Obat Aborsi Di Bandung | 085803090211 | Jual Obat Aborsi Kota Bandung, 2017 Selected Works
Obat Aborsi Di Bandung | 085803090211 | Jual Obat Aborsi Kota Bandung, Acep Shop
Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations And Speciation Measured From 2004 To 2007 In Reno, Nevada, Usa, 2017 Utah State University
Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations And Speciation Measured From 2004 To 2007 In Reno, Nevada, Usa, Seth N. Lyman, Mae Sexauer Gustin
Atmospheric elemental, reactive and particulate mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured north of downtown Reno, Nevada, USA from November 2004 to November 2007. Three-year mean and median concentrations for gaseous elemental Hg (Hg0) were 1.6 and 1.5 ng m−3 (respectively), similar to global mean Hg0 concentrations. The three-year mean reactive gaseous Hg (RGM) concentration (26 pg m−3) was higher than values reported for rural sites across the western United States. Well defined seasonal and daily patterns in Hg0 and RGM concentrations were observed, with the highest Hg0 concentrations measured in winter and early morning, and RGM concentrations ...
A Review Of Passive Sampling Systems For Ambient Air Mercury Measurements, 2017 Utah State University
A Review Of Passive Sampling Systems For Ambient Air Mercury Measurements, Jiaoyan Huang, Seth N. Lyman, Jelena Stamenkovic Hartman, Mae Sexauer Gustin
Atmospheric mercury (Hg) temporal and spatial patterns must be measured accurately in order to adequately understand the role of this pathway as it relates to Hg toxicity and exposure of humans and wildlife to Hg. It is also important to understand the distribution of the different chemical forms (elemental, oxidized, or particle bound) and specific compounds in air (e.g., HgCl2, HgBr2, HgO, Hg(NO3)2, and HgSO4). However, the current automated and passive sampling methods of measurement have limitations and artifacts impacting our ability to achieve this task. Both abiotic and biotic systems have been developed to measure the ...
A Passive Sampler For Ambient Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Concentrations, 2017 Utah State University
A Passive Sampler For Ambient Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Concentrations, Seth N. Lyman, Mae Sexauer Gustin, Eric M. Prestbo
This paper reports on the development of a passive sampler for estimating gaseous oxidized mercury concentrations. Atmospheric gaseous oxidized mercury concentrations calculated from passive sampler data were correlated with those obtained using an automated analyzer (r2 = 0.71, p < 0.01, n = 110 for one-week deployments; r2 = 0.89, p < 0.01, n = 22 for two-week deployments). Sampler uptake was not significantly affected by changes in temperature, humidity, or ozone concentration, but it was slightly dependent on wind speed. As such, an equation for correcting data due to this factor was developed based on wind tunnel and field data. The ...
Speciation Of Atmospheric Mercury At Two Sites In Northern Nevada, Usa, 2017 Utah State University
Speciation Of Atmospheric Mercury At Two Sites In Northern Nevada, Usa, Seth N. Lyman, Mae Sexauer Gustin
Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and mercury bound to particles (Hgp) were measured during seasonal 1- or 2-week data collection campaigns at two Mercury Deposition Network sites (NV02 and NV99) in northern Nevada, USA. The sites are rural but are located in an area of diverse natural and anthropogenic mercury sources that include undisturbed and mining mercury-disturbed enriched substrates, coal-fired power plants, ore processing facilities, and industrial facilities. Concentrations of Hg0 averaged over all campaigns were 3.0±1.7 ng m−3 at NV02 and 2.5±3.1 ng m−3 at NV99, higher than ...
Release Of Mercury Halides From Kcl Denuders In The Presence Of Ozone, 2017 Utah State University
Release Of Mercury Halides From Kcl Denuders In The Presence Of Ozone, Seth N. Lyman, Daniel A. Jaffe, Mae S. Gustin
KCl-coated denuders have become a standard method for measurement of gaseous oxidized mercury, but their performance has not been exhaustively evaluated, especially in field conditions. In this study, KCl-coated and uncoated quartz denuders loaded with HgCl2 and HgBr2 lost 29–55% of these compounds, apparently as elemental mercury, when exposed to ozone (range of 6–100 ppb tested). This effect was also observed for denuders loaded with gaseous oxidized mercury at a field site in Nevada (3–37% of oxidized mercury lost). In addition, collection efficiency decreased by 12–30% for denuders exposed to 50 ppb ozone during ...
Seasonal And Diel Variation Of Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations In The Reno (Nevada, Usa) Airshed, 2017 Utah State University
Seasonal And Diel Variation Of Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations In The Reno (Nevada, Usa) Airshed, Jelena Stamenkovic, Seth Lyman, Mae S. Gustin
This paper describes total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations measured in Reno, Nevada from 2002 to 2005. The 3-year mean and median air Hg concentrations were 2.3 and 2.1 ng m−3, respectively. Mercury concentrations exhibited seasonality, with the highest concentrations in winter, and the lowest in summer and fall. A well-defined diel pattern in TGM concentration was observed, with maximum daily concentrations observed in the morning and minimum in the afternoon. A gradual increase of TGM concentration was observed in the evening and over night. The early morning increase in TGM was likely due to activation of local ...
The Magnitude Of The Snow-Sourced Reactive Nitrogen Flux To The Boundary Layer In The Uintah Basin, 2017 Utah State University
The Magnitude Of The Snow-Sourced Reactive Nitrogen Flux To The Boundary Layer In The Uintah Basin, Maria Zakto, Joseph Erbland, Joel Savarino, Lei Geng, Lauren Easley, Andrew Schauer, Timothy Bates, Patricia K. Quinn, Bonnie Light, David Morison, Hans D. Osthoff, Seth Lyman, William Neff, Bin Yuan, Becky Alexander
Reactive nitrogen (Nr = NO, NO2, HONO) and volatile organic carbon emissions from oil and gas extraction activities play a major role in wintertime ground-level ozone exceedance events of up to 140 ppb in the Uintah Basin in eastern Utah. Such events occur only when the ground is snow covered, due to the impacts of snow on the stability and depth of the boundary layer and ultraviolet actinic flux at the surface. Recycling of reactive nitrogen from the photolysis of snow nitrate has been observed in polar and midlatitude snow, but snow-sourced reactive nitrogen fluxes in mid-latitude regions have not yet ...
Progress On Understanding Atmospheric Mercury Hampered By Uncertain Measurements, 2017 Utah State University
Progress On Understanding Atmospheric Mercury Hampered By Uncertain Measurements, Daniel A. Jaffe, Seth N. Lyman, Helen M. Amosl, Mae Sexauer Gustin, Jiaoyan Huang, Noelle E. Selin, Leonard Levin, Arnout Ter Schure, Robert P. Mason, Robert Talbot, Andrew Rutter, Brandon Finley, Lyatt Jaeglé, Viral Shah, Crystal Mcclure, Jesse Ambrose, Lynne Gratz, Steven Lindberg, Peter Weiss-Penzias, Guey-Rong Sheu, Dara Feddersen, Milena Horvat, Ashu Dastoor, Anthony J. Hynes, Huiting Mao, Jeroen E. Sonke, Franz Slemr, Jenny A. Fisher, Ralf Ebinghaus, Yanxu Zhang, Grant Edwards
Mercury (Hg) is a potent neurotoxin and globally reducing environmental levels is seen as paramount for protecting human and wildlife health. In 2013, many countries finalized the negotiations on, and have now signed, the Minamata Convention on Mercury, which commits participating countries to reduce emissions and use of mercury. Successful implementation of the treaty will require adequate verification through global monitoring.
Sources Of Gaseous Oxidized Mercury And Mercury Dry Deposition At Two Southeastern U.S. Sites, 2017 Utah State University
Sources Of Gaseous Oxidized Mercury And Mercury Dry Deposition At Two Southeastern U.S. Sites, Peter S. Weiss-Penzias, Mae S. Gustin, Seth N. Lyman
Wet deposition measurements have shown that relative to other parts of the US, the southeastern region has the highest mercury (Hg) inputs. The source of this Hg has been investigated by multiple researchers and is suggested to be derived from local, regional and global sources. Here we focus on trying to understand potential sources of Hg to this area during periods dominated by dry gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) deposition. Dry deposition of GOM to a surrogate surface was measured in conjunction with speciated atmospheric Hg, and ancillary parameters from September 2007 through September 2008 at two sites located within 25 ...
Testing And Application Of Surrogate Surfaces For Understanding Potential Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition, Seth N. Lyman, Mae Sexauer Gustin, Eric M. Prestbo, Phillip I. Kilner, Eric Edgerton, Ben Hartsell
Currently there is no standard method for measurement of atmospheric mercury dry deposition. While all operationally defined forms of atmospheric mercury (elemental, oxidized, and particulate) can be dry deposited, oxidized forms are of concern due to high deposition velocities, water solubility, and reactivity. This paper describes the development of a surrogate surface for characterizing potential dry deposition of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM). Laboratory tests showed that the surface collected HgCl2, HgBr2, and HgO with equal efficiency, and deposition was not significantly influenced by temperature, humidity, or ozone concentrations. Deposition of mercury to surfaces in field deployments was correlated with GOM ...
Determinants Of Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations In Reno, Nevada, U.S.A., 2017 Utah State University
Determinants Of Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations In Reno, Nevada, U.S.A., Seth N. Lyman, Mae Sexauer Gustin
Concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and particulate-bound mercury (PBM) were measured along with ancillary variables 9 km east of downtown Reno, Nevada, U.S.A. from November 2006 through March 2009. Mean two-year (February 2007 through January 2009) GEM, GOM, and PBM concentrations were 2.0 ± 0.7 ng m− 3 (± standard deviation), 18 ± 22 pg m− 3, and 7 ± 7 pg m− 3, respectively. Data collected were compared with observations made at another location just north of the city at 169 m higher elevation. At both locations higher concentrations of GEM and PBM occurred ...
Do We Understand What The Mercury Speciation Instruments Are Actually Measuring? Results Of Ramix, 2017 Utah State University
Do We Understand What The Mercury Speciation Instruments Are Actually Measuring? Results Of Ramix, Mae Sexauer Gustin, Jiaoyan Huang, Matthieu B. Miller, Christianna Peterson, Daniel A. Jaffe, Jesse Ambrose, Brandon D. Finley, Seth N. Lyman, Kevin Call, Robert Talbotl, Dara Feddersen, Huiting Mao, Steven E. Lindberg
From August 22 to September 16, 2012, atmospheric mercury (Hg) was measured from a common manifold in the field during the Reno Atmospheric Mercury Intercomparison eXperiment. Data were collected using Tekran systems, laser induced fluorescence, and evolving new methods. The latter included the University of Washington-Detector for Oxidized Mercury, the University of Houston Mercury instrument, and a filter-based system under development by the University of Nevada-Reno. Good transmission of total Hg was found for the manifold. However, despite application of standard protocols and rigorous quality control, systematic differences in operationally defined forms of Hg were measured by the sampling systems ...
Estimation Of Dry Deposition Of Atmospheric Mercury In Nevada By Direct And Indirect Methods, 2017 Utah State University
Estimation Of Dry Deposition Of Atmospheric Mercury In Nevada By Direct And Indirect Methods, Seth N. Lyman, Mae Sexauer Gustin, Eric M. Prestbo, Frank J. Marsik
Atmospheric models and limited measurements indicate that dry deposition of atmospheric mercury is an important process by which mercury is input to ecosystems. To begin to fill the measurement data gap, multiple methods were used simultaneously during seasonal campaigns conducted in 2005 and 2006 to estimate dry deposition of atmospheric mercury at two Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) sites in rural Nevada and in Reno, Nevada. Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and particulate-bound mercury (Hgp) concentrations were measured using Tekran 2537A/1130/1135 systems. These speciated measurements were combined with on-site meteorological measurements to estimate depositional fluxes of ...
Observations Of Speciated Atmospheric Mercury At Three Sites In Nevada: Evidence For A Free Tropospheric Source Of Reactive Gaseous Mercury, Peter Weiss-Penzias, Mae Sexauer Gustin, Seth Lyman
Air mercury (Hg) speciation was measured for 11 weeks (June–August 2007) at three sites simultaneously in Nevada, USA. Mean reactive gaseous Hg (RGM) concentrations were elevated at all sites relative to those reported for locations not directly influenced by known point sources. RGM concentrations at all sites displayed a regular diel pattern and were positively correlated with ozone (O3) and negatively correlated with elemental Hg (Hg0) and dew point temperature (Tdp). Superimposed on the diel changes were 2- to 7-day periods when RGM concentrations increased across all three sites, producing significant intersite correlations of RGM daily means (r = 0 ...
Mercury Exchange Between The Atmosphere And Low Mercury Containing Substrates, 2017 Utah State University
Mercury Exchange Between The Atmosphere And Low Mercury Containing Substrates, Mae Sexauer Gustin, Mark Engle, Jody Ericksen, Seth N. Lyman, Jelena Stamenkovic, Mei Xin
Mercury is emitted to the air from Hg-enriched and low Hg-containing (natural background) substrates. Emitted Hg can be geogenic, or can be derived from the re-emission of Hg that was previously deposited to the soil from the atmosphere. Atmospheric Hg can be derived from natural and/or anthropogenic sources and can be deposited by wet or dry processes. It is important to understand the relative magnitude of emission, deposition, and re-emission of Hg associated with terrestrial ecosystems with natural background soil Hg concentrations because these landscapes cover large terrestrial surface areas. This information is also important for developing biogeochemical mass ...
Development Of A Passive Sampler For Gaseous Mercury, 2017 Utah State University
Development Of A Passive Sampler For Gaseous Mercury, Mae S. Gustin, Seth N. Lyman, P. Kilner, E. Prestbo
Here we describe work toward development of the components of a cost effective passive sampling system for gaseous Hg that could be broadly deployed by nontechnical staff. The passive sampling system included an external shield to reduce turbulence and exposure to precipitation and dust, a diffusive housing that directly protects the collection surface during deployment and handling, and a collection surface. A protocol for cleaning and deploying the sampler and an analytical method were developed. Our final design consisted of a polycarbonate external shield enclosing a custom diffusive housing made from expanded PTFE tubing. Two collection surfaces were investigated, gold ...
Modeling The Global Atmospheric Transport And Deposition Of Mercury To The Great Lakes, 2017 Utah State University
Modeling The Global Atmospheric Transport And Deposition Of Mercury To The Great Lakes, Mark D. Cohen, Roland R. Draxler, Richard S. Artz, Pierrette Blanchard, Mae Sexauer Gustin, Young-Ji Han, Thomas M. Holsen, Daniel A. Jaffe, Paul Kelley, Hang Lei, Christopher P. Loughner, Winston T. Luke, Seth N. Lyman, David Niemi, Jozef M. Pacyna, Martin Pilote, Laurier Poissant, Dominique Ratte, Xinrong Ren, Frits Steenhuisen, Alexandra Steffen, Rob Tordon, Simon J. Wilson
Mercury contamination in the Great Lakes continues to have important public health and wildlife ecotoxicology impacts, and atmospheric deposition is a significant ongoing loading pathway. The objective of this study was to estimate the amount and source-attribution for atmospheric mercury deposition to each lake, information needed to prioritize amelioration efforts. A new global, Eulerian version of the HYSPLIT-Hg model was used to simulate the 2005 global atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury to the Great Lakes. In addition to the base case, 10 alternative model configurations were used to examine sensitivity to uncertainties in atmospheric mercury chemistry and surface exchange ...
Automated Calibration Of Atmospheric Oxidized Mercury Measurements, 2017 Utah State University
Automated Calibration Of Atmospheric Oxidized Mercury Measurements, Seth Lyman, Colleen Jones, Trevor O'Neil, Tanner Allen, Matthieu Miller, Mae Sexauer Gustin, Ashley M. Pierce, Winston Luke, Xinrong Ren, Paul Kelley
The atmosphere is an important reservoir for mercury pollution, and understanding of oxidation processes is essential to elucidating the fate of atmospheric mercury. Several recent studies have shown that a low bias exists in a widely applied method for atmospheric oxidized mercury measurements. We developed an automated, permeation tube-based calibrator for elemental and oxidized mercury, and we integrated this calibrator with atmospheric mercury instrumentation (Tekran 2537/1130/1135 speciation systems) in Reno, Nevada and at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, U.S.A. While the calibrator has limitations, it was able to routinely inject stable amounts of HgCl2 and HgBr2 into ...
Fast Time Resolution Oxidized Mercury Measurements During The Reno Atmospheric Mercury Intercomparison Experiment (Ramix), Jesse L. Ambrose, Seth N. Lyman, Jiaoyan Huang, Mae Sexauer Gustin, Daneil A. Jaffe
The Reno Atmospheric Mercury Intercomparison Experiment (RAMIX) was carried out from 22 August to 16 September, 2011 in Reno, NV to evaluate the performance of new and existing methods to measure atmospheric mercury (Hg). Measurements were made using a common sampling manifold to which controlled concentrations of Hg species, including gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and HgBr2 (a surrogate gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) compound), and potential interferents were added. We present an analysis of Hg measurements made using the University of Washington’s Detector for Oxidized Hg Species (DOHGS), focusing on tests of GEM and HgBr2 spike recovery, the potential for ...