Photopolymerizable Nanocomposites For Holographic Applications, 2010 Technological University Dublin
Photopolymerizable Nanocomposites For Holographic Applications, Elsa Leite
Photopolymerizable nanocomposites with good optical properties consisting of an acrylamide based photopolymer and zeolite nanoparticles (Beta, zeolite A, AlPO-18, silicalite-1 and zeolite L) were fabricated and characterized for holographic applications. The colloidal zeolite solutions used in this project were characterized by several techniques including X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy to ensure their successful synthesis. The dependence of grating performances in these nanocomposites on recording intensity, spatial frequency and zeolite concentration were studied. It was found that the incorporation of silicalite-1 nanoparticles or a small amount of zeolite A nanoparticles (up to ...
A Phenomenographic Study Of Introductory Physics Students: Approaches To Their Learning And Perceptions Of Their Learning Environment In A Physics Problem-Based Learning Environment, 2010 Technological University Dublin
A Phenomenographic Study Of Introductory Physics Students: Approaches To Their Learning And Perceptions Of Their Learning Environment In A Physics Problem-Based Learning Environment, Paul Irving
This phenomenographic study describes students’ approaches to learning and their perceptions of the learning environment in an introductory physics course which is taught using a problem-based learning approach. This research builds on previous studies which showed that these students develop a greater conceptual knowledge than their counterparts in a more traditional learning environment while others showed very little development even though they engaged fully with the pedagogy. This study aimed to examine and describe the students’ approaches to learning. The definitions of surface, strategic and deep approaches to learning are not appropriate in this context and could not be applied ...
Three-Body Dynamics In Single Ionization Of Atomic Hydrogen By 75 Kev Proton Impact, 2010 Missouri University of Science and Technology
Three-Body Dynamics In Single Ionization Of Atomic Hydrogen By 75 Kev Proton Impact, Aaron C. Laforge
"Doubly differential cross sections (DDCS) for single ionization of atomic hydrogen by 75 keV proton impact have been measured as a function of the projectile scattering angle and energy loss. This pure three-body collision system represents a fundamental test case for the study of the reaction dynamics in few-body systems. A comparison between theory and experiment reveals that three-body dynamics is important at all scattering angles, and that an accurate description of the role of the projectile-target nucleus interaction as well as the second order projectile-electron interaction remains a major challenge to theory. However, progress is being made in understanding ...
A Study Of The Growth And Structure Of Chromium And Iron Oxide Films On Pd(001) Using X-Ray Photoelectron Diffraction And Low Energy Electron Diffraction, 2010 Missouri University of Science and Technology
A Study Of The Growth And Structure Of Chromium And Iron Oxide Films On Pd(001) Using X-Ray Photoelectron Diffraction And Low Energy Electron Diffraction, Tina Dhekial-Phukan
"In this study, attempts were made to grow well-ordered chromium- and iron-oxide films on a Pd(001) surface, and two sample preparation techniques, the multilayer and the sequential growth techniques, were used to grow these transition metal oxide films. The study is a part of a larger project that aims to look into the interaction between metal substrates and the overlayers grown on them. Previous studies of oxide films on Ag(001) resulted in the growth of 4-fold and 3-fold symmetry oxide structures from the multilayer and sequential growth techniques respectively. The present investigation's goal was to study how ...
Lattice Expansion In Islands Stabilized By Electron Confinement: Ag On Si(111)-7×7, 2010 Iowa State University
Lattice Expansion In Islands Stabilized By Electron Confinement: Ag On Si(111)-7×7, Barış Ünal, Alex Belianinov, Patricia A. Thiel, Michael C. Tringides
Ag on Si(111)-7×7 was one of the first systems where height selection of metal islands was attributed to electron confinement, i.e., stabilization of selected heights through a quantum size effect (QSE). However, it has been puzzling how the requisite electron standing waves can form, because the Fermi level EF (along the growth  direction) is within the gap for bulk Ag. With detailed experiments over a wide coverage and temperature range, we show that a large increase of 12% is present in the interlayer spacing within the bilayer islands. This can shift EF below ...
Nanoscale “Quantum” Islands On Metal Substrates: Microscopy Studies And Electronic Structure Analyses, 2010 Iowa State University
Nanoscale “Quantum” Islands On Metal Substrates: Microscopy Studies And Electronic Structure Analyses, Yong Han, Barış Ünal, Dapeng Jing, Patricia A. Thiel, James W. Evans
Confinement of electrons can occur in metal islands or in continuous films grown heteroepitaxially upon a substrate of a different metal or on a metallic alloy. Associated quantum size effects (QSE) can produce a significant height-dependence of the surface free energy for nanoscale thicknesses of up to 10–20 layers. This may suffice to induce height selection during film growth. Scanning STM analysis has revealed remarkable flat-topped or mesa-like island and film morphologies in various systems. We discuss in detail observations of QSE and associated film growth behavior for Pb/Cu(111), Ag/Fe(100), and Cu/fcc-Fe/Cu(100 ...
Rhombohedrally Distorted Γ-Brasses Cr1−Xfexga, 2010 Iowa State University
Rhombohedrally Distorted Γ-Brasses Cr1−Xfexga, Hyujin Ko, Olivier Gourdon, Delphine Gout, Eun-Deok Mun, Srinivasa Thimmaiah, Gordon J. Miller
A series of rhombohedrally distorted γ-brass structures containing a mixture of magnetically active 3d elements, Cr and Fe, Cr1−xFexGa, is investigated crystallographically. These structures consist of chains of trans-face-sharing Ga-centered transition metal icosahedra. Neutron powder diffraction specifically on Cr0.5Fe0.5Ga, which could be prepared as a single phase material, gave lattice constants (11 K) a = 12.5172(2) Å and c = 7.8325(2) Å and a refined composition of Cr0.502(6)Fe0.498Ga = Cr6.523Fe6.477Ga13 and revealed partial ordering ...
Functional And Pathological Analysis Of Biological Systems Using Vibrational Spectroscopy With Chemometric And Heuristic Approaches, 2010 Technological University Dublin
Functional And Pathological Analysis Of Biological Systems Using Vibrational Spectroscopy With Chemometric And Heuristic Approaches, Aidan Meade, Colin Clarke, Franck Bonnier, Kelvin W. Poon, Amaya Garcia, Peter Knief, Kamila Ostrowska, Lorenzo Salford, Haq Nawaz, Fiona Lyng, Hugh Byrne
Vibrational spectroscopy (Raman and FTIR microspectroscopy) is an attractive modality for the analysis of biological samples since it provides a complete non-invasive acquisition of the biochemical fingerprint of the sample. Studies in our laboratory have applied vibrational spectroscopy to the analysis of biological function in response to external agents (chemotherapeutic drugs, ionising radiation, nanoparticles), together with studies of the pathology of tissue (skin and cervix) in health and disease. Genetic algorithms have been used to optimize spectral treatments in tandem with the analysis of the data (using generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), artificial neural networks (ANN), partial least squares modelling ...
Studies Of Chemical Fixation Effects In Human Cell Lines Using Raman Microspectroscopy, 2010 Technological University Dublin
Studies Of Chemical Fixation Effects In Human Cell Lines Using Raman Microspectroscopy, Aidan Meade, Colin Clarke, Florence Draux, Ganesh Sockalingum, Michel Manfait, Fiona Lyng, Hugh Byrne
The in vitro study of cellular species using Raman spectroscopy has proven a powerful non-invasive modality for the analysis of cell constituents and processes. This work uses micro-Raman spectroscopy to study the chemical fixation mechanism in three human cell lines (normal skin, normal bronchial epithelium, and lung adenocarcinoma) employing fixatives that preferentially preserve proteins (formalin), and nucleic acids (Carnoy’s fixative and methanol–acetic acid). Spectral differences between the mean live cell spectra and fixed cell spectra together with principal components analysis (PCA), and clustering techniques were used to analyse and interpret the spectral changes. The results indicate that fixation ...
Freezing And Melting Hysteresis Measurements In Solutions Of Hyperactive Antifreeze Protein From An Antarctic Bacteria, Yeliz Celik, Ran Drori, Laurie Graham, Yee-Foong Mok, Peter L. Davies, Ido Braslavsky
Physics Faculty Research
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) evolved in cold-adapted organisms and serve to protect them against freezing in cold conditions by arresting ice crystal growth. Recently, we have shown quantitatively that adsorption of AFPs not only prevents ice from growing but also from melting. This melting inhibition by AFPs, which results in superheated ice (Celik et al, PNAS 2010), is not a well-known phenomenon. Here we present our recent findings in which the Ca2+-dependent hyperactive AFP from Marinomonas primoryensis (MpAFP) clearly displays this property. Additionally, we found that an ice crystal that is initially stabilized and protected by this type of AFP ...
Investigation Of The Sources And Sinks Of Atmospheric Methane, 2010 Portland State University
Investigation Of The Sources And Sinks Of Atmospheric Methane, Christopher Lee Butenhoff
Dissertations and Theses
The work presented here represents a number of independent studies that investigated various components of the CH4 budget, namely the sources and sinks. We used a chemical-tracer model and created unique long-term time series of atmospheric CH4, carbon monoxide (CO), molecular hydrogen (H2), and methylchloroform (CH3CCl3) measurements at marine background air to derive histories of atmospheric hydroxyl radical (OH) - the main chemical oxidant of CH4, biomass burning - an important source of CH4 in the tropics, and emissions of CH4 from rice paddies - one of the largest anthropogenic sources of CH4 ...
Synthesis And Structural, Magnetic, Thermal, And Transport Properties Of Several Transition Metal Oxides And Arsenides, Supriyo Das
Graduate Theses and Dissertations
Several transition metal oxides and arsenides have been synthesized and their magnetic, thermal, structural, and transport properties have been studied in this thesis. Magnetically pure spinel compound LiV2O4 is a rare d-electron heavy fermion. The presence of small concentrations of magnetic defects, which are produced by the crystal defects in the spinel structure, strongly affect the physical properties of LiV2O4. The phase relations in the Li2O-V2O3-V2O5 ternary system at 700 °C for compositions in equilibrium with LiV2O4 are reported. This study clarified ...
Neutron Scattering Study Of Charge-Ordering In R1/3Sr2/3Feo3(R=La, Pr, Nd, Sm, And Y), 2010 Iowa State University
Neutron Scattering Study Of Charge-Ordering In R1/3Sr2/3Feo3(R=La, Pr, Nd, Sm, And Y), Jie Ma
Graduate Theses and Dissertations
The series of compounds R1/3Sr2/3FeO3 (R = La, Pr, Nd, and Sm) undergo a Verwey transition along with an antiferromagnetic ordering of Fe spins as well as a slight structural distortion below the Verwey transition temperature, TV. The charge disproportionation occurs via 3Fe3.67+=>2Fe3++Fe5+. The driving force of the charge ordering was determined from the magnetic and phonon spectra measured using inelastic neutron scattering. The data indicate a dominant role of the magnetic energy behind the charge ordering of Fe ions in La1/3Sr2/3 ...
Observational Studies Of The Structure, Content And Environment Of Intermediate And High-Mass Star-Forming Regions, Kim Daniel Arvidsson
Graduate Theses and Dissertations
This thesis describes observational studies of star-forming regions and their influence on the interstellar medium. First, in an effort to understand the factors that govern the transition from low- to high-mass star formation, a sample of intermediate-mass star-forming regions (IM SFRs) is identified for the first time. IM SFRs constitute embedded clusters where stars up to - but not exceeding - 8 solar masses are being produced. They are at an early evolutionary stage akin to compact HII regions, but they lack the massive ionizing central star(s). IRAS colors, Spitzer Space Telescope mid-IR images, millimeter continuum and CO maps were used ...
Models Of Galaxy Collisions In Stephan's Quintet And Other Interacting Systems, 2010 Iowa State University
Models Of Galaxy Collisions In Stephan's Quintet And Other Interacting Systems, Jeong-Sun Hwang
Graduate Theses and Dissertations
This dissertation describes numerical studies of three interacting galaxy systems. First, hydrodynamical models of the collisions in the famous compact galaxy group, Stephan's Quintet, were constructed to investigate the dynamical interaction history and evolution of the intergalactic gas. It has been found that with a sequence of two-at-a-time collisions, most of the major morphological and kinematical features of the group were well reproduced in the models. The models suggest the two long tails extending from NGC 7319 toward NGC 7320c may be formed simultaneously from a strong collisional encounter between the two galaxies, resulting in a thinner and denser ...
Yb-Based Heavy Fermion Compounds And Field Tuned Quantum Criticality, 2010 Iowa State University
Yb-Based Heavy Fermion Compounds And Field Tuned Quantum Criticality, Eundeok Mun
Graduate Theses and Dissertations
The thermoelectric properties of the heavy fermions YbT2Zn20(T = Fe, Ru, Os, Ir, Rh, and Co) and YbAgGe have been investigated as a function of magnetic field and temperature. Measurements of the thermodynamic and transport properties of YbPtBi suggest that a quantum critical point may be induced by an applied magnetic field.
Low-Temperature Adsorption Of H2s On Ag(111), 2010 Iowa State University
Low-Temperature Adsorption Of H2s On Ag(111), Selena M. Russell, Da-Jiang Liu, Maki Kawai, Yousoo Kim, Patricia A. Thiel
H2S forms a rich variety of structures on Ag(111) at low temperature and submonolayer coverage. The molecules decorate step edges, exist as isolated entities on terraces, and aggregate into clusters and islands, under various conditions. One type of island exhibits a (×)R25.3° unit cell. Typically, molecules in the clusters and islands are separated by about 0.4 nm, the same as the S–S separation in crystalline H2S. Density functional theory indicates that hydrogen-bonded clusters contain two types of molecules. One is very similar to an isolated adsorbed H2S molecule, with both ...
Adsorbate-Enhanced Transport Of Metals On Metal Surfaces: Oxygen And Sulfur On Coinage Metals, 2010 Iowa State University
Adsorbate-Enhanced Transport Of Metals On Metal Surfaces: Oxygen And Sulfur On Coinage Metals, Patricia A. Thiel, Mingmin Shen, Da-Jiang Liu, James W. Evans
Coarsening (i.e., ripening) of single-atom-high, metal homoepitaxial islands provides a useful window on the mechanism and kinetics of mass transport at metal surfaces. This article focuses on this type of coarsening on the surfaces of coinage metals (Cu, Ag, Au), both clean and with an adsorbed chalcogen (O, S) present. For the clean surfaces, three aspects are summarized: (1) the balance between the two major mechanisms—Ostwald ripening (the most commonly anticipated mechanism) and Smoluchowski ripening—and how that balance depends on island size; (2) the nature of the mass transport agents, which are metal adatoms in almost all ...
Variation Of Growth Morphology With Chemical Composition Of Terraces: Ag On A Twofold Surface Of A Decagonal Al-Cu-Co Quasicrystal, T. Duguet, Barış Ünal, Yong Han, James W. Evans, J. Ledieu, Cynthia J. Jenks, J.-M. Dubois, V. Fournée, Patricia A. Thiel
Growth of Ag thin films on the twofold surface of a decagonal Al-Cu-Co quasicrystal is characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy, at different temperatures, and for coverages ranging from submonolayer to 11 monolayers. From prior work, three types of clean surface terraces are known to exist. By correlation with a bulk structural model, the major difference between them lies in their transition-metal (TM) content, two being aluminum-rich (0 and 15 at. % TM) and one being TM-rich (40–50 at. % TM). The present article focuses on understanding the difference between Ag film morphologies on these terminations, in terms of their chemical content ...
Formation And Coarsening Of Ag(110) Bilayer Islands On Nial(110): Stm Analysis And Atomistic Lattice-Gas Modeling, Yong Han, Barış Ünal, Dapeng Jing, Feili Qin, Cynthia J. Jenks, Da-Jiang Liu, Patricia A. Thiel, James W. Evans
Scanning tunneling microscopy analysis of the initial stages of film growth during deposition of Ag on NiAl(110) reveals facile formation of bilayer Ag(110) islands at temperatures of 130 K and above. Annealing subsequent to deposition at 130 K induces coarsening of the bilayer island distribution. The thermodynamic driving force for bilayer island formation reflects a lower relative surface energy for films of even layer thicknesses. This feature derives from quantum size effects due to electron confinement in the Ag film. The kinetics of island formation and relaxation is controlled by terrace and edge-diffusion barriers, detachment barriers, interlayer diffusion ...