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Potential Economic Damage From Introduction Of Brown Tree Snakes, Boiga Irregularis (Reptilia: Colubridae), To The Islands Of Hawai‘I, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Karen Gebhardt, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, Steven S. Shwiff 2010 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Potential Economic Damage From Introduction Of Brown Tree Snakes, Boiga Irregularis (Reptilia: Colubridae), To The Islands Of Hawai‘I, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Karen Gebhardt, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, Steven S. Shwiff

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis) has caused ecological and economic damage to Guam, and the snake has the potential to colonize other islands in the Pacific Ocean. This study quantifies the potential economic damage if the snake were translocated, established in the state of Hawaii, and causing damage at levels similar to those on Guam. Damages modeled included costs of medical treatments due to snakebites, snake-caused power outages, and decreased tourism resulting from effects of the snake. Damage caused by presence of the Brown Tree Snake on Guam was used as a guide to estimate potential economic damage to ...


Polyurea Elastomer Protects Utility Pole Crossarms From Damage By Pileated Woodpeckers, Shelagh Tupper, William Andelt, John Cummings, Charles Weisner, Richard Harness 2010 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services

Polyurea Elastomer Protects Utility Pole Crossarms From Damage By Pileated Woodpeckers, Shelagh Tupper, William Andelt, John Cummings, Charles Weisner, Richard Harness

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Woodpeckers cause severe damage to utility poles and crossarms, resulting in substantial economic losses to utility companies. We evaluated effectiveness of a polyurea elastomer coating material for reducing damage by captive pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) to utility pole crossarms. Because woodpeckers inflicted essentially no damage to the fully coated crossarms, we infer that the coating material holds substantial promise for protecting utility pole crossarms. Additional research should be conducted to evaluate the coating under field conditions.


Evaluation Of Christmas Bird Counts And Landscape Factors As Indicators Of Local Blackbird And European Starling Winter Roosts, Matthew Strassburg, George M. Linz, William Bleier 2010 Department of Biological Sciences, North Dakota State University

Evaluation Of Christmas Bird Counts And Landscape Factors As Indicators Of Local Blackbird And European Starling Winter Roosts, Matthew Strassburg, George M. Linz, William Bleier

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Red-winged blackbirds (RWBL) and common grackles (COGR) are the two most abundant blackbird species on the continent; Brewer's blackbirds (BRBL) are a much less common, but closely related species, and along with European starlings (EUST), they are two of the most common groups of birds in North America, with combined populations that reach into the several hundreds of millions and make up a significant portion of the avian population (Yasukawa and Searcy 1995). Although the most common bird on the continent, certain regions have seen declines in RWBL for a number of decades. In Ohio and North Dakota, this ...


Increased Risk Of Chronic Wasting Disease In Rocky Mountain Elk Associated With Decreased Magnesium And Increased Manganese In Brain Tissue, Stephen N. White, Katherine I. O’Rourke, Thomas Gidlewski, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Michelle R. Mousel, Gregory E. Phillips, Terry R. Spraker 2010 USDA-ARS Animal Disease Unit

Increased Risk Of Chronic Wasting Disease In Rocky Mountain Elk Associated With Decreased Magnesium And Increased Manganese In Brain Tissue, Stephen N. White, Katherine I. O’Rourke, Thomas Gidlewski, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Michelle R. Mousel, Gregory E. Phillips, Terry R. Spraker

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of Rocky Mountain elk in North America. Recent studies suggest that tissue and blood mineral levels may be valuable in assessing TSE infection in sheep and cattle. The objectives of this study were to examine baseline levels of copper, manganese, magnesium, zinc, selenium, and molybdenum in the brains of Rocky Mountain elk with differing prion genotypes and to assess the association of mineral levels with CWD infection. Elk with leucine at prion position 132 had significantly lower magnesium levels than elk with 2 copies of methionine. Chronic wasting disease-positive elk ...


Potential Attractants For Detecting And Removing Invading Gambian Giant Pouched Rats (Cricetomys Gambianus), Gary W. Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, Patrick Burke 2010 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services

Potential Attractants For Detecting And Removing Invading Gambian Giant Pouched Rats (Cricetomys Gambianus), Gary W. Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, Patrick Burke

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

BACKGROUND: Native to Africa, Gambian giant pouched rats (Gambian rats; Cricetomys gambianus Waterh.) are a threatening invasive species on a Florida island, Grassy Key. Gambian giant pouched rats shifted from a domestic pet to invading species after suspected release from a pet breeder. Because of the large size of Gambian rats (weighing up to 2.8 kg), they pose a serious threat to native species (particularly nesting species) and agricultural crops, especially if Gambian rats invade mainland Florida. Also, Gambian rats pose a threat from disease, as they were implicated in a monkeypox outbreak in the mid-western United States in ...


Epizootiologic Survey Of Mycobacterium Bovis In Wildlife And Farm Environments In Northern Michigan, Gary W. Witmer, Amanda E. Fine, James Gionfriddo, Michael Pipas, Kirk Shively, Kim Piccolo, Patrick Burke 2010 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services

Epizootiologic Survey Of Mycobacterium Bovis In Wildlife And Farm Environments In Northern Michigan, Gary W. Witmer, Amanda E. Fine, James Gionfriddo, Michael Pipas, Kirk Shively, Kim Piccolo, Patrick Burke

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Bovine tuberculosis (bovine TB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, has reemerged in northern Michigan, USA, with detections in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 1994 and in cattle in 1998. Since then, significant efforts have been directed toward reducing deer densities in the area in the hopes of reducing the bovine TB prevalence rate in deer and eliminating spillover of the disease into cattle. Despite the success of the efforts to reduce deer densities, additional cattle herds have become infected. Other mammals can be infected with M. bovis, and some carnivores and omnivores had been found to be infected with the disease ...


Review Of Issues Concerning The Use Of Reproductive Inhibitors, With Particular Emphasis On Resolving Human-Wildlife Conflicts In North America, Kathleen A. Fagerstone, Lowell A. Miller, Gary Killian, Christi A. Yoder 2010 USDA-APHIS National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins

Review Of Issues Concerning The Use Of Reproductive Inhibitors, With Particular Emphasis On Resolving Human-Wildlife Conflicts In North America, Kathleen A. Fagerstone, Lowell A. Miller, Gary Killian, Christi A. Yoder

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

This manuscript provides an overview of past wildlife contraception efforts and discusses the current state of research. Two fertility control agents, an avian reproductive inhibitor containing the active ingredient nicarbazin and an immunocontraceptive vaccine, have received regulatory approval with the Environmental Protection Agency and are commercially available in the USA. OvoControl G Contraceptive Bait for Canada Geese and Ovo Control for pigeons are delivered as oral baits. An injectable immunocontraceptive vaccine (GonaCon Immunocontraceptive Vaccine) was registered with the Environmental Protection Agency for use in female white-tailed deer in September 2009. An injectable product (GonaCon Immunocontraceptive Vaccine) is registered for use ...


Synchronous Monitoring Of Vulture Movements With Satellite Telemetry And Avian Radar, Robert C. Beason, J. S. Humphrey, N. E. Myers, Michael L. Avery 2010 Accipiter Radar Corporation, Orchard Park, NY

Synchronous Monitoring Of Vulture Movements With Satellite Telemetry And Avian Radar, Robert C. Beason, J. S. Humphrey, N. E. Myers, Michael L. Avery

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Radar and satellite global positioning system-platform transmitter terminal (GPSPTT) transmitters provide complementary information on the movements and behaviors of individual birds. The GPS-PTT tag provides a snapshot of altitude and location of a specific individual of an identified species at predefined intervals. The history of the individual is known because each transmitter has a unique identification code. The radar cannot identify individuals or even species but it provides continuous position reports (altitude and location) of birds within its detection range. By integrating data from the two sources, the behavior and movements of identified individuals (not possible with radar) can be ...


Capture Of Ungulates In Central Asia Using Drive Nets: Advantages And Pitfalls Illustrated By The Endangered Mongolian Saiga Saiga Tatarica Mongolica, Joel Berger, Kim M. Murray, Bayarbaatar Buuveibaatar, Mike R. Dunbar, Badamjav Lkhagvasuren 2010 University of Montana, Missoula

Capture Of Ungulates In Central Asia Using Drive Nets: Advantages And Pitfalls Illustrated By The Endangered Mongolian Saiga Saiga Tatarica Mongolica, Joel Berger, Kim M. Murray, Bayarbaatar Buuveibaatar, Mike R. Dunbar, Badamjav Lkhagvasuren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The study of mammals suffering intense poaching in remote areas poses an increasingly difficult conservation challenge, in part because the extreme flightiness of such species complicates safe capture. The benefits of handling (an opportunity to obtain biological information and attach radio collars) must be weighed against stress to the animals and potential capture-related mortality. In parts of Central Asia this problem is not trivial, as populations have been heavily harvested and opportunities for restraint are often limited. Mongolian saiga Saiga tatarica mongolica, being both Endangered and poached, typifies these issues. Here we describe capture protocols for adult females handled quickly ...


Seroprevalence Of Equine Influenza Virus In Northeast And Southern Mexico, B. J. Blitvitch, L. A. Ibarra-Juarez, A. J. Cortes-Guzman, J. J. Root, A. B. Franklin, H. J. Sullivan, I. Fernandez-Salas 2010 Iowa State University

Seroprevalence Of Equine Influenza Virus In Northeast And Southern Mexico, B. J. Blitvitch, L. A. Ibarra-Juarez, A. J. Cortes-Guzman, J. J. Root, A. B. Franklin, H. J. Sullivan, I. Fernandez-Salas

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Equine influenza A virus (EIV) is a highly infectious respiratory pathogen of horses (Hannant and Mumford 1996, Palese and Shaw 2007). The illness is characterised by an abrupt onset of fever, depression, coughing and nasal discharge, and is often complicated by secondary bacterial infections that can lead to pneumonia and death. Two subtypes of EIV, H3N8 and H7N7, have been isolated. The H7N7 subtype was first isolated from a horse in Czechoslovakia in 1956 (Prague/56), and the H3N8 subtype was first isolated from a horse in Miami in 1963 (Sovinova and others 1958, Waddell and others 1963). The last ...


Seroprevalence Of Equine Influenza Virus In Northeast And Southern Mexico, B. J. Blitvich, L. A. Ibarra-Juarez, A. J. Cortes-Guzman, J. J. Root, A. B. Franklin, H. J. Sullivan, I. Fernandez-Salas 2010 Iowa State University

Seroprevalence Of Equine Influenza Virus In Northeast And Southern Mexico, B. J. Blitvich, L. A. Ibarra-Juarez, A. J. Cortes-Guzman, J. J. Root, A. B. Franklin, H. J. Sullivan, I. Fernandez-Salas

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

EQUINE influenza A virus (EIV) is a highly infectious respiratory pathogen of horses (Hannant and Mumford 1996, Palese and Shaw 2007). The illness is characterized by an abrupt onset of fever, depression, coughing and nasal discharge, and is often complicated by secondary bacterial infections that can lead to pneumonia and death. Two subtypes of EIV, H3N8 and H7N7, have been isolated. The H7N7 subtype was first isolated from a horse in Czechoslovakia in 1956 (Prague/56), and the H3N8 subtype was first isolated from a horse in Miami in 1963 (Sovinova and others 1958, Waddell and others 1963). The last ...


Temporal Variation In Terrestrial Invertebrate Consumption By Laughing Gulls In New York, Glen E. Bernhardt, Lisa Kutschbach-Brohl, Brian E. Washburn, Richard Chipman, Laura Francoeur 2010 USDA Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, 6100 Columbus Avenue, Sandusky, Ohio 44870

Temporal Variation In Terrestrial Invertebrate Consumption By Laughing Gulls In New York, Glen E. Bernhardt, Lisa Kutschbach-Brohl, Brian E. Washburn, Richard Chipman, Laura Francoeur

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) are commonly found in many areas of North America and little is known about their diet, particularly in coastal-urban interfaces where gull-aircraft collisions can be a serious concern. The objective of this study was to describe and quantify the consumption of terrestrial invertebrates by laughing gulls at a coastal-urban interface in the northeastern United States. We examined the stomach contents of laughing gulls (n = 1053) collected during wildlife damage management operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport during the summers of 2003 and 2004. Terrestrial invertebrates consumed by laughing gulls represented 2 taxonomic phyla, 4 classes ...


An Evaluation Of Three Statistical Methods Used To Model Resource Selection, David M. Baasch, Andrew J. Tyre, Joshua J. Millspaugh, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Kurt C. Vercauteren 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

An Evaluation Of Three Statistical Methods Used To Model Resource Selection, David M. Baasch, Andrew J. Tyre, Joshua J. Millspaugh, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The performance of statistical methods for modeling resource selection by animals is difficult to evaluate with field data because true selection patterns are unknown. Simulated data based on a known probability distribution, though, can be used to evaluate statistical methods. Models should estimate true selection patterns if they are to be useful in analyzing and interpreting field data. We used simulation techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of three statistical methods used in modeling resource selection. We generated 25 use locations per animal and included 10, 20, 40, or 80 animals in samples of use locations. To simulate species of different ...


Importance Of Resource Selection And Social Behavior To Partitioning Of Hostile Space By Sympatric Canids, Todd Atwood, Eric Gese 2010 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Importance Of Resource Selection And Social Behavior To Partitioning Of Hostile Space By Sympatric Canids, Todd Atwood, Eric Gese

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Investigations into mechanisms of resource partitioning are particularly suited to systems where nascent interactive behaviors are observable. Wolf (Canis lupus) recolonization of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem provided such a system, and we were able to identify behaviors influencing the partitioning of resources by coyotes (Canis latrans) and wolves. We observed coyote–wolf interactions immediately after wolf recolonization, when reemergent behaviors mediating the outcome of competitive interactions were detectable and mechanisms of spatial avoidance were identifiable. Although coyotes used the same space as wolves, they likely minimized risk of encounter by making adaptive changes in resource selection based on perception of ...


Comparison Of Endocrine Response To Stress Between Captive-Raised And Wild-Caught Bighorn Sheep, Sarah Coburn, Mo Salman, Jack Rhyan, Thomas Keefe, Matthew McCollum, Keith Aune, Terry Spraker, Lowell Miller 2010 Colorado State University

Comparison Of Endocrine Response To Stress Between Captive-Raised And Wild-Caught Bighorn Sheep, Sarah Coburn, Mo Salman, Jack Rhyan, Thomas Keefe, Matthew Mccollum, Keith Aune, Terry Spraker, Lowell Miller

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Stress hormones in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), produced in response to environmental changes, road development, or high population density, may impact their immune systems to a threshold level that predisposes them to periodic, large-scale mortality. We compared the stress response to a novel environmental situation and repeated handling between bighorn sheep born and raised in captivity (CR) and bighorn sheep born in the wild (WC) and brought into captivity. We measured plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, and fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM). Three weeks after each group’s arrival we used a one-time drop-net event to elicit an acute ...


Experimental Infection Of Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) With West Nile Virus, J. Jeffrey Root, Kevin T. Bentler, Nicole M. Nemeth, Thomas Gidlewski, Terry R. Spraker, Alan B. Franklin 2010 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Experimental Infection Of Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) With West Nile Virus, J. Jeffrey Root, Kevin T. Bentler, Nicole M. Nemeth, Thomas Gidlewski, Terry R. Spraker, Alan B. Franklin

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

To characterize the responses of raccoons to West Nile virus (WNV) infection, we subcutaneously exposed them to WNV. Moderately high viremia titers (≤ 104.6 plaque forming units [PFU]/mL of serum) were noted in select individuals; however, peak viremia titers were variable and viremia was detectable in some individuals as late as 10 days post-inoculation (DPI). In addition, fecal shedding was prolonged in some animals (e.g., between 6 and 13 DPI in one individual), with up to105.0 PFU/fecal swab detected. West Nile virus was not detected in tissues collected on 10 or 16 DPI, and ...


Response Of Captive Skunks To Microencapsulated Tetracycline, Brandon S. Schmit, Thomas M. Primus, Jerome C. Hurley, Dennis J. Kohler, Shawna F. Graves 2010 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Response Of Captive Skunks To Microencapsulated Tetracycline, Brandon S. Schmit, Thomas M. Primus, Jerome C. Hurley, Dennis J. Kohler, Shawna F. Graves

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

A captive striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) study was conducted between February and June 2004 at the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. The main objective was to determine the percentage of adult striped skunks that were marked after consuming placebo oral rabies vaccine (ORV) baits containing 100 mg of an experimental microencapsulated (coated microparticle) tetracycline hydrochloride biomarker. Biomarkers were identified in the canine teeth and mandibles of five of five skunks that consumed an ORV bait. A second objective was to determine if the microencapsulated ...


Mite-Filled Cyst On A Brown-Headed Cowbird (Molothrus Ater) In Florida, Usa, Marilyn G. Spalding, James W. Mertins, Matthew J. Reetz, Kandy L. Keacher, Michael L. Avery, Ellis C. Greiner 2010 University of Florida

Mite-Filled Cyst On A Brown-Headed Cowbird (Molothrus Ater) In Florida, Usa, Marilyn G. Spalding, James W. Mertins, Matthew J. Reetz, Kandy L. Keacher, Michael L. Avery, Ellis C. Greiner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

A large, partly pedunculated mass on the scapular area of a wild-caught captive Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) consisted of a multiloculated keratin cyst inhabited by a new species of harpirhynchid mite (Harpirhynchus quasimodo). The mass did not interfere with flight or behavior. This is the first record of such an infestation of cowbirds in Florida.


Foot-And-Mouth Disease In Feral Swine: Susceptibility And Transmission, F. Mohamed, S. Swafford, H. Petrowski, A. Bracht, B. S. Schmit, A. Fabian, J. M. Pacheco, E. Hartwig, M. Berninger, C. Carrillo, G. Mayr, K. Moran, D. Kavanaugh, H. Leibrecht, W. White, S. Metwally 2010 USDA, APHIS

Foot-And-Mouth Disease In Feral Swine: Susceptibility And Transmission, F. Mohamed, S. Swafford, H. Petrowski, A. Bracht, B. S. Schmit, A. Fabian, J. M. Pacheco, E. Hartwig, M. Berninger, C. Carrillo, G. Mayr, K. Moran, D. Kavanaugh, H. Leibrecht, W. White, S. Metwally

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Experimental studies of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in feral swine are limited, and data for clinical manifestations and disease transmissibility are lacking. In this report, feral and domestic swine were experimentally infected with FMDV (A24-Cruzeiro), and susceptibility and virus transmission were studied. Feral swine were proved to be highly susceptible to A-24 Cruzeiro FMD virus by intradermal inoculation and by contact with infected domestic and feral swine. Typical clinical signs in feral swine included transient fever, lameness and vesicular lesions in the coronary bands, heel bulbs, tip of the tongue and snout. Domestic swine exhibited clinical signs of the disease within ...


Evaluating Commercially Available Rodenticide Baits For Invasive Gambian Giant Pouched Rats (Cricetomys Gambianus), Gary W. Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, Patrick W. Burke 2010 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services

Evaluating Commercially Available Rodenticide Baits For Invasive Gambian Giant Pouched Rats (Cricetomys Gambianus), Gary W. Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, Patrick W. Burke

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Gambian giant pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) are native to Africa, but they are popular in the pet industry in the United States. They were reservoir hosts during a monkeypox outbreak in the Midwestern United States in 2003. A free-ranging population became established on Grassy Key in the Florida Keys, apparently because of a release by a pet breeder. These rodents could cause significant damage to agricultural crops should they reach the mainland. Research under controlled conditions was needed to identify effective rodenticides for Grassy Key or other cases where an invasion of Gambian rats might occur. We tested 2 formulations ...


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