Probabilities In Probable Cause And Beyond: Statistical Versus Concrete Harms, 2014 Cornell Law School

#### Probabilities In Probable Cause And Beyond: Statistical Versus Concrete Harms, Sherry F. Colb

*Sherry Colb*

No abstract provided.

Security Analysis On Network Systems Based On Some Stochastic Models, 2014 University of New Orleans

#### Security Analysis On Network Systems Based On Some Stochastic Models, Xiaohu Li

*University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations*

Due to great effort from mathematicians, physicists and computer scientists, network science has attained rapid development during the past decades. However, because of the complexity, most researches in this area are conducted only based upon experiments and simulations, it is critical to do research based on theoretical results so as to gain more insight on how the structure of a network affects the security. This dissertation introduces some stochastic and statistical models on certain networks and uses a k-out-of-n tolerant structure to characterize both logically and physically the behavior of nodes. Based upon these models, we draw several illuminating results ...

Visualizing Probabilistic Proof, 2014 University of Central Florida Dixon School of Accounting & College of Business Administration

#### Visualizing Probabilistic Proof, Enrique Guerra-Pujol

*Washington University Jurisprudence Review*

The author revisits the Blue Bus Problem, a famous thought-experiment in law involving probabilistic proof, and presents Bayesian solutions to different versions of the blue bus hypothetical. In addition, the author expresses his solutions in standard and visual formats, that is, in terms of probabilities and natural frequencies.

An Inspiration From San Diego, 2014 Run At Space Productions

#### An Inspiration From San Diego, Gabriel Leiner

*Gabriel Leiner*

The city of San Diego is the only place in America that maintains a public transportation system designed to run in a circle, which is a shape with a common start and end point. The point of this paper is to model these types of systems. The code for the model constructed here is in the D programming language and uses constraints and equations to simulate trial runs of trains along a track. Trains move as objects and make station stops at nodes. The model uses a random number generator to simulate boarding times and allows vehicles to coast around ...

Choosing Between Parametric And Non-Parametric Tests, 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

#### Choosing Between Parametric And Non-Parametric Tests, Russ Johnson

*Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato*

A common question in comparing two sets of measurements is whether to use a parametric testing procedure or a non-parametric procedure. The question is even more important in dealing with smaller samples. Here, using simulation, several parametric and nonparametric tests, such as, t-test, Normal test, Wilcoxon Rank Sum test, van-der Waerden Score test, and Exponential Score test are compared.

Statistical Mechanics And Schramm-Loewner Evolution With Applications To Crack Propagation Processes, 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

#### Statistical Mechanics And Schramm-Loewner Evolution With Applications To Crack Propagation Processes, Christopher Borut Mesic

*Masters Theses*

Schramm-Loewner Evolution (SLE) has both mathematical and physical roots that extend as far back as the early 20th century. We present the progression of these humble roots from the Ideal Gas Law, all the way to the renormalization group and conformal field theory, to better understand the impact SLE has had on modern statistical mechanics. We then explore the potential application of the percolation exploration process to crack propagation processes, illustrating the interplay between mathematics and physics.

Comparison Of Hazard, Odds And Risk Ratio In The Two-Sample Survival Problem, 2014 Western Michigan University

#### Comparison Of Hazard, Odds And Risk Ratio In The Two-Sample Survival Problem, Benedict P. Dormitorio

*Dissertations*

Cox proportional hazards is the standard method for analyzing treatment efficacy when time-to-event data is available. In the absence of time-to-event, investigators may use logistic regression which only requires relative frequencies of events, or Poisson regression which requires only interval-summarized frequency tables of time-to-event. When event frequencies are used instead of time-to-events, does it always result in a loss in power?

We investigate the relative performance of the three methods. In particular, we compare the power of tests based on the respective effect-size estimates (1)hazard ratio (HR), (2)odds ratio (OR), and (3)risk ratio (RR). We use a ...

A General Framework For Uncertainty Propagation Based On Point Estimate Methods, 2014 German Aerospace Center

#### A General Framework For Uncertainty Propagation Based On Point Estimate Methods, René Schenkendorf

*René Schenkendorf*

A general framework to approach the challenge of uncertainty propagation in model based prognostics is presented in this work. It is shown how the so-called Point Estimate Meth- ods (PEMs) are ideally suited for this purpose because of the following reasons: 1) A credible propagation and represen- tation of Gaussian (normally distributed) uncertainty can be done with a minimum of computational effort for non-linear applications. 2) Also non-Gaussian uncertainties can be prop- agated by evaluating suitable transfer functions inherently. 3) Confidence intervals of simulation results can be derived which do not have to be symmetrically distributed around the mean value ...

Some New Probability Distributions Based On Random Extrema And Permutation Patterns, 2014 East Tennessee State University

#### Some New Probability Distributions Based On Random Extrema And Permutation Patterns, Jie Hao

*Electronic Theses and Dissertations*

In this paper, we study a new family of random variables, that arise as the distribution of extrema of a random number *N* of independent and identically distributed random variables *X _{1},X_{2}, ..., X_{N}*, where each

*X*has a common continuous distribution with support on

_{i}*[0,1]*. The general scheme is first outlined, and SUG and CSUG models are introduced in detail where

*X*is distributed as

_{i}*U[0,1]*. Some features of the proposed distributions can be studied via its mean, variance, moments and moment-generating function. Moreover, we make some other choices for the continuous ...

Asymptotic Behavior Of A Class Of Spdes, 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

#### Asymptotic Behavior Of A Class Of Spdes, Parisa Fatheddin

*Doctoral Dissertations*

We establish the large and moderate deviation principles for a class of stochastic partial differential equations with a non-Lipschitz continuous coefficient. As an application we derive these principles for an important population model, Fleming-Viot Process. In addition, we establish the moderate deviation principle for another classical population model, super-Brownian motion.

Asymmetric Empirical Similarity, 2014 Georgetown University Law Center

#### Asymmetric Empirical Similarity, Joshua C. Teitelbaum

*Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works*

The paper offers a formal model of analogical legal reasoning and takes the model to data. Under the model, the outcome of a new case is a weighted average of the outcomes of prior cases. The weights capture precedential influence and depend on fact similarity (distance in fact space) and precedential authority (position in the judicial hierarchy). The empirical analysis suggests that the model is a plausible model for the time series of U.S. maritime salvage cases. Moreover, the results evince that prior cases decided by inferior courts have less influence than prior cases decided by superior courts.

Relationships Between Elements Of Leslie Matrices And Future Growth Of The Population, 2014 Olivet Nazarene University

#### Relationships Between Elements Of Leslie Matrices And Future Growth Of The Population, Lorisha Lynn Riley

*Honors Program Projects*

Leslie matrices have been used for years to model and predict the growth of animal populations. Recently, general rules have been applied that can relatively easily determine whether an animal population will grow or decline. My mentor, Dr. Justin Brown and I examine, more specifically, whether there are relationships between certain elements of a population and the dominant eigenvalue, which determines growth. Not only do we consider the general *3x3 *Leslie matrix, but also we looked into modified versions for incomplete data and migration models of Leslie matrices. We successfully found several connections within these cases; however, there is much ...

Meta-Analysis Of Social-Personality Psychological Research, 2014 University of Connecticut

#### Meta-Analysis Of Social-Personality Psychological Research, Blair T. Johnson, Alice H. Eagly

*CHIP Documents*

This publication provides a contemporary treatment of the subject of meta-analysis in relation to social-personality psychology. Meta-analysis literally refers to the statistical pooling of the results of independent studies on a given subject, although in practice it refers as well to other steps of research synthesis, including defining the question under investigation, gathering all available research reports, coding of information about the studies and their effects, and interpretation/dissemination of results. Discussed as well are the hallmarks of high-quality meta-analyses.

Natural Phenomena As Potential Influence On Social And Political Behavior: The Earth’S Magnetic Field, 2014 University of Kentucky

#### Natural Phenomena As Potential Influence On Social And Political Behavior: The Earth’S Magnetic Field, Jackie R. East

*Theses and Dissertations--Political Science*

Researchers use natural phenomena in a number of disciplines to help explain human behavioral outcomes. Research regarding the potential effects of magnetic fields on animal and human behavior indicates that fields could influence outcomes of interest to social scientists. Tests so far have been limited in scope. This work is a preliminary evaluation of whether the earth’s magnetic field influences human behavior it examines the baseline relationship exhibited between geomagnetic readings and a host of social and political outcomes. The emphasis on breadth of topical coverage in these statistical trials, rather than on depth of development for any one ...

Toward A Morphometric Phylogeny Of Caddo Ceramics: A Test Of 3d Geometric Morphometrics, 2014 Archeological & Environmental Consultants, LLC

#### Toward A Morphometric Phylogeny Of Caddo Ceramics: A Test Of 3d Geometric Morphometrics, Robert Z. Selden Jr., Timothy K. Perttula, Michael J. O'Brien

*CRHR: Archaeology*

In this poster we use 3D geometric morphometrics as an exploratory tool for examining diversity in vessel form (or shape) among 27 whole or reconstructed Caddo vessels from the Vanderpool site in Smith County, Texas. Forty-one landmarks from each vessel were exported to version 2.5 of *Morphologika* for generalized Procrustes analysis and principal components analysis and were then exported to R for cluster analysis (depending on sample size). Despite the small sample size, results indicate that 3D geometric morphometric analysis is an avenue of ceramic research where substantive analytical gains can be realized.

A Generalized Inflated Poisson Distribution, 2014 Marshall University

#### A Generalized Inflated Poisson Distribution, Patrick Stewart

*Theses, Dissertations and Capstones*

Count data with excess number of zeros, ones or twos are commonly encountered in experimental situations. In this thesis we have examined one such fertility data from Sweden. The standard Poisson distribution, which is widely used to model such count data, may not provide a good fit to model women's fertility (defined as the number of children per woman in her lifetime) in a specific population due to various cultural and sociological reasons. Therefore, the usual Poisson distribution is inflated at specific values suitably, as dictated by the societal norms, to fit the available data. The data set is ...

Expert Mining And Required Disclosure, 2014 University of Pennsylvania Law School

#### Expert Mining And Required Disclosure, Jonah B. Gelbach

*Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law*

No abstract provided.

Cycle Lengths Of Θ-Biased Random Permutations, 2014 Harvey Mudd College

#### Cycle Lengths Of Θ-Biased Random Permutations, Tongjia Shi

*HMC Senior Theses*

Consider a probability distribution on the permutations of n elements. If the probability of each permutation is proportional to θ^{K}, where K is the number of cycles in the permutation, then we say that the distribution generates a θ-biased random permutation. A random permutation is a special θ-biased random permutation with θ = 1. The m^{th} moment of the r^{th} longest cycle of a random permutation is Θ(n^{m}), regardless of r and θ. The joint moments are derived, and it is shown that the longest cycles of a permutation can either be positively or negatively correlated ...

A Hybrid Agent-Based And Differential Equations Model For Simulating Antibiotic Resistance In A Hospital Ward, 2013 University of Richmond

#### A Hybrid Agent-Based And Differential Equations Model For Simulating Antibiotic Resistance In A Hospital Ward, Lester Caudill, Barry Lawson

*Math and Computer Science Faculty Publications*

Serious infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria are pervasive, and of particular concern within hospital units due to frequent interaction among health-care workers and patients. Such nosocomial infections are difficult to eliminate because of inconsistent disinfection procedures and frequent interactions among infected persons, and because ill-chosen antibiotic treatment strategies can lead to a growth of resistant bacterial strains. Clinical studies to address these concerns have several issues, but chief among them are the effects on the patients involved. Realistic simulation models offer an attractive alternative. This paper presents a hybrid simulation model of antibiotic resistant infections in a hospital ward, combining ...

Mapping Spatial Thematic Accuracy Using Indicator Kriging, 2013 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

#### Mapping Spatial Thematic Accuracy Using Indicator Kriging, Maria I. Martinez

*Masters Theses*

Thematic maps derived from remote sensing imagery is increasingly being used in environmental and ecological modeling. Spatial information in these maps however is not free of error. Different methodologies such as error matrices are used to assess the accuracy of the spatial information. However, most of the methods commonly used for describing the accuracy assessment of thematic data fail to describe spatial differences of the accuracy across an area of interest. This thesis describes the use of indicator kriging as a geostatistical method for mapping the spatial accuracy of thematic maps. The method is illustrated by constructing accuracy maps for ...