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Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. McElligott 2019 Queen Mary University of London

Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, PhD

Variation in common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk–reward trade–offs and behavioural flexibility. To date, only a few studies have examined the effects of consistent behavioural traits on both learning and cognition. We investigated whether certain personality traits (‘exploration’ and ‘sociability’) of individuals were related to cognitive performance, learning flexibility and learning style in a social ungulate species, the goat (Capra hircus). We also investigated whether a preference for feature cues rather than impaired learning abilities can explain performance variation in a visual discrimination task. We found that personality scores were consistent ...


Looking On The Bright Side Of Livestock Emotions—The Potential Of Their Transmission To Promote Positive Welfare, Luigi Baciadonna, Sandra Duepjan, Elodie Briefer, Mónica Padilla de la Torre, Christian Nawroth 2019 Queen Mary University of London

Looking On The Bright Side Of Livestock Emotions—The Potential Of Their Transmission To Promote Positive Welfare, Luigi Baciadonna, Sandra Duepjan, Elodie Briefer, Mónica Padilla De La Torre, Christian Nawroth

Christian Nawroth, PhD

Emotions can be defined as an individual’s affective reaction to an external and/or internal event that, in turn, generates a simultaneous cascade of behavioral, physiological, and cognitive changes. Those changes that can be perceived by conspecifics have the potential to also affect other’s emotional states, a process labeled as “emotional contagion.” Especially in the case of gregarious species, such as livestock, emotional contagion can have an impact on the whole group by, for instance, improving group coordination and strengthening social bonds. We noticed that the current trend of research on emotions in livestock, i.e., investigating affective ...


Human Demonstration Does Not Facilitate The Performance Of Horses (Equus Caballus) In A Spatial Problem-Solving Task, Joan-Bryce Burla, Janina Siegwart, Christian Nawroth 2019 Agroscope Tänikon

Human Demonstration Does Not Facilitate The Performance Of Horses (Equus Caballus) In A Spatial Problem-Solving Task, Joan-Bryce Burla, Janina Siegwart, Christian Nawroth

Christian Nawroth, PhD

Horses’ ability to adapt to new environments and to acquire new information plays an important role in handling and training. Social learning in particular would be very adaptive for horses as it enables them to flexibly adjust to new environments. In the context of horse handling, social learning from humans has been rarely investigated but could help to facilitate management practices. We assessed the impact of human demonstration on the spatial problem-solving abilities of horses during a detour task. In this task, a bucket with a food reward was placed behind a double-detour barrier and 16 horses were allocated to ...


Goats Prefer Positive Human Emotional Facial Expressions, Christian Nawroth, Natalia Albuquerque, Carine Savalli, Marie-Sophie Single, Alan G. McElligott 2019 Queen Mary University of London

Goats Prefer Positive Human Emotional Facial Expressions, Christian Nawroth, Natalia Albuquerque, Carine Savalli, Marie-Sophie Single, Alan G. Mcelligott

Christian Nawroth, PhD

Domestication has shaped the physiology and the behaviour of animals to better adapt to human environments. Therefore, human facial expressions may be highly informative for animals domesticated for working closely with people, such as dogs and horses. However, it is not known whether other animals, and particularly those domesticated primarily for production, such as goats, are capable of perceiving human emotional cues. In this study, we investigated whether goats can distinguish human facial expressions when simultaneously shown two images of an unfamiliar human with different emotional valences (positive/ happy or negative/angry). Both images were vertically attached to a wall ...


Human-Directed Behaviour In Goats Is Not Affected By Short-Term Positive Handling, Jan Langbein, Annika Krause, Christian Nawroth 2019 Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology

Human-Directed Behaviour In Goats Is Not Affected By Short-Term Positive Handling, Jan Langbein, Annika Krause, Christian Nawroth

Christian Nawroth, PhD

In addition to domestication, interactions with humans or task-specific training during ontogeny have been proposed to play a key role in explaining differences in human–animal communication across species. In livestock, even short-term positive interactions with caretakers or other reference persons can influence human–animal interaction at different levels and over different periods of time. In this study, we investigated human-directed behaviour in the ‘unsolvable task’ paradigm in two groups of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). One group was positively handled and habituated to a plastic box by the experimenter to retrieve a food reward, while the other group only ...


Farm Animal Cognition—Linking Behavior, Welfare And Ethics, Christian Nawroth, Jan Langbein, Marjorie Coulon, Vivian Gabor, Susan Oesterwind, Judith Benz-Schwarzburg, Eberhard von Borell 2019 Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology

Farm Animal Cognition—Linking Behavior, Welfare And Ethics, Christian Nawroth, Jan Langbein, Marjorie Coulon, Vivian Gabor, Susan Oesterwind, Judith Benz-Schwarzburg, Eberhard Von Borell

Christian Nawroth, PhD

Farm animal welfare is a major concern for society and food production. To more accurately evaluate animal farming in general and to avoid exposing farm animals to poor welfare situations, it is necessary to understand not only their behavioral but also their cognitive needs and capacities. Thus, general knowledge of how farm animals perceive and interact with their environment is of major importance for a range of stakeholders, from citizens to politicians to cognitive ethologists to philosophers. This review aims to outline the current state of farm animal cognition research and focuses on ungulate livestock species, such as cattle, horses ...


Snowshoe Hares (Lepus Americanus) Alter Feeding Behavior In Response To Coyote (Canis Latrans) And Moose (Alces Alces) Cues At Diverse Vegetation Densities, Zachary K. Lankist 2019 University of Southern Maine

Snowshoe Hares (Lepus Americanus) Alter Feeding Behavior In Response To Coyote (Canis Latrans) And Moose (Alces Alces) Cues At Diverse Vegetation Densities, Zachary K. Lankist

Student Scholarship

Prey interpret predator cues as a warning and use them to assess the danger of a given area. Multiple prey species avoid chemical cues from predators at feeding sites because the risk of death outweighs the benefit of food. However, we lack information regarding avoidance of chemical cues from competitors as well as how foraging behavior changes alongside vegetative cover. To test if chemical cues and veget~tive cover alter prey vigilance, number of visits, and time spent at feeding sites, I observed snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) in plots containing coyote (Canis latrans; predator) and moose (Alces alces; competitor) urine ...


Influence Of Indirect Cues And Vegetation Density On Foraging Behavior In Snowshoe Hares (Lepus Americanus), Zachary Lankist 2019 University of Southern Maine

Influence Of Indirect Cues And Vegetation Density On Foraging Behavior In Snowshoe Hares (Lepus Americanus), Zachary Lankist

Thinking Matters Symposium

Prey avoid chemical cues from predators at feeding sites because the risk of death outweighs the benefit of food. However, we lack information regarding avoidance of chemical cues from competitors as well as how foraging behavior changes alongside vegetative cover. To test if chemical cues and vegetative cover alter prey vigilance, number of visits, and time spent at feeding sites, I observed snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) in plots containing coyote (Canis latrans; predator) and moose (Alces alces; competitor) urine across a spectrum of vegetation densities. Snowshoe hares significantly reduced the number of visits to feeding plots when coyote or moose ...


Mammals Of The Northern Andes: An Analysis Of Camera Trap Data And Observation In Angochagua, Ecuador, Risa Berman 2019 SIT Study Abroad

Mammals Of The Northern Andes: An Analysis Of Camera Trap Data And Observation In Angochagua, Ecuador, Risa Berman

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The high Andes of Ecuador are home to a diverse community of mammals, many of which are threatened. These include the Andean bear, Andean fox, puma, and mountain tapir. This study used camera traps, direct observation, and indirect observation over three weeks to monitor the wildlife in the mountains of the Parroquia of Angochagua. The five species observed during this period were Andean bear, Andean fox, dog, mountain paca, and mouse. While this short study did not completely survey the mammalian community of the area, it confirmed the presence, diet, sociality, temporal habits, elevational range, and habitat preferences of the ...


Behavioral Responses To Ancestral Predators In Vervet Monkeys (Chlorocebus Pygerythrus) On Misali Island, Tanzania, Isabelle Hanna 2019 SIT Study Abroad

Behavioral Responses To Ancestral Predators In Vervet Monkeys (Chlorocebus Pygerythrus) On Misali Island, Tanzania, Isabelle Hanna

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The success of a species depends largely on their ability to recognize and respond to predatory cues. These responses can be controlled through genetic or social factors. This study aimed to assess the ability of vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) to identify and respond to ancestral predatory cues following long-term isolation on Misali Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania in order to determine if anti-predator behaviors are innate or learned. This was accomplished through exposure of troops to auditory predator cues and the documentation of their behavioral responses. The results of these trials suggest that predator recognition is an innate behavior in C. pygerythrus ...


Effect Of Locality Recognition On Aggressive Behavior In The Red Swamp Crayfish, Procambarus Clarkii, Brett K. Muramoto, Tyler Farley 2019 Pepperdine University

Effect Of Locality Recognition On Aggressive Behavior In The Red Swamp Crayfish, Procambarus Clarkii, Brett K. Muramoto, Tyler Farley

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Climate change affects habitat globally, facilitating the expansion and rapid proliferation of invasive species which damage the newly invaded ecosystem. Intraspecific aggression among an invasive species is an important focus in ecological studies because it can contribute to their overall success as invaders. The crayfish species, Procambarus clarkii, inhabits freshwater streams in the Santa Monica Mountains (Los Angeles, CA) as an aggressive invasive predator. These invasive crayfish are well known for their highly aggressive interactions with conspecifics. It has been shown that body size, temperature, sex, and level of hunger influence their levels of aggression. However, there is a lack ...


Non-Human Primates In Medical Research And Drug Development: A Critical Review, Jarrod Bailey 2019 University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne

Non-Human Primates In Medical Research And Drug Development: A Critical Review, Jarrod Bailey

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

There is much current debate surrounding the use of non-human primates (NHPs) in medical research and drug development. This review, stimulated by calls for evidence from UK-based inquiries into NHP research, takes a critical view in order to provide some important balance against papers supporting NHP research and calling for it to be expanded. We show that there is a paucity of evidence to demonstrate the positive contribution or successful translation of NHP research to human medicine, that there is a great deal of often overlooked data showing NHP research to be irrelevant, unnecessary, even hazardous to human health and ...


The Ban On The Use Of Chimpanzees In Biomedical Research And Testing In The Uk Should Be Made Permanent And Legally Binding, Michelle Thew, Jarrod Bailey, Michael Balls, Michelle Hudson 2019 British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection

The Ban On The Use Of Chimpanzees In Biomedical Research And Testing In The Uk Should Be Made Permanent And Legally Binding, Michelle Thew, Jarrod Bailey, Michael Balls, Michelle Hudson

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

The Coalition Government is currently considering how to transpose Directive 2010/63/EU on animal experimentation into UK law. The Directive bans the use of Great Apes in laboratories, but EU Member States can seek (now or, more likely, at some time in the future) a derogation from the Commission to permit such use, where this is considered essential for the preservation of the species in question or in relation to an unexpected outbreak of a life-threatening or debilitating clinical condition in human beings. Currently, the policy of the Government is not to approve any experiments on Great Apes, but ...


An Assessment Of The Use Of Chimpanzees In Hepatitis C Research Past, Present And Future: 1. Validity Of The Chimpanzee Model, Jarrod Bailey 2019 New England Anti-Vivisection Society

An Assessment Of The Use Of Chimpanzees In Hepatitis C Research Past, Present And Future: 1. Validity Of The Chimpanzee Model, Jarrod Bailey

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

The USA is the only significant user of chimpanzees in biomedical research in the world, since many countries have banned or limited the practice due to substantial ethical, economic and scientific concerns. Advocates of chimpanzee use cite hepatitis C research as a major reason for its necessity and continuation, in spite of supporting evidence that is scant and often anecdotal. This paper examines the scientific and ethical issues surrounding chimpanzee hepatitis C research, and concludes that claims of the necessity of chimpanzees in historical and future hepatitis C research are exaggerated and unjustifiable, respectively. The chimpanzee model has several major ...


Chimpanzee Research: An Examination Of Its Contribution To Biomedical Knowledge And Efficacy In Combating Human Diseases, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe, Theodora Capaldo 2019 New England Anti-Vivisection Society

Chimpanzee Research: An Examination Of Its Contribution To Biomedical Knowledge And Efficacy In Combating Human Diseases, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe, Theodora Capaldo

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

Research on captive chimpanzees incurs considerable animal welfare, ethical and financial costs. Advocates of such research claim these costs are outweighed by substantial advancements in biomedical knowledge, and that the genetic similarity of chimpanzees to humans enables the former to make critical contributions to preventing, diagnosing and combating human diseases. To assess these claims, we examined the disciplines investigated in 749 studies of captive chimpanzees published from 1995-2004 inclusive, and subjected 95 randomly selected papers to a detailed citation analysis:

49.5% (47/95) of papers had not been cited at the time of this study; 38.5% (34/95 ...


An Assessment Of The Use Of Chimpanzees In Hepatitis C Research Past, Present And Future: 2. Alternative Replacement Methods, Jarrod Bailey 2019 New England Anti-Vivisection Society

An Assessment Of The Use Of Chimpanzees In Hepatitis C Research Past, Present And Future: 2. Alternative Replacement Methods, Jarrod Bailey

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

The use of chimpanzees in hepatitis C virus (HCV) research was examined in the report associated with this paper (1: Validity of the Chimpanzee Model), in which it was concluded that claims of past necessity of chimpanzee use were exaggerated, and that claims of current and future indispensability were unjustifiable. Furthermore, given the serious scientific and ethical issues surrounding chimpanzee experimentation, it was proposed that it must now be considered redundant — particularly in light of the demonstrable contribution of alternative methods to past and current scientific progress, and the future promise that these methods hold. This paper builds on this ...


Critical Evaluation Of The Use Of Dogs In Biomedical Research And Testing In Europe, Nina Hasiwa, Jarrod Bailey, Peter Clausing, Mardas Daneshian, Sándor Farkas, István Gyertyán, Robert Hubrecht, Werner Kobel, Goran Krummenacher, Marcel Leist, Hannes Lohi, Adám Miklósi, Frauke Ohl, Klaus Olejniczak, Georg Schmitt, Patrick Sinnett-Smith, David Smith, Kristina Wagner, James D. Yager, Joanne Zurlo, Thomas Hartung 2019 University of Konstanz

Critical Evaluation Of The Use Of Dogs In Biomedical Research And Testing In Europe, Nina Hasiwa, Jarrod Bailey, Peter Clausing, Mardas Daneshian, Sándor Farkas, István Gyertyán, Robert Hubrecht, Werner Kobel, Goran Krummenacher, Marcel Leist, Hannes Lohi, Adám Miklósi, Frauke Ohl, Klaus Olejniczak, Georg Schmitt, Patrick Sinnett-Smith, David Smith, Kristina Wagner, James D. Yager, Joanne Zurlo, Thomas Hartung

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

Dogs are sometimes referred to as “man’s best friend” and with the increase in urbanization and lifestyle changes, dogs are seen by their owners as family members. Society expresses specific concerns about the experimental use of dogs, as they are sometimes perceived to have a special status for humans. This may appear somewhat conflicting with the idea that the intrinsic value of all animals is the same, and that also several other animal species are used in biomedical research and toxicology. This aspect and many others are discussed in an introductory chapter dealing with ethical considerations on the use ...


Recent Efforts To Elucidate The Scientific Validity Of Animal-Based Drug Tests By The Pharmaceutical Industry, Pro-Testing Lobby Groups, And Animal Welfare Organisations, Jarrod Bailey 2019 Cruelty Free International

Recent Efforts To Elucidate The Scientific Validity Of Animal-Based Drug Tests By The Pharmaceutical Industry, Pro-Testing Lobby Groups, And Animal Welfare Organisations, Jarrod Bailey

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

Background: Even after several decades of human drug development, there remains an absence of published, substantial, comprehensive data to validate the use of animals in preclinical drug testing, and to point to their predictive nature with regard to human safety/toxicity and efficacy. Two recent papers, authored by pharmaceutical industry scientists, added to the few substantive publications that exist. In this brief article, we discuss both these papers, as well as our own series of three papers on the subject, and also various views and criticisms of lobby groups that advocate the animal testing of new drugs.

Main text: We ...


Does Lactobacillus Reuteri Probiotic Treatment Improve Sleep Quality In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca Mulatta) Displaying The Self-Injurious Phenotype?, Peter McGinn 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Does Lactobacillus Reuteri Probiotic Treatment Improve Sleep Quality In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca Mulatta) Displaying The Self-Injurious Phenotype?, Peter Mcginn

Masters Theses

Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a complex phenotype that occurs with an increasing prevalence of about 7-34% in humans and 10-12% in non-human primates (NHPs). This study evaluated the efficacy of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri as a treatment for self-injurious behavior (SIB) and sleep disruption in rhesus macaques. The treatment was proposed to alleviate mild self-biting, sleep disruption, and reduce chronically elevated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity, all hallmark features of monkeys with this condition. The probiotic preparation included two strains of L. reuteri (L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 & L. reuteri DSM 17938) containing on average 200 million colony forming units per chewable ...


Crispr-Mediated Gene Editing: Scientific And Ethical Issues, Jarrod Bailey 2019 Cruelty Free International

Crispr-Mediated Gene Editing: Scientific And Ethical Issues, Jarrod Bailey

Genetics Collection

There remains substantial evidence to warrant great concern over the poor efficiency and specificity of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-mediated genetic modification (GM), despite relatively minor improvements compared to other GM methods. These issues cause persistent, adverse, ethical, and scientific consequences for GM animals, which may never be sufficiently resolvable.


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