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A Matter Of Suspension: An Experimental Approach To Hammerstone Hafting In Prehistoric Keweenaw Copper Mining, Katherine Trotter 2017 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

A Matter Of Suspension: An Experimental Approach To Hammerstone Hafting In Prehistoric Keweenaw Copper Mining, Katherine Trotter

Theses and Dissertations

For thousands of years before European contact, the vast deposits of copper in the Lake Superior Basin were exploited by the indigenous population of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and surrounding areas. The copper used and traded by the Native Americans in and around the Lake Superior Basin came from mines on Isle Royale and in the Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan. In the process of mining, a number of tools were utilized, including both grooved and ungrooved hammerstones. Grooved hammerstones are most commonly found in the Keweenaw while ungrooved stones are most commonly found on Isle Royale. Caches of these ...


An Analysis Of The Work Conducted By The Civilian Conservation Corps-Indian Division For The Benefit Of The Weyíiletpu (Cayuse), Imatalamłáma (Umatilla), And Walúulapam (Walla Walla), Carey Miller 2017 St. Cloud State University

An Analysis Of The Work Conducted By The Civilian Conservation Corps-Indian Division For The Benefit Of The Weyíiletpu (Cayuse), Imatalamłáma (Umatilla), And Walúulapam (Walla Walla), Carey Miller

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

Problem:

In order for the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation’s (CTUIR) Tribal Historic Preservation Office (THPO) and Cultural Resources Protection Program (CRPP) to preserve, protect and perpetuate cultural resources for current and future generations of the Weyíiletpu (Cayuse), Imatalamłáma (Umatilla), and Walúulapam (Walla Walla) peoples, we need to be aware of the resources and the values they contain. One set of resources that the CTUIR knows little about is the work undertaken by the Civilian Conservation Corps-Indian Division (CCC-ID) at the Umatilla Agency including the types of projects, the location of such projects, why the projects were ...


Tangled Memories Of Wampum Diplomacy In Philadelphia, Margaret Bruchac 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Tangled Memories Of Wampum Diplomacy In Philadelphia, Margaret Bruchac

Department of Anthropology Papers

Throughout North America, Indigenous Native American and First Nations histories are often presented as fragments of a broken past. Isolated objects, historical markers, archaeological sites, lost memories, curious folklore, and uninhabited places evoke memories of something that happened long ago, to someone else, in another time. The influential tribal individuals and nations who shaped and experienced those events are often depicted as tangential to the narrative of the emerging American nation, and imagined to have vanished from the scene. Yet, Indigenous histories are best seen as part of an on-going stream of events that are never entirely past, even (especially ...


Fire-Affected Rock In Inland Southern Californian Archaeology: An Investigation Into Diagnostic Utility, Shannon Renee Clarendon 2017 California State University - San Bernardino

Fire-Affected Rock In Inland Southern Californian Archaeology: An Investigation Into Diagnostic Utility, Shannon Renee Clarendon

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The post-firing variability of fire-affected rock (FAR) recovered from a stone-cooking platform within a prehistoric stone grill was examined. This examination tested the physical properties of FAR recovered from site CA-SBR-3773, located the Crowder Canyon Archaeological District in San Bernardino County, California. There is a lack of archaeological research in this area of Southern California; however, this project established a fundamental perspective of thermal feature reuse and episodes of firing activity for prehistoric cooking features by examining the physical changes FAR experienced due to various heat exposures. Regional archaeologists often encounter these features as they speckle the landscape of upland ...


Groundstone Analysis At The Rock Camp Site, Lacy Ann Padilla 2017 California State University, San Bernardino

Groundstone Analysis At The Rock Camp Site, Lacy Ann Padilla

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The use of mortar and pestles has long been associated with acorn processing in California. Based on ethnographic and archaeological evidence, groundstone was used to process a multitude of resources, including small mammals. Twenty groundstone artifacts recovered from the Rock Camp Site in the San Bernardino Mountains were analyzed for protein residues using the crossover immunological electrophoresis (CIEP) method. Using previously obtained data from the Summit Valley, a comparative analysis was done to determine if processing small mammals on groundstone was a common occurrence throughout the San Bernardino Mountain region.


Seeing Prehistory Through New Lenses: Using Geophysical And Statistical Analysis To Identify Fresh Perspectives Of A 15th Century Mandan Occupation, Amber Marie Mitchum 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Seeing Prehistory Through New Lenses: Using Geophysical And Statistical Analysis To Identify Fresh Perspectives Of A 15th Century Mandan Occupation, Amber Marie Mitchum

Theses and Dissertations

Great Plains prehistoric research has evolved over the course of a century, with many sites like Huff Village (32MO11) in North Dakota recently coming back to the forefront of discussion through new technological applications. Through a majority of its studies and excavations, Huff Village appeared to endure as the final stage in the Middle Missouri tradition. Long thought to reflect only systematically placed long-rectangular structure types of its Middle Missouri predecessors, recent magnetic gradiometry and topographic mapping data revealed circular structure types that deviated from long-held traditions, highlighting new associations with Coalescent groups. A compact system for food capacity was ...


Facing The Sun, Frank Prendergast, Muiris O'Sullivan, Ken Williams, Gabriel Cooney 2017 Dublin Institute of Technology

Facing The Sun, Frank Prendergast, Muiris O'Sullivan, Ken Williams, Gabriel Cooney

Articles

December 2017 marked 50 years since archaeologist Michael J. O’Kelly first observed the solar illumination of the burial chamber in the Neolithic passage tomb at Newgrange during the period of the winter solstice. O’Kelly subsequently recorded direct sunlight entering Newgrange through the ‘especially contrived slit which lies under the roof-box at the outer end of the passage roof’ on 21 December 1969. The discovery of this historic phenomenon, dating back over 5,000 years, captured the public interest and imagination at that time and ever since. In this major article published in the Winter 2017 edition of Archaeology ...


Mapping The Landscape For Archaeological Detection, Preservation, And Interpretation: A Case Study In High Resolution Location Modeling From The Blue Mountains Of Northeastern Oregon, Trent Skinner 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Mapping The Landscape For Archaeological Detection, Preservation, And Interpretation: A Case Study In High Resolution Location Modeling From The Blue Mountains Of Northeastern Oregon, Trent Skinner

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Archaeological location modeling (ALM) is an important tool in most survey strategies, and has contributed substantially to economizing efforts to locate and characterize the archaeological record. The increasing availability of high resolution (<3m) airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) data has the potential to refine the application and ultimately the role of ALM. This research tests the precision and accuracy gained by incorporating lidar derived data into an ALM. The site records and other environmental data used in this study were all generated over the last four decades by the resource specialists of the Malheur National Forest. The Weights-of-Evidence (WofE) probability method (Bonham-Carter 1994) was used to produce two ALMs; one based on a 10m digital elevation model (DEM) created from satellite imaging, and the second from a 3m resolution lidar derived DEM. Independent variables (e.g., slope, aspect, distance to water, etc.) commonly used in ALM were largely replaced by index variables (e.g., slope position classification, topographic wetness index, etc.). The final models were classified into areas of high, medium, and low archaeological potential, then cross-validated against a reserved random dataset. Models were then compared using the Kvamme gain statistic and site to area frequency ratio. The 3m model demonstrated a significant improvement over the results obtained from the 10m model and the current probability model used in the study area. A number of factors including model resolution, statistical methodology, and the character of the independent and dependent variables all contributed to the increase in precision and accuracy. The incremental improvement in modeling efficiency demonstrated here will create time and cost saving in the management and preservation of cultural resources, and ultimately contribute to a better understanding of patterns of past human land use.


Household Chipped Stone Technology At South Cape (23cg8): A Mississippian Hinterland Site In Southeast Missouri, Deseray L. Helton 2017 Missouri State University - Springfield

Household Chipped Stone Technology At South Cape (23cg8): A Mississippian Hinterland Site In Southeast Missouri, Deseray L. Helton

MSU Graduate Theses

Mississippian archaeology is characterized by a longstanding bias towards studying large, mound-bearing sites as opposed to small hinterland sites. Although this bias has diminished in recent decades, research on hinterland sites is still relatively uncommon. This study helps correct that bias through an analysis of flaked stone technological organization at South-Cape (23CG8), a Mississippian hinterland site in Cape Girardeau, Missouri. A sample of flaked stone artifacts from two house features at the site was analyzed. The results indicate that residents at South Cape generally acquired and consumed higher quantities of local lithic raw material than of supra-local lithic raw material ...


The Canine Surrogacy Approach And Paleobotany: An Analysis Of Wisconsin Oneota Agricultural Production And Risk Management Strategies, Richard Wynn Edwards 2017 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

The Canine Surrogacy Approach And Paleobotany: An Analysis Of Wisconsin Oneota Agricultural Production And Risk Management Strategies, Richard Wynn Edwards

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research is to investigate the nature of Upper Mississippian subsistence systems (circa AD 1050-1450), to evaluate the role of agriculture, and to understand how these dietary choices are related to risk management systems and the development of cultural complexity in the Midcontinent. The research uses the Koshkonong Locality of southeastern Wisconsin as a case study and compares it to other Upper Mississippian groups throughout Wisconsin and northeastern Illinois, Middle Mississippian groups in Illinois and southeastern Wisconsin, and contemporaneous Late Woodland groups in southeastern Wisconsin.

This study uses two primary lines of evidence; macrobotanical remains and dietary ...


Radiocarbon Test For Demographic Events In Written And Oral History, Kevan Edinborough, Marko Porčić, Andrew Martindale, Thomas J. Brown, Kisha Supernant, Kenneth M. Ames 2017 University College London

Radiocarbon Test For Demographic Events In Written And Oral History, Kevan Edinborough, Marko Porčić, Andrew Martindale, Thomas J. Brown, Kisha Supernant, Kenneth M. Ames

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

We extend an established simulation-based method to test for significant short-duration (1–2 centuries) demographic events known from one documented historical and one oral historical context. Case study 1 extrapolates population data from the Western historical tradition using historically derived demographic data from the catastrophic European Black Death/bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis). We find a corresponding statistically significant drop in absolute population using an extended version of a previously published simulation method. Case study 2 uses this refined simulation method to test for a settlement gap identified in oral historical records of descendant Tsimshian First Nations communities from the Prince ...


P-04 Animation Of The Cultural Landscape Of Hisban And Vicinity In The Longue Duree, Oystein LaBianca 2017 Andrews University

P-04 Animation Of The Cultural Landscape Of Hisban And Vicinity In The Longue Duree, Oystein Labianca

Celebration of Research and Creative Scholarship

In today’s markets, archaeological publishing must include on-line presentation of findings using various technologies for rendering results, such as 3-D visualization and animation media. The goal of the present project is to build capacity here at the Institute of Archaeology in deployment of animation technologies for rendering of archaeological findings and narratives. To this end I have assembled a team of two graduate students with significant computer skills (Jared Wilson and Stanley Lebrun) and one undergraduate student (Paul Roschman) who will collaborate with me to animate, using Esri CityEngine software, the story of long-term change in the cultural landscape ...


Evaluating Causes Of Error In Landmark-Based Data Collection Using Scanners, Brian M. Shearer, Siobhan B. Cooke, Lauren B. Halenar, Samantha L. Reber, Jeannette E. Plummer, Eric Delson, Melissa Tallman 2017 CUNY Graduate Center

Evaluating Causes Of Error In Landmark-Based Data Collection Using Scanners, Brian M. Shearer, Siobhan B. Cooke, Lauren B. Halenar, Samantha L. Reber, Jeannette E. Plummer, Eric Delson, Melissa Tallman

Publications and Research

In this study, we assess the precision, accuracy, and repeatability of craniodental landmarks (Types I, II, and III, plus curves of semilandmarks) on a single macaque cranium digitally reconstructed with three different surface scanners and a microCT scanner. Nine researchers with varying degrees of osteological and geometric morphometric knowledge landmarked ten iterations of each scan (40 total) to test the effects of scan quality, researcher experience, and landmark type on levels of intra- and interobserver error. Two researchers additionally landmarked ten specimens from seven different macaque species using the same landmark protocol to test the effects of the previously listed ...


Human-Environment Interactions: Sea-Level Rise And Marine Resource Use At Eleanor Betty, An Underwater Maya Salt Work, Belize, Valerie Renae Feathers 2017 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Human-Environment Interactions: Sea-Level Rise And Marine Resource Use At Eleanor Betty, An Underwater Maya Salt Work, Belize, Valerie Renae Feathers

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Dissertation excavations were performed in the spring of 2013 at the underwater site of Eleanor Betty in Paynes Creek National Park, Belize. The marine environment preserved wooden architecture associated with the salt works. Excavation goals included: 1) excavating and defining the boundaries of the submerged shell midden; 2) collecting sediment samples for paleoenvironmental analyses; and 3) recovering cultural remains to determine the site’s purpose (residence versus production workshop).

Four transects were added to the existing transect from excavations performed during the 2011 field season. The shell midden measured 5 meters in length (north-to-south throughout all transects) by 0.5-to-1 ...


A Real Rock Star, Mike James 2017 Ashland Daily Independent

A Real Rock Star, Mike James

Indian Head Rock Project

An article published in Ashland Daily Independent discussing the documentary film on the Indian Head Rock by Steve Middleton from November 2, 2017.


Gis Analysis Of Dvāravatī Dharmacakras And The Rise Of Buddhism In Thailand, Areerut Patnukao 2017 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Gis Analysis Of Dvāravatī Dharmacakras And The Rise Of Buddhism In Thailand, Areerut Patnukao

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation explores how GIS as well as spatial and statistical analyses could be used to advance the understanding of Dvāravatī settlement and Dharmacakras locations. The research employs archaeological and geographical parameters to measure and quantify the patterns of Dvāravatī settlements, Dharmacakra locations, their interrelationship, and their relationship with environmental setting. The different types of spatial analyses, parameter settings within each analysis, and approaches are used to examine and explore the differences and commonalities of these variables at three different geographic levels: national, regional, and river basin levels.

Four distinct approaches are incorporated in this study. Chi-Square analysis shows significant ...


Forming Community Partnerships, Lori Foley 2017 Heritage Emergency National Task Force

Forming Community Partnerships, Lori Foley

CHAR

In the event of a disaster, regardless of the type or scope, the first response is always local. For the institutions and organizations charged with safeguarding the nation’s cultural and historic resources – museums, historical societies, libraries, and municipal offices, to name just a few – building relationships with local first responders and emergency managers before disaster strikes is key to ensuring the safety of staff and collections. State emergency management agencies are also collaborating with their state cultural agencies to protect these valuable and vulnerable resources. The resulting emergency networks better position the local community and the state to be ...


Lessons Learned From Culture In Crisis; Or Protecting The Past To Save The Future, Laurie Rush 2017 Fort Drum, NY

Lessons Learned From Culture In Crisis; Or Protecting The Past To Save The Future, Laurie Rush

CHAR

At the midpoint of the second decade of the 21st century, the world is experiencing deliberate destruction of cultural property at a scale not seen since the Second World War. Future protection and preservation of cultural heritage depends on learning from tragedy and applying these lessons as pro-actively as possible. First, we are discovering that no matter the threat, there are people who risk their lives to save artifacts and features of their culture, and the motives for this courage are retrospectively clear. For a community to survive a conflict or disaster as a corporate entity, elements of shared ...


Keynote Address - When Violent Nonstate Actors Target Cultural Heritage Sites, Victor Asal 2017 Dept. of Public Administration, University at Albany

Keynote Address - When Violent Nonstate Actors Target Cultural Heritage Sites, Victor Asal

CHAR

Why would organizations attack or kill people at cultural heritage sites or destroy such sites? Using data from the Big Allied and Dangerous insurgent dataset that has data on 140 insurgent organizations from 1998-2012, and data from the Global Terrorism Database, this presentation examines the factors that make insurgent groups more likely to attack such sites or kill people at such sites. We look at the impact of organizational ideology, organizational structure and power as well as country level factors.


Mitigation, Response And Recovery, Richard Lord 2017 NYS Div. of Homeland Security and Emergency Services

Mitigation, Response And Recovery, Richard Lord

CHAR

Abstract: Hurricane Harvey ravaged Texas and Louisiana nearly five years after Superstorm Sandy devastated the East Coast and caused 53 deaths, destroyed or severely damaged 100,000 Long Island homes, and left an estimated $42 billion in damages across New York State.

This session will provide an overview of the disaster relief and assistance programs available under the Stafford Act, when they are triggered, and how private non-profit and cultural institutions can plan for natural hazards and take full advantage of available aid. There will also be discussion of the NYS Hazard Mitigation Plan, the Community Risk and Resiliency Act ...


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