In Operando Mechanism Analysis On Nanocrystalline Silicon Anode Material For Reversible And Ultrafast Sodium Storage, 2018 University of Wollongong

#### In Operando Mechanism Analysis On Nanocrystalline Silicon Anode Material For Reversible And Ultrafast Sodium Storage, Lei Zhang, Xianluo Hu, Chaoji Chen, Haipeng Guo, Xiaoxiao Liu, Gengzhao Xu, Haijian Zhong, Shuang Cheng, Peng Wu, Jiashen Meng, Yunhui Huang, Shi Xue Dou, Hua-Kun Liu

*Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers*

Presently, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are the most promising commercialized electrochemical energy storage systems. Unfortunately, the limited resource of Li results in increasing cost for its scalable application and a general consciousness of the need to find new type of energy storage technologies. Very recently, substantial effort has been invested to sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) due to their effectively unlimited nature of sodium resources. Furthermore, the potential of Li/Li+ is 0.3 V lower than that of Na/Na+, which makes it more effective to limit the electrolyte degradation on the outer surface of the electrode.[1] Nevertheless, one major obstacle ...

Cybercrime Deterrence And International Legislation: Evidence From Distributed Denial Of Service Attacks, 2017 Singapore Management University

#### Cybercrime Deterrence And International Legislation: Evidence From Distributed Denial Of Service Attacks, Kai-Lung Hui, Seung Hyun Kim, Qiu-Hong Wang

*Research Collection School Of Information Systems*

In this paper, we estimate the impact of enforcing the Convention on Cybercrime (COC) on deterring distributed denial of service (DDOS) attacks. Our data set comprises a sample of real, random spoof-source DDOS attacks recorded in 106 countries in 177 days in the period 2004-2008. We find that enforcing the COC decreases DDOS attacks by at least 11.8 percent, but a similar deterrence effect does not exist if the enforcing countries make a reservation on international cooperation. We also find evidence of network and displacement effects in COC enforcement. Our findings imply attackers in cyberspace are rational, motivated by ...

Vertex Weighted Spectral Clustering, 2017 East Tennessee State University

#### Vertex Weighted Spectral Clustering, Mohammad Masum

*Electronic Theses and Dissertations*

Spectral clustering is often used to partition a data set into a specified number of clusters. Both the unweighted and the vertex-weighted approaches use eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of a graph. Our focus is on using vertex-weighted methods to refine clustering of observations. An eigenvector corresponding with the second smallest eigenvalue of the Laplacian matrix of a graph is called a Fiedler vector. Coefficients of a Fiedler vector are used to partition vertices of a given graph into two clusters. A vertex of a graph is classified as unassociated if the Fiedler coefficient of the vertex is close to ...

Synthesis And Catalytic Evaluation Of Novel C-Alpha-Methyl-Beta-Proline Analogues, And Concise Synthetic Approach To Nh-Fmoc-S-Trityl-C-Alpha-Methyl Cysteine, 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

#### Synthesis And Catalytic Evaluation Of Novel C-Alpha-Methyl-Beta-Proline Analogues, And Concise Synthetic Approach To Nh-Fmoc-S-Trityl-C-Alpha-Methyl Cysteine, Hari Kiran Kotapati

*Dissertations*

In the field of chemistry there is a growing demand for small molecule organocatalysts such as amino acids, more specifically proline and its analogues, which could catalyze various key chemical reactions in the synthesis of several biologically important molecules. Even though natural proline is reported to catalyze various chemical reactions, its use as organocatalyst is limited mainly due to the solubility issues in the reaction media and high catalyst loadings, which is not very ideal for bulk scale manufacturing. To address these limitations we planned to develop unnatural analogues of proline that could catalyze the reactions with lower catalyst loadings ...

Primes, Divisibility, And Factoring, 2017 Central Washington University

#### Primes, Divisibility, And Factoring, Dominic Klyve

*Number Theory*

No abstract provided.

Babylonian Numeration, 2017 Central Washington University

Rigorous Debates Over Debatable Rigor: Monster Functions In Introductory Analysis, 2017 Colorado State University-Pueblo

#### Rigorous Debates Over Debatable Rigor: Monster Functions In Introductory Analysis, Janet Heine Barnett

*Analysis*

No abstract provided.

Gaussian Integers And Dedekind's Creation Of An Ideal: A Number Theory Project, 2017 Colorado State University-Pueblo

#### Gaussian Integers And Dedekind's Creation Of An Ideal: A Number Theory Project, Janet Heine Barnett

*Number Theory*

No abstract provided.

Wave Propagation Inside Random Media, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Wave Propagation Inside Random Media, Xiaojun Cheng

*All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

This thesis presents results of studies of wave scattering within and transmission through random and periodic systems. The main focus is on energy profiles inside quasi-1D and 1D random media.

The connection between transport and the states of the medium is manifested in the equivalence of the dimensionless conductance, g, and the Thouless number which is the ratio of the average linewidth and spacing of energy levels. This equivalence and theories regarding the energy profiles inside random media are based on the assumption that LDOS is uniform throughout the samples. We have conducted microwave measurements of the longitudinal energy profiles ...

Characterizing Cool Brown Dwarfs And Low-Mass Companions With Low-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectra, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Characterizing Cool Brown Dwarfs And Low-Mass Companions With Low-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectra, Paige Godfrey

*All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

Exoplanet direct detections are reaching the temperature regime of cool brown dwarfs, motivating further understanding of the coolest substellar atmospheres. These objects, T and Y dwarfs, are numerous and isolated in the field, thus making them easier to study in detail than objects in companion systems. Brown dwarf spectral types are derived from spectral morphology and generally appear to correspond with decreasing mass and effective temperature (T_{eff}). However, spectral subclasses of the colder objects do not share this monotonic temperature correlation, indicating that secondary parameters (gravity, metallicity, dust) significantly influence spectral morphology. These secondary atmospheric parameters can provide insight ...

Elimination For Systems Of Algebraic Differential Equations, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Elimination For Systems Of Algebraic Differential Equations, Richard Gustavson

*All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

We develop new upper bounds for several effective differential elimination techniques for systems of algebraic ordinary and partial differential equations. Differential elimination, also known as decoupling, is the process of eliminating a fixed subset of unknown functions from a system of differential equations in order to obtain differential algebraic consequences of the original system that do not depend on that fixed subset of unknowns. A special case of differential elimination, which we study extensively, is the question of consistency, that is, if the given system of differential equations has a solution. We first look solely at the ``algebraic data" of ...

Diophantine Approximation And The Atypical Numbers Of Nathanson And O'Bryant, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Diophantine Approximation And The Atypical Numbers Of Nathanson And O'Bryant, David Seff

*All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

For any positive real number $\theta > 1$, and any natural number $n$, it is obvious that sequence $\theta^{1/n}$ goes to 1. Nathanson and O'Bryant studied the details of this convergence and discovered some truly amazing properties. One critical discovery is that for almost all $n$, $\displaystyle\floor{\frac{1}{\fp{\theta^{1/n}}}}$ is equal to $\displaystyle\floor{\frac{n}{\log\theta}-\frac{1}{2}}$, the exceptions, when $n > \log_2 \theta$, being termed atypical $n$ (the set of which for fixed $\theta$ being named $\mcA_\theta$), and that for $\log\theta$ rational, the number of atypical $n ...

Rewriting Methods In Groups With Applications To Cryptography, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Rewriting Methods In Groups With Applications To Cryptography, Gabriel Zapata

*All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

In this thesis we describe how various rewriting methods in combinatorial group theory can be used to diffuse information about group elements, which makes it possible to use these techniques as an important constituent in cryptographic primitives. We also show that, while most group-based cryptographic primitives employ the complexity of search versions of algorithmic problems in group theory, it is also possible to use the complexity of decision problems, in particular the word problem, to claim security of relevant protocols.

Fabrication And Applications Of Multifunctional Superhydrophobic Surfaces Based On Surface Chemistry And Morphology, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Fabrication And Applications Of Multifunctional Superhydrophobic Surfaces Based On Surface Chemistry And Morphology, Yang Liu

*All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

Superhydrophobic surfaces are gaining great interests in both fundamental researches and technological applications, because of their unique non-wetting and self-cleaning properties. By mimicking the hierarchical surface structure of the natural superhydrophobic surface, i.e. lotus leaf, numerous artificial surperhydrophobic surfaces were developed. However, the challenge is how to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces by a scalable and economical method. To address this challenge, our group has developed methodologies that enable the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces in inexpensive and potentially scalable ways, such as lamination and 3-D printing. To expand on applications, we also combined other desired functionalities into the superhydrophobic surfaces.

The ...

Quantum Optical Interferometry And Quantum State Engineering, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Quantum Optical Interferometry And Quantum State Engineering, Richard J. Birrittella Jr

*All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

We highlight some of our research done in the fields of quantum optical interferometry and quantum state engineering. We discuss the body of work for which our research is predicated, as well as discuss some of the fundamental tenants of the theory of phase estimation. We do this in the context of quantum optical interferometry where our primary interest lies in the calculation of the quantum Fisher information as it has been shown that the minimum phase uncertainty obtained, the quantum Cramer-Rao bound, is saturated by parity-based detection methods. We go on to show that the phase uncertainty one obtains ...

Turaev Surfaces And Toroidally Alternating Knots, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Turaev Surfaces And Toroidally Alternating Knots, Seungwon Kim

*All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

In this thesis, we study knots and links via their alternating diagrams on closed orientable surfaces. Every knot or link has such a diagram by a construction of Turaev, which is called the Turaev surface of the link. Links that have an alternating diagram on a torus were defined by Adams as toroidally alternating. For a toroidally alternating link, the minimal genus of its Turaev surface may be greater than one. Hence, these surfaces provide different topological measures of how far a link is from being alternating.

First, we classify link diagrams with Turaev genus one and two in terms ...

Fast Algorithms On Random Matrices And Structured Matrices, 2017 The City University of New York

#### Fast Algorithms On Random Matrices And Structured Matrices, Liang Zhao

*All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

Randomization of matrix computations has become a hot research area in the big data era. Sampling with randomly generated matrices has enabled fast algorithms to perform well for some most fundamental problems of numerical algebra with probability close to 1. The dissertation develops a set of algorithms with random and structured matrices for the following applications: 1) We prove that using random sparse and structured sampling enables rank-r approximation of the average input matrix having numerical rank r. 2) We prove that Gaussian elimination with no pivoting (GENP) is numerically safe for the average nonsingular and well-conditioned matrix preprocessed with ...

Joint Laver Diamonds And Grounded Forcing Axioms, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Joint Laver Diamonds And Grounded Forcing Axioms, Miha Habič

*All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

In chapter 1 a notion of independence for diamonds and Laver diamonds is investigated. A sequence of Laver diamonds for κ is *joint* if for any sequence of targets there is a single elementary embedding *j* with critical point κ such that each Laver diamond guesses its respective target via *j*. In the case of measurable cardinals (with similar results holding for (partially) supercompact cardinals) I show that a single Laver diamond for κ yields a joint sequence of length κ, and I give strict separation results for all larger lengths of joint sequences. Even though the principles get strictly ...

Travel Mode Identification With Smartphone Sensors, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Travel Mode Identification With Smartphone Sensors, Xing Su

*All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

Personal trips in a modern urban society typically involve multiple travel modes. Recognizing a traveller's transportation mode is not only critical to personal context-awareness in related applications, but also essential to urban traffic operations, transportation planning, and facility design. While the state of the art in travel mode recognition mainly relies on large-scale infrastructure-based fixed sensors or on individuals' GPS devices, the emergence of the smartphone provides a promising alternative with its ever-growing computing, networking, and sensing powers. In this thesis, we propose new algorithms for travel mode identification using smartphone sensors. The prototype system is built upon the ...

Intercusp Geodesics And Cusp Shapes Of Fully Augmented Links, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Intercusp Geodesics And Cusp Shapes Of Fully Augmented Links, Rochy Flint

*All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

We study the geometry of fully augmented link complements in the 3-sphere by looking at their link diagrams. We extend the method introduced by Thistlethwaite and Tsvietkova to fully augmented links and define a system of algebraic equations in terms of parameters coming from edges and crossings of the link diagrams. Combining it with the work of Purcell, we show that the solutions to these algebraic equations are related to the cusp shapes of fully augmented link complements. As an application we use the cusp shapes to study the commensurability classes of fully augmented links.