Impacts Of Climate Extremes On Terrestrial Productivity, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Impacts Of Climate Extremes On Terrestrial Productivity, Suhua Wei

*All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

Terrestrial biosphere absorbs approximately 28% of anthropogenic CO_{2} emissions. This terrestrial carbon sink might become saturated in a future climate regime. To explore the issues associated with this topic, an accurate estimate of gross primary production (GPP) of global terrestrial ecosystems is needed. A major uncertainty in modeling global terrestrial GPP is the parameter of light use efficiency (LUE). Most LUE estimates in global models are satellite-based and coarsely measured with emphasis on environmental variables. Others are from eddy covariance towers with much greater spatial and temporal data quality and emphasis on mechanistic processes, but in a limited number ...

Fitting Parameter Uncertainties In Least Squares Fitting, 2018 Brigham Young University

#### Fitting Parameter Uncertainties In Least Squares Fitting, R. Steven Turley

*All Faculty Publications*

This article review the theory and practice of computing uncertainties in the fit parameters in least squares fits. It shows how to estimate the uncertainties and gives some numerical examples in Julia of their use. Examples are given and validated for both linear and nonlinear fits.

Elementary Set Theory, 2018 University of North Dakota

#### Elementary Set Theory, Richard P. Millspaugh

*Open Educational Resources*

This text is appropriate for a course that introduces undergraduates to proofs. The material includes elementary symbolic logic, logical arguments, basic set theory, functions and relations, the real number system, and an introduction to cardinality. The text is intended to be readable for sophomore and better freshmen majoring in mathematics.

Linear Least Squares Curve Fitting, 2018 Brigham Young University

#### Linear Least Squares Curve Fitting, R. Steven Turley

*All Faculty Publications*

This article is a review of the theory and practice behind linear least squares curve fitting. It outlines how to find the optimal parameters to match experimental data with theory and how to estimate the uncertainty in those parameters. The article demonstrates and validates these calculations in Excel, MATLAB, Mathematica, Python, and Julia.

Quantum And Classical Transport Of 2d Electrons In The Presence Of Long And Short Range Disorder, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Quantum And Classical Transport Of 2d Electrons In The Presence Of Long And Short Range Disorder, Jesse Kanter

*All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

This work focuses on the study of electron transport of 2-D electron gas systems in relation to both fundamental properties of the systems such as disorder and scattering mechanisms, as well as unique magnetoresistance (MR) effects. A large portion of the discussion is built around the use of an in plane magnetic field to vary the ratio between the Zeeman energy between electrons of different spins and the Landau level spacing, creating a tool to control the quantization of the density of states (DOS).

This tool is first used to isolate Quantum Positive Magnetoresistance (QPMR), which grants insight to the ...

Rationality And Efficient Verifiable Computation, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Rationality And Efficient Verifiable Computation, Matteo Campanelli

*All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

In this thesis, we study protocols for delegating computation in a model where one of the parties is rational. In our model, a delegator outsources the computation of a function f on input x to a worker, who receives a (possibly monetary) reward. Our goal is to design very efficient delegation schemes where a worker is economically incentivized to provide the correct result f(x). In this work we strive for not relying on cryptographic assumptions, in particular our results do not require the existence of one-way functions.

We provide several results within the framework of rational proofs introduced by ...

Nmr Characterizations Of Candidate Battery Electrolytes, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Nmr Characterizations Of Candidate Battery Electrolytes, Stephen A. Munoz

*All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

Enormous strides have been made in next-generation power sources to build a more sustainable society. Energy storage has become a limiting factor in our progress, and there are huge environmental and financial incentives to find the next step forward in battery technology. This work discusses NMR methods for characterizing materials for use in battery application, with a special focus on relaxometry and diffusometry. Examples are provided of various recent investigations involving novel candidate electrolyte materials with different collaborators. Works discussed in this thesis include: the characterization of a new disruptive solid polymer electrolyte technology, investigations of the dynamics of super ...

Polynomial Fitting, 2018 Brigham Young University

#### Polynomial Fitting, R. Steven Turley

*All Faculty Publications*

This article reviews the theory and some good practice for fitting polynomials to data. I show by theory and example why fitting using a basis of orthogonal polynomials rather than monomials is desirable. I also show how to scale the independent variable for a more stable fit. I also demonstrate how to compute the uncertainty in the fit parameters. Finally, I discuss regression analysis: how to determine whether adding an additional term to the fit is justified.

Exploring Multiple Operating Scenarios To Identify Low-Cost, High Nitrate Removal Strategies For Electrically-Stimulated Woodchip Bioreactors, 2018 Iowa State University

#### Exploring Multiple Operating Scenarios To Identify Low-Cost, High Nitrate Removal Strategies For Electrically-Stimulated Woodchip Bioreactors, Ji-Yeow Law, Michelle L. Soupir, D. Raj Raman, Thomas Moorman

*Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications*

Woodchip bioreactors are recognized as an effective best management practice in the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy. This edge-of-field practice intercepts and removes NO3-N, thereby reducing the NO3-N concentration in tile drainage before being discharged into surface water. Actual NO3-N load reductions realized by woodchip bioreactors are impacted by bioreactor size, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and denitrification efficiency. A typical woodchip bioreactor in Iowa may have 0.07% bioreactor area with respect to treatment area, 4–8 h HRT, and 43% mean denitrification efficiency. Here, we explored the potential of using electrically stimulated woodchip bioreactors to achieve greater NO3-N removal, and ...

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies Of Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids And Garnet-Type Li7la3zr2o12, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies Of Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids And Garnet-Type Li7la3zr2o12, Shen Lai

*All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

Advancements in electrochemical energy storage materials are critical in the development and utilization of renewable energy technologies. These advancements involve obtaining a better understanding of electrochemical mechanisms and properties through scientific research towards an improved energy storage technology. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), is a sensitive and selective method to probe particle dynamics (magnetic relaxation, diffusometry, etc.) and material structures (spectroscopy) down to the atomic level. In this work, several NMR techniques are employed to study imidazolium-based ionic liquids and garnet-type inorganic materials. These are being studied due to their potential use as safer alternatives to organic solvent-based electrolytes in lithium-ion ...

The Philosophical Foundations Of Plen: A Protocol-Theoretic Logic Of Epistemic Norms, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### The Philosophical Foundations Of Plen: A Protocol-Theoretic Logic Of Epistemic Norms, Ralph E. Jenkins

*All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

In this dissertation, I defend the protocol-theoretic account of epistemic norms. The protocol-theoretic account amounts to three theses: (i) There are norms of epistemic rationality that are procedural; epistemic rationality is at least partially defined by rules that restrict the possible ways in which epistemic actions and processes can be sequenced, combined, or chosen among under varying conditions. (ii) Epistemic rationality is ineliminably defined by procedural norms; procedural restrictions provide an irreducible unifying structure for even apparently non-procedural prescriptions and normative expressions, and they are practically indispensable in our cognitive lives. (iii) These procedural epistemic norms are best analyzed in ...

Charge State Dynamics And Quantum Sensing With Defects In Diamond, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Charge State Dynamics And Quantum Sensing With Defects In Diamond, Jacob D. Henshaw

*All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

In recent years, defect centers in wide band gap semiconductors such as diamond, have received significant attention. Defects offer great utility as single photon emitters, nanoscale sensors, and quantum memories and registers for quantum computation. Critical to the utility of these defects, is their charge state.

In this dissertation, experiments surrounding the charge state dynamics and the carrier dynamics are performed and analyzed. Extensive studies of the ionization and recombination processes of defects in diamond, specifically, the Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) center, have been performed. Diffusion of ionized charge carriers has been imaged indirectly through the recapture of said carriers by ...

A Stereospecific Pd-Catalyzed Suzuki Cross-Coupling Reaction And A Statistical Study Of The Ligand's Role In Stereoselection, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### A Stereospecific Pd-Catalyzed Suzuki Cross-Coupling Reaction And A Statistical Study Of The Ligand's Role In Stereoselection, Shibin Zhao

*All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

The development of palladium-catalyzed carbon-carbon cross-coupling reactions has profoundly influenced the manner through which we approach the synthesis of complex organic molecules. Among established cross-coupling reactions, which include Kumada, Negishi, and Stille reactions, the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction exhibits particularly wide functional group compatibility, while employing non-toxic, air-stable organoboron nucleophiles. Conventional studies of Pd-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reactions have focused on C(sp^{2})-C(sp^{2}) cross-coupling reactions, which result in the formation of planar products. Conceptually, the use of C(sp^{3}) (secondary) nucleophiles would enable the reliable manipulation of organic molecules in three dimensions. However, this process has not ...

Origins Of Ultradiffuse Galaxies In The Coma Cluster – I. Constraints From Velocity Phase Space, 2018 University of California Observatories

#### Origins Of Ultradiffuse Galaxies In The Coma Cluster – I. Constraints From Velocity Phase Space, Adebusola Alabi, Anna Ferré-Mateu, Aaron Romanowsky, Jean Brodie, Duncan Forbes, Asher Wasserman, Sabine Bellstedt, Ignacio Martín-Navarro, Viraj Pandya, Maria Stone, Nobuhiro Okabe

*Faculty Publications*

We use Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy to confirm the cluster membership of 16 ultradiffuse galaxies (UDGs) in the Coma cluster, bringing the total number of spectroscopically confirmed UDGs from the Yagi et al. (Y16) catalogue to 25. We also identify a new cluster background UDG, confirming that most (∼95 per cent) of the UDGs in the Y16 catalogue belong to the Coma cluster. In this pilot study of Coma UDGs in velocity phase space, we find evidence of a diverse origin for Coma cluster UDGs, similar to normal dwarf galaxies. Some UDGs in our sample are consistent with being late infalls ...

Flexible And Versatile Soft Templates For Mesoporous Silicas And Organosilicas Based On Pluronic Block Copolymer Surfactants And Their Mixtures, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Flexible And Versatile Soft Templates For Mesoporous Silicas And Organosilicas Based On Pluronic Block Copolymer Surfactants And Their Mixtures, George Farid

*All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

In this dissertation, the work will be discussed that was focused on the synthesis of consolidated periodic mesoporous materials such as 2-D hexgonal ordered mesoporous silicas (SBA-15) as well as single-micelle-templated silica and organosilica nanotubes and nanospheres using triblock copolymer surfactants and their mixtures in the presence of a swelling agent. The introductory section, Chapter 1, will address the current state of the tunability of single-micelle-templated silica and organosilica nanotubes and will compare it with the work presented in this dissertation on the use of a dual-surfactant templating systems. Chapter 2 of the dissertation discusses transmission electron microscopy characterization of ...

Synthesis And Evaluation Of Densely-Functionalized Troponoids, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Synthesis And Evaluation Of Densely-Functionalized Troponoids, Danielle R. Hirsch

*All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

Herein, we document our efforts to expand the scope of troponoid synthetic methodology towards densely-substituted scaffolds. This body of work has focused primarily on an oxidopyrylium cycloaddition/ring-opening strategy for the synthesis and biochemical evaluation of troponoids for assistance in a variety of medicinal chemistry studies. In Chapter 1, we outline the use of this synthetic strategy in the profiling of a library of synthetic αHTs against an aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance enzyme known as aminoglycoside-2’’-O-nucleotidyltransferase [ANT(2’’)-Ia]. Enzymatic mechanistic insights have been gleaned from an assessment of troponoid/antibiotic synergistic potential. In particular, two synthetic constructs were identified ...

Fundamental Chemistry Related To The Separations And Coordination Of Actinium-225, Thorium-227, And Technetium-99, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Fundamental Chemistry Related To The Separations And Coordination Of Actinium-225, Thorium-227, And Technetium-99, Jasmine L. Hatcher

*All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

This work explores the fundamental chemistry of actinium, thorium, and technetium in an effort to develop methodologies which help to address complications specific to each of these elements. Developing fundamental knowledge in inorganic chemistry has the power to meaningfully address a number of real world problems. By using simple systems and experiments like following an electron or changing the solvent system, we are able to gain invaluable information which can be used to address major issues.

Actinium-225 (t_{½}: 9.92 d) is an alpha-emitting radionuclide with nuclear properties well suited for alpha therapy of malignant tumors. The present global ...

Galois Groups Of Differential Equations And Representing Algebraic Sets, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Galois Groups Of Differential Equations And Representing Algebraic Sets, Eli Amzallag

*All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

The algebraic framework for capturing properties of solution sets of differential equations was formally introduced by Ritt and Kolchin. As a parallel to the classical Galois groups of polynomial equations, they devised the notion of a differential Galois group for a linear differential equation. Just as solvability of a polynomial equation by radicals is linked to the equation’s Galois group, so too is the ability to express the solution to a linear differential equation in "closed form" linked to the equation’s differential Galois group. It is thus useful even outside of mathematics to be able to compute and ...

Studying The Space Of Almost Complex Structures On A Manifold Using De Rham Homotopy Theory, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Studying The Space Of Almost Complex Structures On A Manifold Using De Rham Homotopy Theory, Bora Ferlengez

*All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

In his seminal paper *Infinitesimal Computations in Topology*, Sullivan constructs algebraic models for spaces and then computes various invariants using them. In this thesis, we use those ideas to obtain a finiteness result for such an invariant (the de Rham homotopy type) for each connected component of the space of cross-sections of certain fibrations. We then apply this result to differential geometry and prove a finiteness theorem of the de Rham homotopy type for each connected component of the space of almost complex structures on a manifold. As a special case, we discuss the space of almost complex structures on ...

A Network Theoretical Approach To Real-World Problems: Application Of The K-Core Algorithm To Various Systems, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### A Network Theoretical Approach To Real-World Problems: Application Of The K-Core Algorithm To Various Systems, Kate Burleson-Lesser

*All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

The study of complex networks is, at its core, an exploration of the mechanisms that control the world in which we live at every scale, from particles no bigger than a grain of sand and amino acids that comprise proteins, to social networks, ecosystems, and even countries. Indeed, we find that, regardless of the physical size of the network's components, we may apply principles of complex network theory, thermodynamics, and statistical mechanics to not only better understand these specific networks, but to formulate theories which may be applied to problems on a more general level. This thesis explores several ...