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First Thirty Days Of Life: Examining Calf Behavioral Development In Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus Leucas) And Pacific White-Sided Dolphins (Lagenorhyncus Obliquidens) At One Zoological Facility, Kendal Smith 2019 University of Southern Mississippi

First Thirty Days Of Life: Examining Calf Behavioral Development In Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus Leucas) And Pacific White-Sided Dolphins (Lagenorhyncus Obliquidens) At One Zoological Facility, Kendal Smith

Master's Theses

Cetacean development is important for general comparative understanding and the implementation of informed husbandry policies. Due to the inaccessibility of many of these species in the wild, researchers can study managed care populations to better understand basic developmental patterns of cetaceans, as well as to improve husbandry policies for facility animals. However, no previous studies have attempted to observe the behavioral development of Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhyncus obliquidens). Eight beluga whale calves and four Pacific white-sided dolphin calves were observed for the first 30 days of life to determine the developmental trajectory of several typically monitored behaviors. The first occurrence ...


Effect Of Locality Recognition On Aggressive Behavior In The Red Swamp Crayfish, Procambarus Clarkii, Brett K. Muramoto, Tyler Farley 2019 Pepperdine University

Effect Of Locality Recognition On Aggressive Behavior In The Red Swamp Crayfish, Procambarus Clarkii, Brett K. Muramoto, Tyler Farley

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Climate change affects habitat globally, facilitating the expansion and rapid proliferation of invasive species which damage the newly invaded ecosystem. Intraspecific aggression among an invasive species is an important focus in ecological studies because it can contribute to their overall success as invaders. The crayfish species, Procambarus clarkii, inhabits freshwater streams in the Santa Monica Mountains (Los Angeles, CA) as an aggressive invasive predator. These invasive crayfish are well known for their highly aggressive interactions with conspecifics. It has been shown that body size, temperature, sex, and level of hunger influence their levels of aggression. However, there is a lack ...


Cooperative Conservation To Enhance Human–Wildlife Interactions, Terry A. Messmer 2019 Utah State University

Cooperative Conservation To Enhance Human–Wildlife Interactions, Terry A. Messmer

Terry A. Messmer

This is the editors commentary


Dolphins In Space: Quantifying The Relative Positions Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Megan S. McGrath 2019 CUNY Hunter College

Dolphins In Space: Quantifying The Relative Positions Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Megan S. Mcgrath

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are socially sophisticated mammals with high fission-fusion dynamics and complex communication. The relative positioning of individual dolphins as they swim within their social group may aid in the expression of social roles. This study sought to quantify relative positioning in a small social group of female bottlenose dolphins at the National Aquarium in Baltimore that included two mother-daughter pairs, maternal and paternal half-sisters, a half-aunt and niece, and one unrelated female. We devised a method for scoring relative positioning in three dimensions. We found that the two mothers and their juvenile and adult daughters often swam ...


A Global Reassessment Of Solitary-Sociable Dolphins, Laetitia Nunny, Mark P. Simmonds 2019 Wild Animal Welfare

A Global Reassessment Of Solitary-Sociable Dolphins, Laetitia Nunny, Mark P. Simmonds

Personality

Dolphins are typically regarded as highly social animals. However, some individuals live apart from their own species and may come to socialize with people through a recognized series of stages which are presented and expanded on in this paper. The term “solitary-sociable dolphins” has been used to describe these animals and such individuals have been identified from several different species and reported in many parts of the world. In many instances, the interactions with people that may follow their original isolation, and which typically become more intense over time, have created situations where the welfare of the animal has been ...


On The Brink Of Extinction: The Fate Of The Pacific Northwest's Southern Resident Killer Whales, Sabrina Wilk 2019 Claremont Colleges

On The Brink Of Extinction: The Fate Of The Pacific Northwest's Southern Resident Killer Whales, Sabrina Wilk

Pomona Senior Theses

The killer whales that roam the northeastern Pacific Ocean have been the objects of studies since the 1970s, making them the most well-studied population of orcas in the world. Three distinct ecotypes of killer whales (Orcinus orca), known as residents, transients, and offshores, share these waters. The ecotypes are morphologically and behaviorally distinct to the extent that some scientists consider them separate species, with residents eating salmon, transients specializing on marine mammals, and offshores preferring Pacific sleeper sharks and Pacific halibut. Resident populations have endeared themselves to the region's locals with their striking black and white markings and their ...


Sentience Is The Foundation Of Animal Rights, Michael L. Woodruff 2019 East Tennessee State University

Sentience Is The Foundation Of Animal Rights, Michael L. Woodruff

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman argue that the cognitive differences between humans and nonhuman animals do not make humans superior to animals. I suggest that humans have domain-general cognitive abilities that make them superior in causing uniquely complex changes in the world not caused by any other species. The ability to conceive of and articulate a claim of rights is an example. However, possession of superior cognitive ability does not entitle humans to superior moral status. It is sentience, not cognitive complexity, that is the basis for the assignment of rights and the protections under the law that accompany them.


Human And Nonhuman Animals: Towards Equality, Catherine Price 2019 University of Warwick

Human And Nonhuman Animals: Towards Equality, Catherine Price

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman argue that we should not consider humans as unique and superior to nonhuman animals. Ecofeminism advocates the respectful treatment of humans, nonhuman animals, and the environment.


Anthropocentrism: Practical Remedies Needed, Helen Kopnina 2019 The Hague University of Applied Sciences

Anthropocentrism: Practical Remedies Needed, Helen Kopnina

Animal Sentience

It is true that one of the harmful consequences of creating categories where one group is unique and superior to others is that it justifies discriminating against the inferior groups. And outright abuse of nonhuman animals is indeed morally unjustifiable. But what is to be done about it?


Portraits With A Posthumous Voice: Reinforcing And Contesting Social Norms In The Heterotopic Museum And Cemetery, Matthew J. Crissey 2018 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

Portraits With A Posthumous Voice: Reinforcing And Contesting Social Norms In The Heterotopic Museum And Cemetery, Matthew J. Crissey

Museum Studies Theses

Abstract

The following paper qualitatively analyzes and documents over 500 memorial-photographs/etched portraits on tombstones in ten Western New York cemeteries. This paper covers fourteen topics, ranging from religion to gang-violence. A juxtaposition of portraits exhibited within the Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery with memorial-portraits on tombstones revealed heterotopic environments creating a public forum enabling the reinforcing or contestation of social ideologies. In other words, the author observed the similarities of identities and social norms publicly expressed on tombstones and gallery portraits.

A Social Constructionist approach enabled the study to examine how one social phenomenon contributes to the shaping of a ...


Painted Ferocity: The Social Behaviors Of African Wild Dogs, Threats To Survival, And Resulting Conservation Initiatives, Alexis Valdes 2018 Liberty University

Painted Ferocity: The Social Behaviors Of African Wild Dogs, Threats To Survival, And Resulting Conservation Initiatives, Alexis Valdes

Senior Honors Theses

African Wild Dogs (Lycaon pictus) are an endangered species of canid from Sub-Saharan Africa. They are very social communal hunters, and are capable of chasing down prey for long stretches of time. Wild dogs benefit a savannah ecosystem by regulating the populations of their prey so that it does not become unhealthy and overgrown. Like many organisms, wild dogs are also in competition with other predators for resources, namely lions and hyenas, who are capable of stealing their kills and occasionally injuring and killing them. Due to the depletion of their wild prey, wild dogs may also prey upon farmers ...


Optimizing Methods To Determine Metabolizable Energy Values Of Feed Ingredients For Broilers, Skyler P. West 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Optimizing Methods To Determine Metabolizable Energy Values Of Feed Ingredients For Broilers, Skyler P. West

Theses and Dissertations

Determination of metabolizable energy (ME) and amino acid (AA) digestibility values of single feed indigents continues to be two of the most important aspects for successful least-cost poultry feed formulation. It would be advantageous if a common diet type could be utilized to determine both ME and AA digestibility values of feed ingredients within a single assay. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of basal diet type and excreta collection method on the ME value of single feed ingredients determined in broiler chicks using the regression method. In experiment 1, the objective was to investigate the influence of ...


The Effect Of Rem Sleep Deprivation On Spatial Memory In Male And Female Rats, Kaitlyn Heywood 2018 Seton Hall University

The Effect Of Rem Sleep Deprivation On Spatial Memory In Male And Female Rats, Kaitlyn Heywood

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

It is important for an organism to excel in spatial memory abilities. An organism’s survival is dependent on their ability to navigate through their environment to find resources, such as food and water, while being able to navigate home safely. With how important it is to navigate an environment safely, it is important to investigate things that impact spatial memory, such as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation. Sleep research has primarily utilized male rodents to model sleep disturbances studies which cannot be easily studied in human participants. Research has been divided on whether four hours of REM sleep ...


Dynamics Of Social Interactions And Agent Spreading In Ant Colonies: Effects Of Environmental Events And Spatial Heterogeneity, Yun Kang 2018 Arizona State University East

Dynamics Of Social Interactions And Agent Spreading In Ant Colonies: Effects Of Environmental Events And Spatial Heterogeneity, Yun Kang

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


A Time-Delayed Model Of Apis Mellifera, Jun Chen 2018 Illinois State University

A Time-Delayed Model Of Apis Mellifera, Jun Chen

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Prison-Based Dog Training Programs: Standard Protocol, Tyler M. Han, Erin Flynn, Joseph Winchell, Emily Gould, Jaci Gandenberger, Dana Barattin, Philip Tedeschi, Kevin N. Morris 2018 University of Denver

Prison-Based Dog Training Programs: Standard Protocol, Tyler M. Han, Erin Flynn, Joseph Winchell, Emily Gould, Jaci Gandenberger, Dana Barattin, Philip Tedeschi, Kevin N. Morris

Animal Training and Obedience

Across the United States, the number of prison-based dog training programs (PDPs) has increased substantially over the past several years. Currently, there are approximately 255 PDPs across 47 states that operate in a variety of correctional settings; however, there is little information available on how to successfully develop and implement a PDP. As a result, the research team from the Institute for Human-Animal Connection (IHAC) has developed a standard protocol to help guide PDP development and implementation.

This report identifies common practices of PDPs and incorporates both general and context-specific recommendations that were gathered from interviews with PDP staff, relevant ...


Andean Condor Nesting And Behavior: A Study Of A Free-Living Pair And Chick As Well As Population Behavior Near Antisana Ecological Reserve, Ecuador, Ian Handler 2018 SIT Study Abroad

Andean Condor Nesting And Behavior: A Study Of A Free-Living Pair And Chick As Well As Population Behavior Near Antisana Ecological Reserve, Ecuador, Ian Handler

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The behavior of the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus), especially nest behavior, is little known outside of captivity. More information on chick-parent interactions and parenting dynamics of successful condor pairs is needed in order to help create an effective conservation plan for a species in peril of extinction. Study of nest home used by a free-living pair of condors and home to a five-month old juvenile began on November 11, 2018 and continued through November 29, 2018. The nest is located in Antisanilla Biological Reserve and nearby Antisana Ecological Reserve. The chick was also tagged with numbers and a tracking device ...


Large Mammals Of The High Andes A Survey Of Community Composition And Habitat Usage In The Highlands Of Angochagua, Sage Fox 2018 SIT Study Abroad

Large Mammals Of The High Andes A Survey Of Community Composition And Habitat Usage In The Highlands Of Angochagua, Sage Fox

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The large mammal community of the high Andes may be the least understood in South America. It contains multiple threatened and charismatic species including the Andean Bear, Mountain Tapir, Red Brocket Deer, Northern Pudu, and Puma. Many of these species are lacking in distribution and population data. The highlands of the Parroquia de Angochagua were once overgrazed by livestock, but have been mostly restored over the last 20 years through conservation efforts by the local community. These highlands are thought to have populations of all the previously mentioned species, though they had not been surveyed before this study. Transect surveys ...


Differences In Temporal And Territorial Feeding Patterns Of Various Tropical Trochilidae Species As Observed At Two Different Ecosystems In Soberanía National Park, Delaney Vorwick 2018 SIT Study Abroad

Differences In Temporal And Territorial Feeding Patterns Of Various Tropical Trochilidae Species As Observed At Two Different Ecosystems In Soberanía National Park, Delaney Vorwick

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This study aims to illustrate differences in feeding patterns and displays of territorialism at two artificial feeding sites, located in two ecosystems; one site in a secondary forest of Soberanía National Park, the other in a residential area in the nearby town of Gamboa. Four 1-hour observation periods were recorded each day for four days at both sites. During each period of observation, the allocation of time to the three activities of perching, flying, and feeding was recorded, along with the number of visits the feeders. Notes were taken on patterns of territoriality as connected to species and sex. Significance ...


Searching Images And The Meaning Of Alarm Calls, Alan B. Bond 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Searching Images And The Meaning Of Alarm Calls, Alan B. Bond

Alan Bond Publications

The snake alarm call of Japanese tits prompts nesting adults to search for and mob the reptile until it is driven away. From playback experiments, Suzuki (2018) has inferred that the call provides an associative cue, evoking a searching image of the salient visual features of the predator—a novel approach to exploring visual attention and vocal communication in the wild.


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