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Ignoring Nature: Why We Do It, The Dire Consequences, And The Need For A Paradigm Shift To Save Animals, Habitats, And Ourselves, Marc Bekoff, Sarah Bexell 2010 University of Colorado Boulder

Ignoring Nature: Why We Do It, The Dire Consequences, And The Need For A Paradigm Shift To Save Animals, Habitats, And Ourselves, Marc Bekoff, Sarah Bexell

Ecology Collection

The article discusses the importance of biodiversity and on how people protect animals and habitats. It describes the conservation psychology and conservation social work. It suggests that there will be fewer people who will actually be able to make a positive difference in the relationships with animals and ecosystems.


The Climatic Niche Diversity Of Malagasy Primates: A Phylogenetic Approach, Jason M. Kamilar, Kathleen M. Muldoon 2010 Yale University

The Climatic Niche Diversity Of Malagasy Primates: A Phylogenetic Approach, Jason M. Kamilar, Kathleen M. Muldoon

Anthropology Department Faculty Publication Series

Background

Numerous researchers have posited that there should be a strong negative relationship between the evolutionary distance among species and their ecological similarity. Alternative evidence suggests that members of adaptive radiations should display no relationship between divergence time and ecological similarity because rapid evolution results in near-simultaneous speciation early in the clade's history. In this paper, we performed the first investigation of ecological diversity in a phylogenetic context using a mammalian adaptive radiation, the Malagasy primates.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We collected data for 43 extant species including: 1) 1064 species by locality samples, 2) GIS climate data for each ...


Practical Considerations In Regenerative Medicine Research: Iacucs, Ethics, And The Use Of Animals In Stem Cell Studies, Susan VandeWoude, Bernard E. Rollin 2010 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Practical Considerations In Regenerative Medicine Research: Iacucs, Ethics, And The Use Of Animals In Stem Cell Studies, Susan Vandewoude, Bernard E. Rollin

Biomedicine and Animal Models in Research Collection

The intent of US federal laws mandating IACUC review of animal-related activities was to satisfy contemporary socioethical concerns by introducing deliberations about ethics and animal welfare into the research process when animals are used. These laws and the system they chartered have worked well for the most part in providing opportunities for consideration of animal welfare as a vital part of animal research. As a result, investigators today are far less naïve about the ethical issues raised by research on animals and typically more sympathetic about the need for such consideration. As evidence of this growing awareness, the literature on ...


Evaluation Of Fish And Macroinvertebrate Indices Of Biotic Integrity In The Bioassessment Of The Illinois River Basin, Rebekah Hotz 2010 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Fish And Macroinvertebrate Indices Of Biotic Integrity In The Bioassessment Of The Illinois River Basin, Rebekah Hotz

Inquiry: The University of Arkansas Undergraduate Research Journal

Evaluating performances of the fish and invertebrate Indices of Biotic Integrity (IBIs) for a region is important to maintain rigorous assessment of the environmental quality of streams, especially with increasing urbanization. Timing of the assessment is considered important, with the critical season (low flow, high temperature) preferred, but the primary season (spring– summer) may be as efficient. I assisted with the collection and analysis of fish and macroinvertebrates using methods developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBPs) and the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ), along with obtaining habitat and chemical assessments during ...


An Hsi Fact Sheet: The Impact Of Animal Agriculture On The Environment And Climate Change In India: A Focus On Methane, Humane Society International 2010 Animal Studies Repository

An Hsi Fact Sheet: The Impact Of Animal Agriculture On The Environment And Climate Change In India: A Focus On Methane, Humane Society International

HSI FACT SHEETS

Animal agriculture inefficiently consumes natural resources, contributes to deforestation, and produces immense quantities of animal waste, threatening water and air quality and contributing to climate change. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations estimated in 2006 that animal agriculture was responsible for 18% of global, anthropogenic, or human-induced, greenhouse gas emissions and was ―by far the single largest anthropogenic user of land. Climate change poses significant challenges to India‘s agricultural sector, which is already facing increased competition for land and water.


Hsi Fact Sheet: The Impact Of Animal Agriculture On The Environment And Climate Change In Brazil, Humane Society International 2010 Animal Studies Repository

Hsi Fact Sheet: The Impact Of Animal Agriculture On The Environment And Climate Change In Brazil, Humane Society International

HSI FACT SHEETS

The intensification of farm animal production in industrialized agricultural systems, or factory farms, compromises animal welfare and degrades the environment. Animal agriculture inefficiently consumes natural resources, contributes to deforestation, and produces immense quantities of animal waste, threatening water and air quality and contributing to climate change. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations estimated in 2006 that animal agriculture was responsible for 18% of global, anthropogenic, or human-induced, greenhouse gas emissions and was ―by far the single largest anthropogenic user of land.


An Hsi Report: Food Safety And Cage Egg Production, Humane Society International 2010 Animal Studies Repository

An Hsi Report: Food Safety And Cage Egg Production, Humane Society International

HSI REPORTS

Governments have begun legislating against cage egg production and a growing number of major food retailers, restaurant chains, and foodservice providers worldwide are switching to cage-free eggs. Extensive scientific evidence strongly suggests this trend will improve food safety. All fifteen scientific studies published in the last five years comparing Salmonella contamination between caged and cage-free operations found that those confining hens in cages had higher rates of Salmonella, a leading cause of food poisoning worldwide. This has led prominent consumer advocacy organizations, such as the Center for Food Safety, to oppose the use of cages to confine egg-laying hens.


An Hsi Report: Adopting A Cage-Free Production Policy For Animal Products In Brazil, Humane Society International 2010 Animal Studies Repository

An Hsi Report: Adopting A Cage-Free Production Policy For Animal Products In Brazil, Humane Society International

HSI REPORTS

Farm animal welfare is becoming an important concern for governments, producers, and consumers worldwide. In particular, intensive confinement systems, such as battery cages and gestation crates, have been acknowledged as severely impairing to the physical comfort and expression of natural behaviors of animals. The European Union and select states in the United States have already passed bills eliminating these housing systems over the next several years. Numerous international retail and food production companies, including Burger King (North America), Smithfield Foods, and McDonald’s (Europe) are committed to gradually eliminating the use and sale of eggs and pork produced via intensive ...


Understanding Mortality Rates Of Laying Hens In Cage-Free Egg Production Systems, The Humane Society of the United States 2010 Animal Studies Repository

Understanding Mortality Rates Of Laying Hens In Cage-Free Egg Production Systems, The Humane Society Of The United States

Agribusiness Collection

In cage-free egg production systems, concerns have been raised over hen mortality rates. High mortality is an obvious indicator of poor welfare, and problems should be addressed without delay. It is important to note, however, that mortality can vary substantially between hen flocks, and that some cage-free systems have healthy flocks that do not suffer substantial death losses. These systems can serve as models for the rest of the industry, since mortality is not inherent to any particular system, but a consequence of how well the system is managed.


The Public Health Impacts Of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations On Local Communities, Michael Greger, Gowri Koneswaran 2010 The Humane Society of the United States

The Public Health Impacts Of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations On Local Communities, Michael Greger, Gowri Koneswaran

Environment Collection

Large-scale farm animal production facilities, also known as concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), release a significant amount of contaminants into the air and water. Adverse health effects related to exposure to these contaminants among CAFO workers have been welldocumented; however, less is known about their impact on the health of residents in nearby communities. Epidemiological research in this area suggests that neighboring residents are at increased risk of developing neurobehavioral symptoms and respiratory illnesses, including asthma. Additional research is needed to better understand community-scale exposures and health outcomes related to the management practices and emissions of CAFOs.


A Critical Review Of Electrical Water-Bath Stun Systems For Poultry Slaughter And Recent Developments In Alternative Technologies, Sara J. Shields, A. B. M. Raj 2010 University of Bristol

A Critical Review Of Electrical Water-Bath Stun Systems For Poultry Slaughter And Recent Developments In Alternative Technologies, Sara J. Shields, A. B. M. Raj

Agribusiness Collection

Prior to slaughter, most farmed birds move through a constant-voltage, multiple- bird, electrical water-bath stun system. Using this system subjects live birds to stressful and painful shackling, and the potential exists for them to receive prestun electric shocks and induction of seizures while still conscious. The existing elec- trical water-bath stunner settings, particularly those used in U.S. slaughter plants, are not necessarily based on sound scientific data that they produce a consistent, immediate stun, and research indicates that they are not effective in all birds. Further, in multiple-bird, electrical water-bath systems, birds may miss the stunner completely. Evidence suggests ...


Toward Genuine Rodent Welfare: Response To Reviewer Comments, Jonathan P. Balcombe 2010 Independent Scientist and Author

Toward Genuine Rodent Welfare: Response To Reviewer Comments, Jonathan P. Balcombe

Laboratory Experiments Collection

I’m grateful to the editors for soliciting critiques of my commentary and for the opportunity to respond. Because one of the respondents (Patterson-Kane, 2010/this issue) does not take issue with the main points of my article, whereas the other (Blanchard, 2010/this issue) does, I focus my remarks here mostly on Blanchard’s critique.


Laboratory Rodent Welfare: Thinking Outside The Cage, Jonathan P. Balcombe 2010 Independent Scientist and Author

Laboratory Rodent Welfare: Thinking Outside The Cage, Jonathan P. Balcombe

Laboratory Experiments Collection

This commentary presents the case against housing rats and mice in laboratory cages; the commentary bases its case on their sentience, natural history, and the varied detriments of laboratory conditions. The commentary gives 5 arguments to support this position: (a) rats and mice have a high degree of sentience and can suffer, (b) laboratory environments cause suffering, (c) rats and mice in the wild have discrete behavioral needs, (d) rats and mice bred for many generations in the laboratory retain these needs, and (e) these needs are not met in laboratory cages.


The Welfare Of Animals In The Pig Industry, 2010 Animal Studies Repository

The Welfare Of Animals In The Pig Industry

Agribusiness Reports

The discordance between the behavioral needs of pigs and the life afforded to those raised commercially for the meat industry has created many animal welfare problems. Methods of pig production have changed substantially over the last several decades, and industrialized confinement operations have largely overtaken small, diversified farms. Overcrowded in indoor, barren environments, pigs in commercial production facilities are offered little opportunity to display their full range of complex social, foraging, and exploratory behavior. Behavioral abnormalities, such as tail-biting and aggression, arise due to environmental and social deficiencies. Poor air quality and intensive confinement may lead to health problems, and ...


The Welfare Of Piglets In The Pig Industry, 2010 Animal Studies Repository

The Welfare Of Piglets In The Pig Industry

Agribusiness Reports

Pig production has changed dramatically over the last several decades, and most piglets are now raised on industrialized commercial operations that confine thousands of animals on one site. In these facilities, piglets are born and reared under conditions that dramatically contrast with the natural environment they are biologically adapted to fit. In nature, a mother sow builds a nest of twigs and leaves for the birth of her litter, and, after several days, the piglets gradually begin to leave the nest, explore their environment by rooting and nibbling, and slowly integrate into a larger family group. Piglets on commercial production ...


Adopting A Cage-Free Production Policy For Animal Products In Brazil, 2010 Animal Studies Repository

Adopting A Cage-Free Production Policy For Animal Products In Brazil

Agribusiness Reports

Farm animal welfare is becoming an important concern for governments, producers, and consumers worldwide. In particular, intensive confinement systems, such as battery cages and gestation crates, have been acknowledged as severely impairing to the physical comfort and expression of natural behaviors of animals. The European Union and select states in the United States have already passed bills eliminating these housing systems over the next several years. Numerous international retail and food production companies, including Burger King (North America), Smithfield Foods, and McDonald’s (Europe) are committed to gradually eliminating the use and sale of eggs and pork produced via intensive ...


The Impact Of Animal Agriculture On The Environment And Climate Change In Brazil, 2010 Animal Studies Repository

The Impact Of Animal Agriculture On The Environment And Climate Change In Brazil

Agribusiness Reports

The intensification of farm animal production in industrialized agricultural systems, or factory farms, compromises animal welfare and degrades the environment. Animal agriculture inefficiently consumes natural resources, contributes to deforestation, and produces immense quantities of animal waste, threatening water and air quality and contributing to climate change. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations estimated in 2006 that animal agriculture was responsible for 18% of global, anthropogenic, or humaninduced, greenhouse gas emissions and was ―by far the single largest anthropogenic user of land."


Reproducing Dominion: Emotional Apprenticeship In The 4h Youth Livestock Program., Colter Ellis, Leslie Irvine 2009 University of Colorado Boulder

Reproducing Dominion: Emotional Apprenticeship In The 4h Youth Livestock Program., Colter Ellis, Leslie Irvine

Leslie Irvine, PhD

This paper examines young people’s socialization into the doctrine known as “dominionism,” which justifies the use of animals in the service of human beings. Using qualitative research, it focuses on the 4-H youth livestock program, in which boys and girls raise cattle, pigs, goats, and sheep for slaughter. The analysis portrays 4-H as an apprenticeship in which children learn to do cognitive emotion work, use distancing mechanisms, and create a “redemption” narrative to cope with contradictory ethical and emotional experiences. Although this paper focuses on young people’s relationships with animals, and particularly with types of animals that have ...


Gender Work In A Feminized Profession: The Case Of Veterinary Medicine., Leslie Irvine, Jenny R. Vermilya 2009 University of Colorado Boulder

Gender Work In A Feminized Profession: The Case Of Veterinary Medicine., Leslie Irvine, Jenny R. Vermilya

Leslie Irvine, PhD

Veterinary medicine has undergone dramatic, rapid feminization while in many ways remaining gendered masculine. With women constituting approximately half of its practitioners and nearly 80 percent of students, veterinary medicine is the most feminized of the comparable health professions. Nevertheless, the culture of veterinary medicine glorifies stereotypically masculine actions and attitudes. This article examines how women veterinarians understand the gender dynamics within the profession. Our analysis reveals that the discursive strategies available to women sustain and justify the status quo, and thus preserve hegemonic masculinity. Women use strategies previously used toward female tokens in nontraditional jobs, such as role encapsulation ...


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