimensional scaling plots. The Mennonite samples exhibited eight western European mtDNA haplogroups: H, HVO, I, J, K, T, U, and X. Comparable to other populations of European descent, haplogroup H was the most …


Affiliative Behaviors In Pairbonded Red Titi Monkeys (Callicebus Discolor), Andrea Spence-Aizenberg 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Affiliative Behaviors In Pairbonded Red Titi Monkeys (Callicebus Discolor), Andrea Spence-Aizenberg

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Adult titi monkeys (Callicebus spp.) form strong pairbonds and reside in socially monogamous groups. In addition, adult males are heavily involved in infant care, exhibiting a degree of direct investment unusual even among primate species with paternal care. Most of the research exploring the nature of these social bonds has focused on captive populations, and data on wild titi populations are limited. In particular, data quantifying the pairbond and exploring the costs of infant care are rare for wild titi monkeys. I analyzed data from two groups of titi monkeys (Callicebus discolor) in Yasuní National Park and Biosphere Reserve and …


Biological Affinities And The Construction Of Cultural Identity For The Proposed Coosa Chiefdom, Michaelyn S. Harle 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Biological Affinities And The Construction Of Cultural Identity For The Proposed Coosa Chiefdom, Michaelyn S. Harle

Doctoral Dissertations

This study couples biological data with aspects of material culture and mortuary ritual for several sites within the proposed Coosa chiefdom described by sixteenth-century Spanish accounts to explore how cultural identities were actively constructed and maintained within the region. The primary goal is to examine regional interactions between these communities and their constructions of social identity and sociopolitical dynamics vis à vis their biological affinities. Questions regarding regional interactions between these groups have been a stimulus for archaeological debate. These interactions may have played a crucial role in the construction of separate cultural identities. What is not clear is to …


Does Mean Osteon Size Change With Age, Sex Or Handedness? Analysis Of The Second Metacarpal In A 19th Century Sample From Belleville, Ontario, Canada, Bridget Jennifer Denny 2010 Boise State University

Does Mean Osteon Size Change With Age, Sex Or Handedness? Analysis Of The Second Metacarpal In A 19th Century Sample From Belleville, Ontario, Canada, Bridget Jennifer Denny

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Histological analysis of cortical bone can be used to provide information on age at death, health status, and the influence of biomechanical forces on bones. Specifically, a better understanding of the variation in mean osteon size can increase our knowledge about the influence of factors such as age and sex associated changes and their effects on bone metabolic functions. Previous studies suggest that these influences are bone specific and have produced varying results regarding the association between osteon size and the variables mentioned above. To date, no research has focused on mean osteon size in metacarpals. The purpose of this …


Secular Change Of The Modern Human Bony Pelvis: Examining Morphology In The United States Using Metrics And Geometric Morphometry, Kathryn R.D. Driscoll 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Secular Change Of The Modern Human Bony Pelvis: Examining Morphology In The United States Using Metrics And Geometric Morphometry, Kathryn R.D. Driscoll

Doctoral Dissertations

The human bony pelvis has evolved into its current form through competing selective forces. Bipedalism and parturition of large headed babies resulted in a form that is a complex compromise. While the morphology of the human pelvis has been extensively studied, the changes that have occurred since the adoption of the modern form, the secular changes that continue to alter the size and shape of the pelvis, have not received nearly as much attention. This research aims to examine the changes that have altered the morphology of the human bony pelvic girdle of individuals in the United States born between …


The Effects Of Cellular Theta Breathing Meditation On Cell Mediated Immune Response: A Controlled, Randomized Investigation Of Altered Consciousness And Health, Marjorie D. Hardgrave 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Effects Of Cellular Theta Breathing Meditation On Cell Mediated Immune Response: A Controlled, Randomized Investigation Of Altered Consciousness And Health, Marjorie D. Hardgrave

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Medical anthropology is well positioned to make contributions to consciousness research based on biocultural approaches that integrate methodologies from the biological, behavioral and social sciences to explore aspects of human health. The ubiquity and perseverance of health related activities involving altered states of consciousness (ASC) across cultures past and present suggest that these potentials are deeply rooted in human sociocultural evolution. Analyzing the relationship between immune function and meditative ASC represents an effort to empirically investigate the adaptive value of these human potentials.

A controlled, randomized investigation of two meditation practices was conducted at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas …


Use Of An Animal Model To Explore Prenatal Predictors Of Insulin And Glucose Metabolism In Southwestern Alaskan Yupiit, Julie Jo Kachinski 2010 University of Nevada Las Vegas

Use Of An Animal Model To Explore Prenatal Predictors Of Insulin And Glucose Metabolism In Southwestern Alaskan Yupiit, Julie Jo Kachinski

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Compared to other North American indigenous populations, Southwest Alaskan Yupiit exhibit very low rates of type 2 diabetes despite the occurrence of common risk factors. Contemporary Yupiit obtain a substantial portion of their calories from traditional foods, which contain high amounts of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Epidemiological and experimental animal research has linked glucose and insulin homeostasis with a diet high in omega-3s. This study used an experimental animal model to explore potential diabetes protective effects (for adult offspring) of prenatal maternal nutrition modeled on traditional locally-obtained Yupiit diets. The results of this study showed that the adult offspring whose …


Health Status Of Infants And Children From The Bronze Age Tomb At Tell Abraq, United Arab Emirates, Kathryn Mary Baustian 2010 University of Nevada Las Vegas

Health Status Of Infants And Children From The Bronze Age Tomb At Tell Abraq, United Arab Emirates, Kathryn Mary Baustian

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Tell Abraq is significant because it is the largest prehistoric site on the southern coast of the Arabian Gulf. It was strategically important as an ancient port, regionally surrounded by large political centers. Commingled remains were located in a small tomb (6 m) used for a 200 year period (2200-2000 BC). The site was continually occupied from the 3rd millennium BC up to the 1st century AD. In the tomb were minimally 286 adults and 127 subadults. What is extraordinary is the number of pre-term (3rd trimester) infants (n=28, 22%), neonates (n=12, 9%), and infants under 2 years (n=46, 36%). …


Impacts On Maternal Diet In A Transitional Community In Rural Costa Rica: Potential Implications For The Developmental Origins Of Obesity-Related Disorders, Allison Cantor 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Impacts On Maternal Diet In A Transitional Community In Rural Costa Rica: Potential Implications For The Developmental Origins Of Obesity-Related Disorders, Allison Cantor

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This thesis examines maternal diet in a rural, transitional community in Costa Rica. Using cross-cultural categories recognized in the ethnographic literature (i.e. dietary taboos, dietary prescriptions, food cravings and the acknowledgment of a special post-partum period diet), maternal dietary practices were identified in the local community through surveys (n=45) and participant-observation (n=5), and to reflect the actual consumption patterns of pregnant and nursing women in the area, 24-hour diet recalls were administered to 5 pregnant or nursing women. In light of the recent changes that increased tourism has brought to the Monteverde Zone, focus groups were employed to determine impacts …


Le Projet De Cimetière Africain : Un Paradigme Pour La Coopération?, Michael L. Blakey 2010 William & Mary

Le Projet De Cimetière Africain : Un Paradigme Pour La Coopération?, Michael L. Blakey

Arts & Sciences Articles

Text is written French/Français: Le cimetière africain du xviiie siècle de New York a commencé par être un cimetière municipal où ont été enterrés les restes de 15 000 Africains réduits en esclavage. Il a été abandonné au développement urbain durant les xixe et xxe siècles, mais redécouvert au tournant du xxie siècle, son emplacement au cœur de Manhattan en centre-ville devenant le lieu d’un conflit et d’une collaboration extraordinaires sur les plans religieux, politique et scientifique. Passant de la profanation en 1991 au statut de monument national en 2007, le site représente une réussite exemplaire de la bio-archéologie au …


The Social Strategy Game: Resource Competition Within Female Social Networks Among Small-Scale Forager-Horticulturalists, Stacey L. Rukas, Michael Gurven, Hillard Kaplan, Jeffrey Winking 2010 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

The Social Strategy Game: Resource Competition Within Female Social Networks Among Small-Scale Forager-Horticulturalists, Stacey L. Rukas, Michael Gurven, Hillard Kaplan, Jeffrey Winking

ESI Publications

This paper examines social determinants of resource competition among Tsimane Amerindian women of Bolivia. We introduce a semi-anonymous experiment (the Social Strategy Game) designed to simulate resource competition among women. Information concerning dyadic social relationships and demographic data were collected to identify variables influencing resource competition intensity, as measured by the number of beads one woman took from another. Relationship variables are used to test how the affiliative or competitive aspects of dyads affect the extent of prosociality in the game. Using a mixed-modeling procedure, we find that women compete with those with whom they are quarreling over accusations of …


Primate Craniofacial Function And Biology, Paul J. Constantino 2010 Biological Sciences

Primate Craniofacial Function And Biology, Paul J. Constantino

Biological Sciences Faculty Research

Book review: Primate Craniofacial Function and Biology


Laetoli Footprints Preserve Earliest Direct Evidence Of Human-Like Bipedalism, D. A. Raichlen, A. D. Gordon, W. E. H. Harcourt-Smith, A. D. Foster, W R. Haas 2010 Campbell University

Laetoli Footprints Preserve Earliest Direct Evidence Of Human-Like Bipedalism, D. A. Raichlen, A. D. Gordon, W. E. H. Harcourt-Smith, A. D. Foster, W R. Haas

Osteopathic Medicine, Jerry M. Wallace School of

No abstract provided.


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