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Carboxymethylated-K-Casein: A Convenient Tool For The Identification Of Polyphenolic Inhibitors Of Amyloid Fibril Formation, John A. Carver, Peter J. Duggan, Heath Ecroyd, Yanqin Liu, Adam G. Meyer, C E. Tranberg 2010 University of Wollongong

Carboxymethylated-K-Casein: A Convenient Tool For The Identification Of Polyphenolic Inhibitors Of Amyloid Fibril Formation, John A. Carver, Peter J. Duggan, Heath Ecroyd, Yanqin Liu, Adam G. Meyer, C E. Tranberg

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Reduced and carboxymethylated-κ-casein (RCM-κ-CN) is a milk-derived amyloidogenic protein that readily undergoes nucleation-dependent aggregation and amyloid fibril formation via a similar pathway to disease-specific amyloidogenic peptides like amyloid beta (Aβ), which is associated with Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, a series of flavonoids, many known to be inhibitors of Aβ fibril formation, were screened for their ability to inhibit RCM-κ-CN fibrilisation, and the results were compared with literature data on Aβ inhibition. Flavonoids that had a high degree of hydroxylation and molecular planarity gave good inhibition of RCM-κ-CN fibril formation. IC50 values were between 10- and 200-fold higher with ...


Alphab-Crystallin Inhibits The Cell Toxicity Associated With Amyloid Fibril Formation By Kappa-Casein And The Amyloid-Beta Peptide, Francis C. Dehle, Heath Ecroyd, Ian F. Musgrave, John A. Carver 2010 University of Adelaide

Alphab-Crystallin Inhibits The Cell Toxicity Associated With Amyloid Fibril Formation By Kappa-Casein And The Amyloid-Beta Peptide, Francis C. Dehle, Heath Ecroyd, Ian F. Musgrave, John A. Carver

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Amyloid fibril formation is associated with diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and prion diseases. Inhibition of amyloid fibril formation by molecular chaperone proteins, such as the small heat-shock protein αB-crystallin, may play a protective role in preventing the toxicity associated with this form of protein misfolding. Reduced and carboxymethylated κ-casein (RCMκ-CN), a protein derived from milk, readily and reproducibly forms fibrils at physiological temperature and pH. We investigated the toxicity of fibril formation by RCMκ-CN using neuronal model PC12 cells and determined whether the inhibition of fibril formation altered its cell toxicity. To resolve ambiguities in the literature ...


The Interaction Of Unfolding Α-Lactalbumin And Malate Dehydrogenase With The Molecular Chaperone Αb-Crystallin: A Light And X-Ray Scattering Investigation, J W. Regini, Heath Ecroyd, Sarah Meehan, Kristen Bremmell, Matthew J. Clarke, Donna Lammie, Tim Wess, John A. Carver 2010 Cardiff University

The Interaction Of Unfolding Α-Lactalbumin And Malate Dehydrogenase With The Molecular Chaperone Αb-Crystallin: A Light And X-Ray Scattering Investigation, J W. Regini, Heath Ecroyd, Sarah Meehan, Kristen Bremmell, Matthew J. Clarke, Donna Lammie, Tim Wess, John A. Carver

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Purpose: The molecular chaperone αB-crystallin is found in high concentrations in the lens and is present in all major body tissues. Its structure and the mechanism by which it protects its target protein from aggregating and precipitating are not known. Methods: Dynamic light scattering and X-ray solution scattering techniques were used to investigate structural features of the αB-crystallin oligomer when complexed with target proteins under mild stress conditions, i.e., reduction of α- lactalbumin at 37 °C and malate dehydrogenase when heated at 42 °C. In this investigation, the size, shape and particle distribution of the complexes were determined in ...


Introduction - Doing Rural Cultural Studies, Clifton Evers, Andrew W. Gorman-Murray, Emily Potter 2010 University of Wollongong

Introduction - Doing Rural Cultural Studies, Clifton Evers, Andrew W. Gorman-Murray, Emily Potter

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

In 2008, a themed section of Australian Humanities Review began the task of establishing the emerging field of ‘Rural Cultural Studies’. As the editors pointed out, ‘contemporary cultural studies researchers internationally and in Australia have been massively biased towards urban popular cultures’.


Microevolution Of Group A Streptococci In Vivo: Capturing Regulatory Networks Engaged In Sociomicrobiology, Niche Adaptation, And Hypervirulence, Ramy K. Aziz, Rita G. Kansal, Bruce A. Aronow, William L. Taylor, Sarah L. Rowe, Michael Kubal, Gursharan S Chhatwal, Mark J. Walker, Malak Kotb 2010 Cairo Univeristy, Egypt

Microevolution Of Group A Streptococci In Vivo: Capturing Regulatory Networks Engaged In Sociomicrobiology, Niche Adaptation, And Hypervirulence, Ramy K. Aziz, Rita G. Kansal, Bruce A. Aronow, William L. Taylor, Sarah L. Rowe, Michael Kubal, Gursharan S Chhatwal, Mark J. Walker, Malak Kotb

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

The onset of infection and the switch from primary to secondary niches are dramatic environmental changes that not only alter bacterial transcriptional programs, but also perturb their sociomicrobiology, often driving minor subpopulations with mutant phenotypes to prevail in specific niches. Having previously reported that M1T1 Streptococcus pyogenes become hypervirulent in mice due to selection of mutants in the covRS regulatory genes, we set out to dissect the impact of these mutations in vitro and in vivo from the impact of other adaptive events. Using a murine subcutaneous chamber model to sample the bacteria prior to selection or expansion of mutants ...


Elastic Conducting Carbon Nanotube-Laden Sibs Fibers, Alberto J. Granero, Joselito M. Razal, Gordon G. Wallace, Marc in het Panhuis 2010 University of Wollongong

Elastic Conducting Carbon Nanotube-Laden Sibs Fibers, Alberto J. Granero, Joselito M. Razal, Gordon G. Wallace, Marc In Het Panhuis

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

We report a facile method to produce elastic conducting fibers using a continuous flow wet-spinning approach. The spun fibers were highly stretchable, similar to the elastomeric polymer used.


Impact Of Ocean Warming And Ocean Acidification On Larval Development And Calcification In The Sea Urchin Tripneustes Gratilla, Hannah Sheppard Brennand, Natalie Soars, Symon A. Dworjanyn, Andrew R. Davis, Maria Byrne 2010 University of Sydney

Impact Of Ocean Warming And Ocean Acidification On Larval Development And Calcification In The Sea Urchin Tripneustes Gratilla, Hannah Sheppard Brennand, Natalie Soars, Symon A. Dworjanyn, Andrew R. Davis, Maria Byrne

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Background: As the oceans simultaneously warm, acidify and increase in P-CO2, prospects for marine biota are of concern. Calcifying species may find it difficult to produce their skeleton because ocean acidification decreases calcium carbonate saturation and accompanying hypercapnia suppresses metabolism. However, this may be buffered by enhanced growth and metabolism due to warming.Methodology/Principal Findings: We examined the interactive effects of near-future ocean warming and increased acidification/P-CO2 on larval development in the tropical sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla. Larvae were reared in multifactorial experiments in flow-through conditions in all combinations of three temperature and three pH/P-CO2 treatments. Experiments ...


Reaction Of The C2h Radical With 1-Butyne (C4h6): Low Temperature Kinetics And Isomer-Specific Product Detection, Satchin Soorkia, Adam J. Trevitt, Talitha M. Selby, David L. Osborn, Craig A. Taatjes, Kevin R. Wilson, Stephen R. Leone 2010 University of Wollongong

Reaction Of The C2h Radical With 1-Butyne (C4h6): Low Temperature Kinetics And Isomer-Specific Product Detection, Satchin Soorkia, Adam J. Trevitt, Talitha M. Selby, David L. Osborn, Craig A. Taatjes, Kevin R. Wilson, Stephen R. Leone

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

No abstract provided.


Products Of The Benzene + O(3p) Reaction, Craig A. Taatjes, David L. Osborn, Talitha M. Selby, Giovanni Meloni, Adam J. Trevitt, Evgeny Epifanovsky, Anna I. Krylov, Baptiste Sirjean, Enoch Dames, Hai Wang 2010 University of Wollongong

Products Of The Benzene + O(3p) Reaction, Craig A. Taatjes, David L. Osborn, Talitha M. Selby, Giovanni Meloni, Adam J. Trevitt, Evgeny Epifanovsky, Anna I. Krylov, Baptiste Sirjean, Enoch Dames, Hai Wang

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

No abstract provided.


Novel Technique Shows Different Hydrophobic Chemical Signatures Of Exotic And Indigenous Plant Soils With Similar Effects Of Extracts On Indigenous Species Seedling Growth, Emilie-Jane Ens, Kristine O. French, John B. Bremner, Jurgen Korth 2010 University of Wollongong

Novel Technique Shows Different Hydrophobic Chemical Signatures Of Exotic And Indigenous Plant Soils With Similar Effects Of Extracts On Indigenous Species Seedling Growth, Emilie-Jane Ens, Kristine O. French, John B. Bremner, Jurgen Korth

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Changes to ecosystem abiotic parameters are regarded as possible mechanisms facilitating plant invasion and community composition shifts. This study compared the hydrophobic chemical signatures of soil from exotic bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera spp. rotundata) invaded, indigenous acacia (Acacia longifolia var. sophorae) dominated and bare sand (unvegetated) habitats using a novel, rapid, capturing technique which utilised AmberliteA (R) XAD4 resin filled bags that were placed in situ. The hydrophobic chemical signature of the bitou bush soil extract was significantly different to the acacia soil and bare sand extracts. High concentrations of 18 sesquiterpenes dominated the hydrophobic signature of the bitou bush ...


Small Heat-Shock Proteins Interact With A Flanking Domain To Suppress Polyglutamine Aggregation, Amy L. Roberston, Stephen J. Headey, Helen M. Saunders, Heath Ecroyd, Martin J. Scanlon, John A. Carver, Stephen P. Bottomley 2010 Monash University

Small Heat-Shock Proteins Interact With A Flanking Domain To Suppress Polyglutamine Aggregation, Amy L. Roberston, Stephen J. Headey, Helen M. Saunders, Heath Ecroyd, Martin J. Scanlon, John A. Carver, Stephen P. Bottomley

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Small heat-shock proteins (sHsps) are molecular chaperones that play an important protective role against cellular protein misfolding by interacting with partially unfolded proteins on their off-folding pathway, preventing their aggregation. Polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat expansion leads to the formation of fibrillar protein aggregates and neuronal cell death in nine diseases, including Huntington disease and the spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs). There is evidence that sHsps have a role in suppression of polyQ-induced neurodegeneration; for example, the sHsp alphaB-crystallin (αB-c) has been identified as a suppressor of SCA3 toxicity in a Drosophila model. However, the molecular mechanism for this suppression is unknown. In this ...


Nanometer-Scale Distance Measurements In Proteins Using Gd3+ Spin Labeling, Alexey Potapov, Hiromasa Yagi, Thomas Huber, Slobodan Jergic, Nicholas E. Dixon, Gottfried Otting, Daniella Goldfarb 2010 Weizmann Institute of Science

Nanometer-Scale Distance Measurements In Proteins Using Gd3+ Spin Labeling, Alexey Potapov, Hiromasa Yagi, Thomas Huber, Slobodan Jergic, Nicholas E. Dixon, Gottfried Otting, Daniella Goldfarb

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Methods for measuring nanometer-scale distances between specific sites in proteins are essential for analysis of their structure and function. In this work we introduce Gd3+ spin labeling for nanometer-range distance measurements in proteins by high-field pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). To evaluate the performance of such measurements, we carried out four-pulse double-electron electron resonance (DEER) measurements on two proteins, p75ICD and τC14, labeled at strategically selected sites with either two nitroxides or two Gd3+ spin labels. In analogy to conventional site-directed spin labeling using nitroxides, Gd3+ tags that are derivatives of dipicolinic acid were covalently attached to cysteine thiol groups ...


Ultrasensitive Detection Of Antibodies Using A New Tus-Ter-Lock Immunopcr System, Isabelle Morin, Nicholas E. Dixon, Patrick M. Schaeffer 2010 James Cook University

Ultrasensitive Detection Of Antibodies Using A New Tus-Ter-Lock Immunopcr System, Isabelle Morin, Nicholas E. Dixon, Patrick M. Schaeffer

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

A system consisting of a protein LG coated surface for the capture of mammalian antibodies (target), and an antigen fused to Tus and stoichiometrically linked to a DNA template via the Tus-Ter-lock sequence allowed the ultrasensitive detection of 5.5 attomol of target by real-time immunoPCR in complex media. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.


Train-Borne Measurements Of Tropical Methane Enhancements From Ephemeral Wetlands In Australia, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T Griffith, Clare Paton-Walsh, Rittick Borah 2010 University of Wollongong

Train-Borne Measurements Of Tropical Methane Enhancements From Ephemeral Wetlands In Australia, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T Griffith, Clare Paton-Walsh, Rittick Borah

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

We report greenhouse gas concentrations measured on a train covering a north-south transect through central Australia from north to south coast. During the monsoonal wet season we found significant enhancements in methane that correlate well with changing area of wetland inundation in Australian tropical savanna regions. We used a meteorological and air pollution model to quantify the ephemeral wetland fluxes necessary to cause the observed enhancements and estimate the constant Australian tropical wetland emissions. Annual Australian tropical ephemeral wetland fluxes are estimated at 0.4 +/- 0.2 Tg CH4, with permanent wetlands contributing a similar amount, 0.5 +/- 0.2 ...


Shell Artefacts And Shell-Working Within The Lapita Cultural Complex, Katherine A. Szabo 2010 University of Wollongong

Shell Artefacts And Shell-Working Within The Lapita Cultural Complex, Katherine A. Szabo

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Despite a consistent presence in the archaeological record of the Lapita cultural complex, and their omnipresence in the associated literature, the nature and range of shell artefacts recovered from Lapita sites has only been partially summarized at best. Considering the categories of raw material choice, working techniques, formal artefact types and curation, this article summarizes our current knowledge and points to areas for further research.


Estimated Total Emissions Of Trace Gases From The Canberra Wildfires Of 2003: A New Method Using Satellite Measurements Of Aerosol Optical Depth & The Mozart Chemical Transport Model, Clare Paton-Walsh, L Emmons, Stephen R. Wilson 2010 University of Wollongong

Estimated Total Emissions Of Trace Gases From The Canberra Wildfires Of 2003: A New Method Using Satellite Measurements Of Aerosol Optical Depth & The Mozart Chemical Transport Model, Clare Paton-Walsh, L Emmons, Stephen R. Wilson

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

In this paper we describe a new method for estimating trace gas emissions from large vegetation fires using satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm, combined with an atmospheric chemical transport model. The method uses a threshold value to screen out normal levels of AOD that may be caused by raised dust, sea salt aerosols or diffuse smoke transported from distant fires. Using this method we infer an estimated total emission of 15±5 Tg of carbon monoxide, 0.05±0.02 Tg of hydrogen cyanide, 0.11±0.03 Tg of ammonia, 0.25±0.07 ...


Specific Cellular Water Dynamics Observed In Vivo By Neutron Scattering And Nmr., Moeava Tehei, Marion Jasnin, Andreas Stadler, Giuseppe Zaccai 2010 University of Wollongong

Specific Cellular Water Dynamics Observed In Vivo By Neutron Scattering And Nmr., Moeava Tehei, Marion Jasnin, Andreas Stadler, Giuseppe Zaccai

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Neutron scattering, by using deuterium labelling, revealed how intracellular water dynamics, measured in vivo in E. coli, human red blood cells and the extreme halophile, Haloarcula marismortui, depends on the cell type and nature of the cytoplasm. The method uniquely permits the determination of motions on the molecular length (Ba˚ ngstrøm) and time (pico- to nanosecond) scales. In the bacterial and human cells, intracellular water beyond the hydration shells of cytoplasmic macromolecules and membrane faces flows as freely as liquid water. It is not ‘‘tamed’’ by confinement. In contrast, in the extreme halophile archaeon, in addition to free and hydration ...


Response Of Coral Reefs To Climate Change: Expansion And Demise Of The Southernmost Pacific Coral Reef, Colin D. Woodroffe, Brendan P. Brooke, Michelle Linklater, David M. Kennedy, Brian G. Jones, Cameron Buchanan, Richard Mleczko, Quan Hua, Jian-xin Zhao 2010 University of Wollongong

Response Of Coral Reefs To Climate Change: Expansion And Demise Of The Southernmost Pacific Coral Reef, Colin D. Woodroffe, Brendan P. Brooke, Michelle Linklater, David M. Kennedy, Brian G. Jones, Cameron Buchanan, Richard Mleczko, Quan Hua, Jian-Xin Zhao

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Coral reefs track sea level and are particularly sensitive to changes in climate. Reefs are threatened by global warming, with many experiencing increased coral bleaching. Warmer sea surface temperatures might enable reef expansion into mid latitudes. Here we report multibeam sonar and coring that reveal an extensive relict coral reef around Lord Howe Island, which is fringed by the southernmost reef in the Pacific Ocean. The relict reef, in water depths of 25-50 m, flourished in early Holocene and covered an area more than 20 times larger than the modern reef. Radiocarbon and uranium-series dating indicates that corals grew between ...


The Length Distributions Of Non-Coding And Coding Sequences In Relation To Gene Expression: A Study On Arabidopsis Thaliana, R Caldwell, J Kongcharoen, Y Lin, R Zhang 2010 University of Wollongong

The Length Distributions Of Non-Coding And Coding Sequences In Relation To Gene Expression: A Study On Arabidopsis Thaliana, R Caldwell, J Kongcharoen, Y Lin, R Zhang

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

No abstract provided.


Structures, Biological Activities And Phylogenetic Relationships Of Terpenoids From Marine Ciliates Of The Genus Euplotes, Graziano Guella, Danielle Skropeta, Graziano Di Giuseppe, Fernando Dini 2010 University of Wollongong

Structures, Biological Activities And Phylogenetic Relationships Of Terpenoids From Marine Ciliates Of The Genus Euplotes, Graziano Guella, Danielle Skropeta, Graziano Di Giuseppe, Fernando Dini

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i) euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii) raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii) rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv) vannusals, with a unique C-30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having ...


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