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Challenges And Opportunities For Sustainable Rangeland Pastoral Systems In The Edwards Plateau Of Texas, J. W. Walker, J. L. Johnson, C. A. Taylor Jr. 2023 Texas Agricultural Experiment Station

Challenges And Opportunities For Sustainable Rangeland Pastoral Systems In The Edwards Plateau Of Texas, J. W. Walker, J. L. Johnson, C. A. Taylor Jr.

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

This paper focuses on pastoral systems in an area of west-central Texas known as the Edwards Plateau. These rangelands have a combination of grass, forb and browse species and are used primarily for combinations of grazing by cattle, sheep, goats and wildlife. A major ecological challenge is woody plant encroachment. Stocking rate is the major factor affecting sustainability and historically this area was heavily grazed. Today the stocking rate is half or less of its historical peak. Species of livestock has shifted from predominantly small ruminant to cattle. About 70 % of pastoralists use some sort of rotational grazing system. …


Diversity And Variation In Nutritive Value Of Plants Growing On 2 Saline Sites In Southwestern Australia, H. C. Norman, R. A. Dynes, D. G. Masters 2023 CSIRO Livestock Industries, Australia

Diversity And Variation In Nutritive Value Of Plants Growing On 2 Saline Sites In Southwestern Australia, H. C. Norman, R. A. Dynes, D. G. Masters

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In south-western Australia 10% or 1.8 million ha of the farmed area is affected by dryland salinity and a further 6 million ha are at risk of salinity (NLWRA, 2001). Animal production from saltbush (Atriplex spp.)-based pasture systems represents the most likely large-scale opportunity for productive use of saline land in the short to medium term. Feeding saltbush-based pastures as a maintenance feed during the prolonged autumn feed gap typical in Mediterranean-type climates maximises their economic value. The aim of this study was to explore the diversity and nutritive value of plants that typically persist in saltbush-based saltland pastures.


The Long Road To Developing Native Herbaceous Summer Forage Legume Ecotypes, J. P. Muir, T. J. Butler, W. R. Ocumpaugh 2023 Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Service

The Long Road To Developing Native Herbaceous Summer Forage Legume Ecotypes, J. P. Muir, T. J. Butler, W. R. Ocumpaugh

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Only a handful of well-adapted herbaceous summer forage legumes are currently marketed for drier regions of North America and even fewer are true natives. There is a growing demand for native germplasm in the region as a new generation of landowner attempts to return grasslands to a semblance of their original species and diversity. The objective of this paper is to describe preliminary research results of a grasslands team collecting, studying and promulgating native leguminous germplasm in Texas.


Mortality Model For A Perennial Grass In Australian Semi-Arid Wooded Grasslands Grazed By Sheep, K. C. Hodgkinson, W. J. Muller 2023 CSIRO, Australia

Mortality Model For A Perennial Grass In Australian Semi-Arid Wooded Grasslands Grazed By Sheep, K. C. Hodgkinson, W. J. Muller

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Selecting Grassland Species For Saline Environments, M. E. Rogers, A. D. Craig, T. D. Colmer, R. Munns, S. J. Hughes, P. M. Evans, P. G. H. Nichols, R. Snowball, D. Henry, J. Deretic, B. Dear, M. Ewing 2023 Cooperative Research Centre for Plant-Based Management of Dryland Salinity, Australia

Selecting Grassland Species For Saline Environments, M. E. Rogers, A. D. Craig, T. D. Colmer, R. Munns, S. J. Hughes, P. M. Evans, P. G. H. Nichols, R. Snowball, D. Henry, J. Deretic, B. Dear, M. Ewing

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In Australia, around 5.7 million hectares of agricultural land are currently affected by dryland salinity or at risk from shallow water tables and this figure is expected to increase over the next 50 years (LWRA, 2001). Most improved grassland species cannot tolerate the combined effects of salt and waterlogging and, therefore, the productivity of sown grasslands in salt-affected areas is low. However, there is potential to overcome the lack of suitably adapted fodder species by introducing new, salt and waterlogging-tolerant species and by diversifying the gene pool of proven species. Potential species include exotic, naturalised and native Australian grass, legumes, …


Grazing Animal Production Systems And Grazing Land Characteristics In A Semi-Arid Region Of Greece, I. Hadjigeorgiou, G. Economou, D. Lolis, N. Moustakas, G. Zervas 2023 Agricultural University of Athens, Greece

Grazing Animal Production Systems And Grazing Land Characteristics In A Semi-Arid Region Of Greece, I. Hadjigeorgiou, G. Economou, D. Lolis, N. Moustakas, G. Zervas

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Rough grazing in Greece cover about 40% of the total land area, is publicly owned and managed extensively (Hadjigeorgiou et al., 2002). The Prefecture of Larisa is in the centre of Greece, and has 212,000 ha of rough grazing land, with a variable topography ranging from sea level up to 3,000 m a.s.l. This area is utilized by a total population of 135,000 LU (mainly sheep, goats and some suckler cows), which consumes annually an appreciable fraction of their total nutrient requirements from rough grazing.


The Productivity Of Coastal Meadows In Finland, R. Nevalainen, S. Jaakola, A. Huuskonen, J. Kiljala, E. Joki-Tokola 2023 MTT Agrifood Research, Finland

The Productivity Of Coastal Meadows In Finland, R. Nevalainen, S. Jaakola, A. Huuskonen, J. Kiljala, E. Joki-Tokola

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The coastal meadows of Finland have gained a new interest as a summer pasture for cattle. These habitats have great historical, aesthetic and biological value (Pessa & Anttila, 2000). Typical features of the coastal meadows are the varying vegetation zones and wet, sometimes waterlogged, soils. The meadows are important nesting and feeding habitats for many water birds. When grazing ceases, reeds, trees and shrubs take over and the area loses its openness. Lately the amount of grasslands and pastures has drastically declined all over Europe. In Finland, the area of semi-natural biotopes has decreased to 1% of what it had …


Grass And Forage Plant Improvement In The Tropics And Sub-Tropics, Liana Jank, C. B. do Valle, Rosangela M. S. Resende 2023 EMBRAPA, Brazil

Grass And Forage Plant Improvement In The Tropics And Sub-Tropics, Liana Jank, C. B. Do Valle, Rosangela M. S. Resende

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

  1. The majority of tropical and subtropical forage grass genera and/or species have not yet been collected, or need further collection to be representative of their natural distribution.
  2. New biotechnological techniques will only result in the release of superior forage cultivars if supported by strong breeding programs.
  3. More funding and investment in the formation of strong public research teams in forage conservation and improvement are needed to guarantee the sustainability of tropical and subtropical pasture-based livestock systems in the future.
  4. The creation of a permanent international working group on tropical and subtropical forages is essential to assist the International Plant Genetic …


Artificial Intelligence, Basic Skills, And Quantitative Literacy, Gizem Karaali 2023 Pomona College

Artificial Intelligence, Basic Skills, And Quantitative Literacy, Gizem Karaali

Numeracy

The introduction in November 2022 of ChatGPT, a freely available language-based artificial intelligence, has led to concerns among some educators about the feasibility and benefits of teaching basic writing and critical thinking skills to students in the context of easily accessed, AI-based cheating mechanisms. As of now, ChatGPT can write pretty convincing student-level prose, but it is still not very good at answering quantitatively rich questions. Therefore, for the time being, the preceding concerns may not be shared by a large portion of the numeracy education community. However, as Google and WolframAlpha are definitely capable of answering standard and some …


Beyond Statistical Significance: A Holistic View Of What Makes A Research Finding "Important", Jane E. Miller 2023 Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Beyond Statistical Significance: A Holistic View Of What Makes A Research Finding "Important", Jane E. Miller

Numeracy

Students often believe that statistical significance is the only determinant of whether a quantitative result is “important.” In this paper, I review traditional null hypothesis statistical testing to identify what questions inferential statistics can and cannot answer, including statistical significance, effect size and direction, causality, generalizability, and changeability of the independent variable. I illustrate these issues with examples from an empirical study of the association between how much time teenagers spent playing video games and time spent reading. I describe how study design and context determine each of those aspects of “importance,” and close by summarizing how to provide a …


Establishing The Validity And Reliability Of The Locus Assessments, Tim Jacobbe, Bob delMas, Brad Hartlaub, Jeff Haberstroh, Catherine Case, Steven Foti, Douglas Whitaker 2023 Southern Methodist University

Establishing The Validity And Reliability Of The Locus Assessments, Tim Jacobbe, Bob Delmas, Brad Hartlaub, Jeff Haberstroh, Catherine Case, Steven Foti, Douglas Whitaker

Numeracy

The development of assessments as part of the funded LOCUS project is described. The assessments measure students’ conceptual understanding of statistics as outlined in the GAISE PreK–12 Framework. Results are reported from a large-scale administration to 3,430 students in grades 6 through 12 in the United States. Items were designed to assess levels of understanding as well as components of the statistical problem solving process as articulated in the GAISE framework. We discuss details of how the model used to develop the LOCUS assessments guided the gathering of evidence for validity and reliability arguments. Three types of validity evidence are …


Shale Oil Development And Utilization And Its Role In Energy Industry, Xusheng GUO, Maowen LI, Mengyun ZHAO 2023 China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation, Beijing 100728, China State Key Laboratory of Shale Oil and Gas Accumulation Mechanisms and Effective Development, Beijing 102206, China State Energy Center for Shale Oil Resource and Development, Beijing 102206, China Sinopec Petroleum Exploration and Production Research Institute, Beijing 102206, China

Shale Oil Development And Utilization And Its Role In Energy Industry, Xusheng Guo, Maowen Li, Mengyun Zhao

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

hale oil boom in the United States has catapulted it from an importer of crude oil to a net exporter. Field applications show that both the shift in exploration paradigm from finding traps to targeting resource-rich petroleum source kitchens (i.e., "sweet spots") and the technological innovation represented by horizontal well multi-stage fracturing are among the key factors for the large-scale development of shale oil in the United States. Compared with marine shale oils in North America, China's lacustrine shale oil resources have great potential, but the endowment conditions are not optimal. Early exploration and development experience shows that the adaptive …


Hydrocarbon Security Strategy And Carbon Peak And Carbon Neutral Strategy: Relationship And Path, Wenzhi ZHAO, Kun LIANG, Kun WANG, Shiguo LIN, Zhixin LI 2023 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing 100083, China National Petroleum Strategy Research Center, Beijing 100083, China

Hydrocarbon Security Strategy And Carbon Peak And Carbon Neutral Strategy: Relationship And Path, Wenzhi Zhao, Kun Liang, Kun Wang, Shiguo Lin, Zhixin Li

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

A century of changes combined with the COVID-19 pandemic has sounded the alarm on energy security around the world. How to deeply understand the relationship between energy transition and energy security, and how to explore the path of China's energy security and the carbon peaking and carbon neutrality (abbreviated as "dual carbon") strategy have become a major problem. Based on detailed analyses of China's energy consumption predictions and dual carbon strategy requirements, this study proposes:(1) Energy security is the foundation of energy transition. The oil and gas shortage situation in China may persist for a long time. The "dual carbon" …


Role Of Transnational Oil And Gas Exploration And Development In Ensuring National Energy Security, Lirong DOU, Zuoqian WANG, Feng GAO, Xiaobing LIU 2023 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina, Beijing 100083, China China National Oil and Gas Exploration and Development Company Ltd., Beijing 100034, China

Role Of Transnational Oil And Gas Exploration And Development In Ensuring National Energy Security, Lirong Dou, Zuoqian Wang, Feng Gao, Xiaobing Liu

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

United States is the founder of modern oil industry, which promoted the development of oil and gas in the world. By means of global layout of American oil companies, United States supercharges the backyard of North America while covets the forecourt of South America. United States realizes energy independence and opens energy hegemony during 70 years after World War II. On basis of reviewing the development history of American oil industry, this study analyzes the role of transnational oil and gas exploration, and development of Chinese national oil companies in ensuring national energy security. On the one hand, the entitlement …


Development Opportunities And Technical Challenges Of Industrialization For Hydrogen Production From Bio-Ethanol Reforming, Xue HAN, Hong HE, Guojun YUE, Hailong LIN, Jinsong LIU, Bin YU 2023 Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China GRIMAT Engineering Institute Co. Ltd., Beijing 101407, China

Development Opportunities And Technical Challenges Of Industrialization For Hydrogen Production From Bio-Ethanol Reforming, Xue Han, Hong He, Guojun Yue, Hailong Lin, Jinsong Liu, Bin Yu

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

Bio-ethanol reforming for hydrogen production, using renewable raw materials and adopting mature and efficient chemical processes, is an important source of green hydrogen supply to achieve the goals of carbon peaking and carbon neutrality. Bio-ethanol is a widely used substitute for fossil fuels. With the continuous progress of cellulosic ethanol technology in recent years, bio-ethanol will gradually break through the constraints of starch-based raw material supply. Based on the industrialization achievements of hydrogen production and bio-ethanol, bio-ethanol reforming can realize a rapid linkage with the existing hydrogen energy industry. However, the existence of a carbon-carbon signal bond in ethanol poses …


Theory And Technology Considerations On High-Quality Development Of Coal Main Energy Security In China, Liang YUAN 2023 State Key Laboratory of Mining Response and Disaster Prevention and Control in Deep Coal Mines, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001, China

Theory And Technology Considerations On High-Quality Development Of Coal Main Energy Security In China, Liang Yuan

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

Coal is the ballast of energy security in China. In order to guarantee the high-quality development of energy security, China strongly supports the innovative development of coal industry. This study systematically summarizes the innovative achievements of China in six aspects, i.e., coal resource exploration technology, coal and gas co-mining theory and technology, typical dynamic disaster risk identification and early warning monitoring technology, integrated mining and intelligent mining technology and equipment, coal high-efficiency and clean utilization and coal-based clean energy high-efficiency conversion technology, coal and new energy multi-energy synergy technology. The study deeply analyzes the current challenges faced in above mentioned …


Reconnaissance Of Landslides And Debris Flows Associated With The July 2022 Flooding In Eastern Kentucky, Matt M. Crawford, Zhenming Wang, Seth Carpenter, Jonathan Schmidt, Hudson J. Koch, Jason M. Dortch 2023 University of Kentucky

Reconnaissance Of Landslides And Debris Flows Associated With The July 2022 Flooding In Eastern Kentucky, Matt M. Crawford, Zhenming Wang, Seth Carpenter, Jonathan Schmidt, Hudson J. Koch, Jason M. Dortch

Kentucky Geological Survey Report of Investigations

Between July 25 and July 30, 2022, a series of convective storms generated approximately 14–16 inches of rainfall across parts of eastern Kentucky, predominately in Clay, Leslie, Perry, Breathitt, Knott, and Letcher Counties. The peak rainfall occurred on the evening of July 27 and the morning of July 28, with the hardest-hit areas experiencing more than 10 inches in a 24-hour period. The historic rainfall led to catastrophic flooding along many rivers and streams, but also triggered widespread landslides and debris flows that damaged roads, homes, property, and other infrastructure. Once initial relief and recovery efforts were established, the Kentucky …


Impacts Of Tectonic Subsidence On Basin Depth And Delta Lobe Building, Tian Y. Dong, Jeffrey A. Nittrouer, Brandee Carlson, Brandon McElroy, Elena Il’icheva, Maksim Pavlov, Hongbo Ma 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Impacts Of Tectonic Subsidence On Basin Depth And Delta Lobe Building, Tian Y. Dong, Jeffrey A. Nittrouer, Brandee Carlson, Brandon Mcelroy, Elena Il’Icheva, Maksim Pavlov, Hongbo Ma

School of Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Channel avulsions on river deltas are the primary means to distribute sediment and build land at the coastline. Many studies have detailed how avulsions generate delta lobes, whereby multiple lobes amalgamate to form a fan-shaped deposit. These studies often assume steady subsidence and uniform basin depth. In nature, however, lobe building is disrupted by variable subsidence, and progradation of lobes into basins with variable depth: conditions that are prevalent for tectonically active areas. Herein, we explore sediment dispersal and deposition patterns across scales using measurements of delta and basin morphology compiled from field surveys and remote sensing, collected over 150 …


High-Quality Energy Development And Energy Security Under The New Situation For China, Guofa WANG, He LIU, Dandan WANG, Yihui PANG, Lixin WU 2023 China Coal Technology & Engineering Group Co. Ltd., Beijing 100013, China China Coal Research Institute, Beijing 100013, China Beijing Tianma Intelligent Control Technology Co. Ltd., Beijing 101399, China

High-Quality Energy Development And Energy Security Under The New Situation For China, Guofa Wang, He Liu, Dandan Wang, Yihui Pang, Lixin Wu

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

Energy security is the cornerstone of national security and stable development, and high-quality energy development is the fundamental guarantee for long-term national economic growth. This study analyzes the complicated domestic and international environmental impacts of the ongoing Russia-Ukraine war, the United States energy rule, and the rigid demand for domestic energy consumption growth. It also analyzes the uncertainty of domestic energy transformation and development. Then, the study summarizes the enlightenment of China's energy development. Furthermore, based on China's energy structure and resource endowment, this study establishes an independent, controllable, safe and reliable integrated energy security system based on fossil energy, …


Mission Of New Energy Under Carbon Neutrality Goal In China, Caineng ZOU, Yanpeng CHEN, Bo XIONG, Hanlin LIU 2023 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing 100083, China

Mission Of New Energy Under Carbon Neutrality Goal In China, Caineng Zou, Yanpeng Chen, Bo Xiong, Hanlin Liu

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions, curbing the global temperature rise, and striving to achieve the goal of carbon neutrality are the initiatives and common pursuit of human beings confronting the climate change crisis. Carbon neutrality is a huge systemic project involving multiple disciplines and fields, and it requires a solid theoretical foundation and scientific methods to achieve the goal of carbon neutrality, hence the emergence of carbon neutrality science. The theoretical connotation of carbon neutrality includes two "dynamic balances", namely, the dynamic balance between global carbon emission and carbon absorption, and the dynamic balance between human development and the natural environment, …


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