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The Changing Paradigm In Preclinical Toxicology: In Vitro And In Silico Methods In Liver Toxicity Evaluations, Fozia Noor 2019 Université du Luxembourg

The Changing Paradigm In Preclinical Toxicology: In Vitro And In Silico Methods In Liver Toxicity Evaluations, Fozia Noor

Application of Alternative Methods Collection

In vitro methods, based on human primary cells, cell lines, and genetically modified reporter cell lines, have greatly expanded the scope of in vitro toxicology. Other significant progress in the area of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) (Asgari et al., 2010; Schwartz et al., 2014; Shinde et al., 2016; Shtrichman, Germanguz and Itskovitz-Eldor, 2013) is allowing the application of patient and disease-specific hiPSCs (Ghodsizadeh et al., 2010; McCracken et al., 2014; Siller et al., 2013). Moreover, the tools of precise genome editing with engineered nucleases, such as the zinc finger nucleases (zfns), the transcription activator-like effecter nucleases (talens) and, more …


How To Evaluate The Science Of Non-Human Animal Use In Biomedical Research And Testing: A Proposed Format For Debate, Ray Greek, Lisa A. Kramer 2019 Americans For Medical Advancement

How To Evaluate The Science Of Non-Human Animal Use In Biomedical Research And Testing: A Proposed Format For Debate, Ray Greek, Lisa A. Kramer

Validation of Alternative Methods Collection

Over time, the interpretation of science has occasionally been corrupted by vested interest groups, be they financially motivated or ego driven. Scientific consensus and widespread public beliefs usually catch up with the evidence, but this can take a very long time and often costs lives. The use of non-human animals in biomedical research and testing is a scientific endeavor and, as such, can and should be evaluated in light of the best science currently available. But facts that have been accepted in all areas of science are routinely ignored or called into question by well-funded, vested interest groups, compromising the …


How Can The Final Goal Of Completely Replacing Animal Procedures Successfully Be Achieved?, Christiane Baumgartl-Simons, Christiane Hohense 2019 People for Animal Rights Germany—Federal Association against Vivisection (Germany)

How Can The Final Goal Of Completely Replacing Animal Procedures Successfully Be Achieved?, Christiane Baumgartl-Simons, Christiane Hohense

Validation of Alternative Methods Collection

Article 23 of European Union (EU) Directive 86/609/EEC required that Member States promote the development and validation of alternative technologies and stated that the European Commission (EC) “shall report before the end of 1987 on the possibility of modifying tests and guidelines” (European Parliament, 1986, Article 23). This Directive was replaced by Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes, which now requires that Member States develop and validate alternative approaches much more precisely and specifies that the ultimate objective is the “full replacement of procedures on live animals for scientific and educational purposes, as soon as …


Cronbach’S Alpha Under Insufficient Effort Responding: An Analytic Approach, Stephen W. Carden, Trevor R. Camper, Nicholas S. Holtzman 2019 Georgia Southern University

Cronbach’S Alpha Under Insufficient Effort Responding: An Analytic Approach, Stephen W. Carden, Trevor R. Camper, Nicholas S. Holtzman

Department of Psychology Faculty Publications

Surveys commonly suffer from insufficient effort responding (IER). If not accounted for, IER can cause biases and lead to false conclusions. In particular, Cronbach’s alpha has been empirically observed to either deflate or inflate due to IER. This paper will elucidate how IER impacts Cronbach’s alpha in a variety of situations. Previous results concerning internal consistency under mixture models are extended to obtain a characterization of Cronbach’s alpha in terms of item validities, average variances, and average covariances. The characterization is then applied to contaminating distributions representing various types of IER. The discussion will provide commentary on previous simulation-based investigations, …


Replacing Animal Tests To Improve Safety For Humans, Kathy Archibald, Robert Coleman, Tamara Drake 2019 Safer Medicines Trust

Replacing Animal Tests To Improve Safety For Humans, Kathy Archibald, Robert Coleman, Tamara Drake

Application of Alternative Methods Collection

In this chapter, we propose a new, pragmatic approach that could accelerate the replacement of most, if not all, regulatory animal tests with superior tests based on human biology. We also propose that changes to the requirements for safety testing, issued by the us Food and Drug Administration (fda), must be made in order to enable the use of superior new tests, which are currently disadvantaged by the outdated language of the regulations. But first, it is imperative to establish some level of understanding of the efficacy of existing animal-based methods in order to know whether any possible replacement is …


Methods For Evaluating Dropout Attrition In Survey Data, Camille J. Hochheimer 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Methods For Evaluating Dropout Attrition In Survey Data, Camille J. Hochheimer

Theses and Dissertations

As researchers increasingly use web-based surveys, the ease of dropping out in the online setting is a growing issue in ensuring data quality. One theory is that dropout or attrition occurs in phases that can be generalized to phases of high dropout and phases of stable use. In order to detect these phases, several methods are explored. First, existing methods and user-specified thresholds are applied to survey data where significant changes in the dropout rate between two questions is interpreted as the start or end of a high dropout phase. Next, survey dropout is considered as a time-to-event outcome and …


Snap Scholar: The User Experience Of Engaging With Academic Research Through A Tappable Stories Medium, Ieva Burk 2019 Claremont Colleges

Snap Scholar: The User Experience Of Engaging With Academic Research Through A Tappable Stories Medium, Ieva Burk

CMC Senior Theses

With the shift to learn and consume information through our mobile devices, most academic research is still only presented in long-form text. The Stanford Scholar Initiative has explored the segment of content creation and consumption of academic research through video. However, there has been another popular shift in presenting information from various social media platforms and media outlets in the past few years. Snapchat and Instagram have introduced the concept of tappable “Stories” that have gained popularity in the realm of content consumption.

To accelerate the growth of the creation of these research talks, I propose an alternative to video: …


Safety Constraint Optimization Of Combination Drug Therapy In Hypertension Clinical Trials, Victor Chukwu 2019 Georgia Southern University

Safety Constraint Optimization Of Combination Drug Therapy In Hypertension Clinical Trials, Victor Chukwu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In Clinical Practice, combination drug therapy has become common in treating many disease conditions. The purpose of these combinations is often to ensure optimal efficacy and to reduce adverse effects that may arise from monotherapy. Clinical trials have also been conducted to ensure efficacy and safety of these combinations before they are introduced into the market. However, adverse effects still occur with combination therapies. The objective of this study is to (1) To determine a region of optimum doses of Drug A and Drug B in combination while focusing on efficacy alone (2) To determine a region of optimum doses …


Effects On Perception And Accuracy Of Live Putting When Leaving The Flagstick In The Hole, Danielle Nicholson 2019 The University of Akron

Effects On Perception And Accuracy Of Live Putting When Leaving The Flagstick In The Hole, Danielle Nicholson

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The purpose of this study was to investigate the preferences of golfers and how those preferences affected their putting. This study involved participants who were golfers with a four-handicap or better taking a survey of their preferences of having the flagstick in and out and then assessing their putting from various distances with the flagstick in and out. The researcher measured the distance of the golf ball away from the hole after it had finished rolling. Then, t-tests were used to compare the data with the flagstick in and flagstick out to determine if there is a significant difference. The …


Statistical Designs For Network A/B Testing, Victoria V. Pokhilko 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Statistical Designs For Network A/B Testing, Victoria V. Pokhilko

Theses and Dissertations

A/B testing refers to the statistical procedure of experimental design and analysis to compare two treatments, A and B, applied to different testing subjects. It is widely used by technology companies such as Facebook, LinkedIn, and Netflix, to compare different algorithms, web-designs, and other online products and services. The subjects participating in these online A/B testing experiments are users who are connected in different scales of social networks. Two connected subjects are similar in terms of their social behaviors, education and financial background, and other demographic aspects. Hence, it is only natural to assume that their reactions to online products …


Resource Assessment Report Temperate Demersal Elasmobranch Resource Of Western Australia, Matias Braccini, Nick Blay, S. A. Hesp, brett molony 2018 Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia

Resource Assessment Report Temperate Demersal Elasmobranch Resource Of Western Australia, Matias Braccini, Nick Blay, S. A. Hesp, Brett Molony

Fisheries research reports

This document provides a cumulative description and assessment of the TDER and all of the fishing activities (i.e. fisheries / fishing sectors) affecting this resource in WA. Future Resource Assessment Reports will assess the Statewide Sharks and Rays Resource. The report is focused on the temperate indicator species (whiskery, gummy, dusky and sandbar sharks) used to assess the suites of demersal sharks and rays that comprise this resource. These species are primarily captured by demersal gillnets used in the TDGDLF that operate in the West Coast and South Coast Bioregions. For the North Coast bioregion, no commercial fishing for sharks …


Model-Based Predictive Analytics For Additive And Smart Manufacturing, Zhuo Yang 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Model-Based Predictive Analytics For Additive And Smart Manufacturing, Zhuo Yang

Doctoral Dissertations

Qualification and certification for additive and smart manufacturing systems can be uncertain and very costly. Using available historical data can mitigate some costs of producing and testing sample parts. However, use of such data lacks the flexibility to represent specific new problems which decreases predictive accuracy and efficiency. To address these compelling needs, in this dissertation modeling techniques are introduced that can proactively estimate results expected from additive and smart manufacturing processes swiftly and with practical levels of accuracy and reliability. More specifically, this research addresses the current challenges and limitations posed by use of available data and the high …


A Comparison Of Pre-College Enrichment Program Participants And Non-Participants: College Academic Performance Measures, Sherron McKendall, Alan McKendall, Ann Chester 2018 West Virginia University

A Comparison Of Pre-College Enrichment Program Participants And Non-Participants: College Academic Performance Measures, Sherron Mckendall, Alan Mckendall, Ann Chester

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

This paper analyzes College Grade Point Averages (CGPAs), American College Testing Composite (ACTC) scores and Scholastic Assessment Test Total (SATT) scores of over 1,300 undergraduates at West Virginia University (WVU) who participated in the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) to those students who did not (Non-HSTA). Traditionally, pre-college enrichment programs provide academic enrichment to underrepresented youth with the intent of increasing their chances for post-secondary entry and success. Factorial design determined if HSTA participants were better prepared to pursue postsecondary study. Overall, the results reveal that HSTA students outperformed their Non-HSTA counterparts in that there were significant differences in …


Statistical Design Of Experiment Techniques In Manufacturing, Caroline M. Kerfonta 2018 University of South Carolina

Statistical Design Of Experiment Techniques In Manufacturing, Caroline M. Kerfonta

Senior Theses

There are many statistical techniques used to design experiments. These techniques are used in many different fields. This thesis will focus on the use of the three most common techniques used to design statistical experiments in manufacturing.

The three techniques that will be investigated are completely randomized design, randomized block design, and factorial design. These techniques will be compared, contrasted, and explained. Research examples will be presented along with sample R code for each technique. These examples will be accompanied by analysis of the techniques as well as an overview of the uses and history of experiments in manufacturing


Australian Herring And West Australian Salmon Scientific Workshop Report, October 2017, Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia 2018 Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia

Australian Herring And West Australian Salmon Scientific Workshop Report, October 2017, Department Of Primary Industries And Regional Development, Western Australia

Fisheries research reports

No abstract provided.


Designing A Calibration Set In Spectral Space For Efficient Development Of An Nir Method For Tablet Analysis, Md Anik Alam 2018 Duquesne University

Designing A Calibration Set In Spectral Space For Efficient Development Of An Nir Method For Tablet Analysis, Md Anik Alam

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Designing a calibration set is the first step in developing a spectroscopic calibration method for quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical tablets. This step is critical because successful model development depends on the suitability of the calibration data. For spectroscopic-based methods, traditional concentration based techniques for designing calibration sets are prone to have redundant information while simultaneously lacking necessary information for a successful calibration model. The traditional method also follows the same design approach for different spectroscopic techniques and different formulations, thereby lacks the optimizing capability to be technique and formulation specific.

A method for designing a calibration set in the Near …


Initial Evidence Of Construct Validity Of Data From A Self-Assessment Instrument Of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (Tpack) In 2-Year Public College Faculty In Texas, Kristin C. Scott 2018 University of Texas at Tyler

Initial Evidence Of Construct Validity Of Data From A Self-Assessment Instrument Of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (Tpack) In 2-Year Public College Faculty In Texas, Kristin C. Scott

Human Resource Development Theses and Dissertations

Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) has been studied in K-12 faculty in the U.S. and around the world using survey methodology. Very few studies of TPACK in post-secondary faculty have been conducted and no peer-reviewed studies in U.S. post-secondary faculty have been published to date. The present study is the first reliability and validity of data from a TPACK survey to be conducted with a large sample of U.S. post-secondary faculty. The professorate of 2-year public college faculty in Texas will help their institutions meet the goals of the state’s higher education strategic plan, 60x30TX. In order to do …


The Psychology Of Baseball: How The Mental Game Impacts The Physical Game, Kiera Dalmass 2018 University of Connecticut

The Psychology Of Baseball: How The Mental Game Impacts The Physical Game, Kiera Dalmass

Honors Scholar Theses

The purpose of this study was to find whether or not sports psychology can be effective. Baseball was chosen as the sport for the study because baseball can be analyzed for nearly every single factor of the game, with the exception of the mental readiness or state of the player when he steps onto the field. It therefore provides the optimal atmosphere to provide clinical and statistical support to the field of sports psychology. Despite the various, numerous pieces of literature that praise and show support for sports psychology, there hasn’t been clinical research to support it. Additionally, multiple sports …


The Impact Of Truncating Data On The Predictive Ability For Single-Step Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction, Jeremy T. Howard, Thomas A. Rathje, Caitlyn E. Bruns, Danielle F. Wilson-Wells, Stephen D. Kachman, Matthew L. Spangler 2018 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

The Impact Of Truncating Data On The Predictive Ability For Single-Step Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction, Jeremy T. Howard, Thomas A. Rathje, Caitlyn E. Bruns, Danielle F. Wilson-Wells, Stephen D. Kachman, Matthew L. Spangler

Department of Animal Science: Faculty Publications

Simulated and swine industry data sets were utilized to assess the impact of removing older data on the predictive ability of selection candidate estimated breeding values (EBV) when using single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP). Simulated data included thirty replicates designed to mimic the structure of swine data sets. For the simulated data, varying amounts of data were truncated based on the number of ancestral generations back from the selection candidates. The swine data sets consisted of phenotypic and genotypic records for three traits across two breeds on animals born from 2003 to 2017. Phenotypes and genotypes were iteratively …


Developing, Piloting, And Factor Analysis Of A Brief Survey Tool For Evaluating Food And Composting Behaviors: The Short Composting Survey, Jennie Norton 2018 Central Washington University

Developing, Piloting, And Factor Analysis Of A Brief Survey Tool For Evaluating Food And Composting Behaviors: The Short Composting Survey, Jennie Norton

All Master's Theses

Composting on a university campus may take a variety of forms. Sustainable approaches to waste management can be taught and supported through educational programs, peer-to-peer behavior modeling, and composting program interventions. Although peer-reviewed research on composting interventions is somewhat lacking, student interest in the topic is demonstrated by a range of exploratory senior projects and pilot interventions conducted at colleges across the United States and abroad. The purpose of this study was twofold: conduct an educational compost intervention pilot study and develop a survey tool to measure participant attitudes surrounding food behaviors and composting. The Compost Project pilot study focused …


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