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Ip25: A Molecular Proxy Of Sea-Ice Duration In The Bering And Chukchi Seas, Cecily J. Sharko 2010 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Ip25: A Molecular Proxy Of Sea-Ice Duration In The Bering And Chukchi Seas, Cecily J. Sharko

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Seasonal sea ice is an important component of the global climate system. Sea ice influences exchange rates of heat, moisture, and gas between the ocean and atmosphere. Sea ice also plays critical roles in high latitude ecosystems and marine carbon cycling. Records of sea-ice extent and duration in the Arctic Ocean and its marginal seas through geologic time are valuable resources for better understanding the intricate relationships between sea ice and climate.

IP25, a compound biosynthesized exclusively by diatoms associated with sea ice, has been used to construct qualitative records of sea ice from sediment cores in some areas of ...


Comparison Of In Situ And Columnar Aerosol Spectral Measurements During Texaqs-Gomaccs 2006: Testing Parameterizations For Estimating Aerosol Fine Mode Properties, Dean B. Atkinson, Paola Massoli, Norman T. O'Neill, Patricia K. Quinn, Sarah D. Brooks, Barry Lefer 2010 Portland State University

Comparison Of In Situ And Columnar Aerosol Spectral Measurements During Texaqs-Gomaccs 2006: Testing Parameterizations For Estimating Aerosol Fine Mode Properties, Dean B. Atkinson, Paola Massoli, Norman T. O'Neill, Patricia K. Quinn, Sarah D. Brooks, Barry Lefer

Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations

During the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study and Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (TexAQS-GoMACCS 2006), the optical, chemical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosols were measured on multiple mobile platforms and at ground based stations. In situ measurements of the aerosol light extinction coefficient (σep) were performed by two multi-wavelength cavity ring-down (CRD) instruments, one located on board the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown (RHB) and the other located at the University of Houston, Moody Tower (UHMT). An AERONET sunphotometer was also located at the UHMT to measure the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD). The σep ...


United States Land Cover Land Use Change, Albedo And Radiative Forcing: Past And Potential Climate Implications, Christopher A. Barnes 2010 South Dakota State University

United States Land Cover Land Use Change, Albedo And Radiative Forcing: Past And Potential Climate Implications, Christopher A. Barnes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Land Cover Land Use (LCLU) change affects Earth surface properties including albedo that impose a radiative forcing on the climate. Recent spatially explicit satellite derived contemporary LCLU, albedo, and projected LCLU data are used to study the impact of LCLU change from 1973 to 2000, and from 2000 to 2050, on albedo and surface radiative forcing for the conterminous United States. Four research hypotheses concerned with past and potential future climate implications of LCLU change are addressed. The research described in this dissertation makes an important contribution to advancing understanding of the role of LCLU change on the climate system ...


Calibration Of The Umass Advanced Multi-Frequency Radar, Matthew Mclinden 2010 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Calibration Of The Umass Advanced Multi-Frequency Radar, Matthew Mclinden

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

The Advanced Multi-Frequency Radar is a three-frequency system designed and built by the University of Massachusetts Microwave Remote Sensing Lab (MIRSL). The radar has three frequencies, Ku-band (13.4 GHz), Ka-band (35.6 GHz), and W-band (94.92GHz). The additional information gained from additional frequencies allows the system to be sensitive to a wide range of atmospheric and precipitation particle sizes, while increasing the ability to derive particle microphysics from radar retrievals.

This thesis details the calibration of data from the Canadian CloudSat/CALIPSO Validation Project (C3VP) held during January 2007 in Ontario, Canada. The calibration used internal calibration path ...


A Speleothem-Based High Resolution Reconstruction Of Climate In Southeastern Brazil Over The Past 4,100 Years, Brandon L. Taylor 2010 University of Massachusetts Amherst

A Speleothem-Based High Resolution Reconstruction Of Climate In Southeastern Brazil Over The Past 4,100 Years, Brandon L. Taylor

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Isotopic investigations of speleothem CR1 from Cristal Cave in southeastern Brazil have established a high-resolution record of climate change extending 4,100 years prior to sample collection in 2007. A total of 14 subsamples were collected from CR1 for U/Th age determination. ICP-MS analysis yielded very precise ages with analytical errors (2σ) averaging ± 13 years. An initial growth rate of .062 mm y-1 for the first 2860 years is followed by a rate of .08 mm y-1 for the remaining growth period allowing for sampling of δ18O at sub-decadal resolution. Stable isotope analyses show a large range of δ18O ...


Post-Coring Entrapment Of Modern Air In Some Shallow Ice Cores Collected Near The Firn-Ice Transition: Evidence From Cfc-12 Measurements In Antarctic Firn Air And Ice Cores, Murat Aydin, S. A. Montzka, M. O. Battle, M. B. Williams, Warren J. De Bruyn, J. H. Butler, K. R. Verhulst, C. Tatum, B. K. Gun, D. A. Plotkin, B. D. Hall, Eric S. Saltzman 2010 University of California - Irvine

Post-Coring Entrapment Of Modern Air In Some Shallow Ice Cores Collected Near The Firn-Ice Transition: Evidence From Cfc-12 Measurements In Antarctic Firn Air And Ice Cores, Murat Aydin, S. A. Montzka, M. O. Battle, M. B. Williams, Warren J. De Bruyn, J. H. Butler, K. R. Verhulst, C. Tatum, B. K. Gun, D. A. Plotkin, B. D. Hall, Eric S. Saltzman

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

In this study, we report measurements of CFC-12 (CCl2F2) in firn air and in air extracted from shallow ice cores from three Antarctic sites. The firn air data are consistent with the known atmospheric history of CFC-12. In contrast, some of the ice core samples collected near the firn-ice transition exhibit anomalously high CFC-12 levels. Together, the ice core and firn air data provide evidence for the presence of modern air entrapped in the shallow ice core samples that likely contained open pores at the time of collection. We propose that this is due to closure of the open pores ...


Trace Metal Biogeochemistry In The Western North Pacific, Peter Lynn Morton 2010 Old Dominion University

Trace Metal Biogeochemistry In The Western North Pacific, Peter Lynn Morton

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

Dissolved and suspended particulate samples collected during the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission 2002 Contaminant Baseline Survey were analyzed to determine the surface and vertical distributions of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni Zn and Pb across the western and central North Pacific.

Dissolved trace metal concentrations were measured using a novel isotope dilution-ICP-MS method after extraction over an 8-hydroxyquinoline resin column and validated through the use of the SAFe consensus reference materials. Filtered suspended particulate matter was digested using an HCl/HNO3/HF mixture and analyzed by HR-ICP-MS to obtain total particulate concentrations for the trace metals and other tracer elements such ...


Interannual Differences In Nutrient Dynamics During A Brown Tide Bloom (Aureococcus Anophagefferens) And The Interaction Of A. Anophagefferens With Heterotrophic Bacteria, George Eric Boneillo 2010 Old Dominion University

Interannual Differences In Nutrient Dynamics During A Brown Tide Bloom (Aureococcus Anophagefferens) And The Interaction Of A. Anophagefferens With Heterotrophic Bacteria, George Eric Boneillo

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

Blooms of Aureococcus anophagefferens (Brown Tides) in Chincoteague Bay were observed over a six-year period (2002–2007) during which interannual differences in nitrogen and carbon uptake and concentrations of dissolved constituents were compared at two sites, one in Maryland and the other in Virginia. Overall, I observed an increase in bloom intensity and duration over time. No single nitrogen compound was responsible for fueling blooms. Instead, A. anophagefferens demonstrated the ability to use a wide range of nitrogen compounds to meet its nutritional demands. Results show that NO3-, NH4+, urea, and DFAA were taken up simultaneously during blooms ...


Concentrations, Distributions And Chemical Speciation Of Zinc And Cadmium In The Equatorial And South Atlantic Ocean, Gonzalo G. Carrasco 2010 Old Dominion University

Concentrations, Distributions And Chemical Speciation Of Zinc And Cadmium In The Equatorial And South Atlantic Ocean, Gonzalo G. Carrasco

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

Certain trace metals are important cofactors in enzymatic systems and are thus, essential for life in the world's oceans. Two of these metals, Zn and Cd, are required by phytoplankton for enzymes that facilitate carbon uptake (Morel and Price, 2003). In seawater the total dissolved concentration of a metal (MTD) is distributed among different chemical species and this chemical speciation dictates a metal's bioavailability. Strong organic metal-binding ligands greatly affect the metal's chemical speciation in the ocean, potentially limiting phytoplankton growth by reducing the concentrations of Zn2+ and Cd2+, the bioavailable forms of these two ...


Modeling The Impacts Of Pulsed Riverine Inflows On Hydrodynamics And Water Quality In The Barataria Bay Estuary, Anindita Das 2010 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Modeling The Impacts Of Pulsed Riverine Inflows On Hydrodynamics And Water Quality In The Barataria Bay Estuary, Anindita Das

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Eutrophication and coastal wetland loss are the major environmental problems affecting estuaries around the world. In Louisiana, controlled diversions of the Mississippi River water back into coastal wetlands are thought to be an important engineering solution that could reverse coastal land loss. There are concerns, however, that freshwater diversions may increase nutrient inputs and create severe eutrophication problems in estuaries and wetlands adjacent to the diversion sites. My dissertation research concerns modeling the effects of the observed and hypothetical freshwater diversion discharges on the hydrodynamics, salinity and water quality in the Barataria estuary, a deltaic estuary in south Louisiana. This ...


Estuarine Phytoplankton Response To Annual And Manipulated River Inputs, Jessica Czubakowski 2010 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Estuarine Phytoplankton Response To Annual And Manipulated River Inputs, Jessica Czubakowski

LSU Master's Theses

River water entering estuaries affects the physical and chemical environment at irregular intervals creating a highly dynamic aquatic habitat. Phytoplankton are important primary producers in estuaries that respond quickly to their changing environment. Since 1991, Breton Sound estuary in southeast Louisiana has been directly influenced by Mississippi River water through the Caernarvon Freshwater Diversion structure. Over a 12 month period, the phytoplankton response was examined, in terms of biomass, abundance, community composition and potential phycotoxin production to seasonal changes in river input into the estuary. Within this 12 month period, a short pulse study was also carried out to examine ...


Patterns Of Habitat Suitability And Abundance Trends Of Current And Candidate Coastal Fish Species Of Concern In Louisiana, Elin Rose Sandy 2010 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Patterns Of Habitat Suitability And Abundance Trends Of Current And Candidate Coastal Fish Species Of Concern In Louisiana, Elin Rose Sandy

LSU Master's Theses

Louisiana’s estuaries and coastal waters play an important role in providing habitat for several estuarine-dependent species and also serve as a nursery for the juveniles of several other species. The current rate of land loss in Louisiana and the decline of estuarine-dependent species force us to improve our understanding of the recruitment of these species into Louisiana’s estuaries. Habitat suitabilities were developed for several fish species of concern (SOC) and other estuarine-dependent species across three environmental gradients, abundance patterns were developed for seasons, five-year intervals, and coastal study areas (CSAs). Chi-square analyses and ANOVAs were then used to ...


Integration Of Paleotempestology With Coastal Risk And Vulnerability Assessment: Case Studies From The Dominican Republic And Nicaragua, Devyani Kar 2010 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Integration Of Paleotempestology With Coastal Risk And Vulnerability Assessment: Case Studies From The Dominican Republic And Nicaragua, Devyani Kar

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Hurricanes account for a significant portion of damages, injuries, and fatalities in the Caribbean. The Dominican Republic has had 3 major hurricane strikes in this century resulting in loss of lives for thousands of people and billions of US $ in economic loss. Major hurricanes had been relatively infrequent in north-eastern Nicaragua’s modern history until Hurricane Felix, a Category 5 storm, made landfall in the north-east in 2007. It caused 130 confirmed deaths and brought devastation to many villages. These events highlight a need for re-evaluation of hurricane risk based on a more comprehensive and long-term hurricane history. Using paleotempestological ...


The Effects Of Salinity On Nitrogen Cycling In Wetland Soils And Sediments Of The Breton Sound Estuary, La, Brett Whitfield Marks 2010 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

The Effects Of Salinity On Nitrogen Cycling In Wetland Soils And Sediments Of The Breton Sound Estuary, La, Brett Whitfield Marks

LSU Master's Theses

Wetlands in the coastal zone are slowly becoming more saline under rising sea level over the long-term. However, there are a number of events in the coastal environment which lead to quick and temporary changes in the salinity of coastal marshes. Seawater driven inland from storm surge can significantly increase salinity in oligohaline wetlands over the short-term (weeks). Recent large-scale efforts to restore coastal wetlands in Louisiana have utilized Mississippi River surface water diversions to re-introduce freshwater into coastal marshes, decreasing the salinity of coastal marshes. We examined the effect of salinity changes on two important nitrogen cycling processes, potential ...


Geological Analysis And Hydrodynamic Modeling Of Tropical Cyclone Influence: Northeastern Gulf Of Mexico Inner Shelf, Amy Lynn Spaziani 2010 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Geological Analysis And Hydrodynamic Modeling Of Tropical Cyclone Influence: Northeastern Gulf Of Mexico Inner Shelf, Amy Lynn Spaziani

LSU Master's Theses

The need to characterize offshore resources as borrow areas for beach restoration has initiated interest of the impact of storms to the inner continental shelf. While numerous studies have investigated the response of coastal systems to major storms, very little is known about the geological response of inner shelves to frequent and intense storms. This approach integrated a geological study with modeling of hydrodynamics during recent storms, in order to relate trends in the geological signature to physical forcing mechanisms during storms. First, waves and hydrodynamic conditions were modeled during two major recent storms that made landfall in the northeastern ...


Hepatotoxic Cyanobacterial Blooms In Louisiana's Estuaries: Analysis Of Risk To Blue Crab (Callinectes Sapidus) Following Exposure To Microcystins, Ana Cristina Garcia 2010 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Hepatotoxic Cyanobacterial Blooms In Louisiana's Estuaries: Analysis Of Risk To Blue Crab (Callinectes Sapidus) Following Exposure To Microcystins, Ana Cristina Garcia

LSU Master's Theses

The most common toxins detected following freshwater harmful algal blooms are microcystins, a group of hepatotoxins produced by cyanobacteria (e.g., Microcystis and Anabaena spp.). Preference for filter-feeding prey, including bivalves, makes the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, vulnerable to microcystin contamination and makes the commercially important crab a potential vector of microcystins. I used a combination of field and laboratory studies to determine blue crab vulnerability to microcystin contamination and consequent impacts on crab physiology. Samples collected from a hyper-eutrophic freshwater lake, Lac des Allemands, Louisiana, were analyzed for cyanobacterial abundances and microcystins in surface water and blue crabs using ...


Analysis And Modeling Of Hurricane Impacts On A Coastal Louisiana Lake Bottom, Angelina Freeman 2010 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Analysis And Modeling Of Hurricane Impacts On A Coastal Louisiana Lake Bottom, Angelina Freeman

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Tropical cyclone impacts on wetland, terrestrial, and shelf systems have been previously studied and reasonably delineated, but little is known about the response of coastal lakes to storm events. For the first time, tropical cyclone impacts on a shallow coastal lake in the Louisiana coastal plain have been studied using direct lines of evidence and numerical modeling. Using side-scan sonar, CHIRP subbottom and echo sounder bathymetric profiles, the lake bottom and shallow subsurface of Sister Lake was imaged pre- and post-Hurricanes Katrina and Rita to provide a geologic framework for assessing the effects of these storms. Box cores were collected ...


Pharmaceutical Compounds In Treatment Wetlands: Potential Removal And Effects On Microbial Processes, Jeremy Landon Conkle 2010 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Pharmaceutical Compounds In Treatment Wetlands: Potential Removal And Effects On Microbial Processes, Jeremy Landon Conkle

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

active compounds (PhACs) have been detected in the aquatic environment as a result of loading from various sources. In Louisiana, USA, many municipalities treat wastewater using natural systems, such as lagoons and wetlands, rather than using conventional wastewater treatment technologies and may discharge PhACs into the environment. These treatment systems are not designed to remove PhACs from wastewater, nor is it currently a regulatory requirement. Research on the fate of PhACs in the environment is needed to understand impacts on Louisiana’s important coastal system. Wastewater sampling for PhACs at the Mandeville, LA wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) determined that this ...


The Effects Of A Freshwater Diversion Of Nekton Species Biomass Distributions, Food Web Pathways, And Community Structure In A Louisiana Estuary, Kim de Mutsert 2010 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

The Effects Of A Freshwater Diversion Of Nekton Species Biomass Distributions, Food Web Pathways, And Community Structure In A Louisiana Estuary, Kim De Mutsert

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

A current method to restore Louisiana’s estuaries includes reintroducing freshwater and sediments to wetlands that are hydrologically isolated from the Mississippi River due to the construction of levees. In this dissertation, I examined effects of the second largest freshwater diversion in Louisiana, the Caernarvon Freshwater Diversion (CFD), on estuarine nekton in Breton Sound. Before focusing on Breton Sound, I examined the status of nekton communities in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), and Louisiana wetlands in particular, using the mean trophic level index (MTLI). I demonstrated that commercial targeting caused the previously reported low and declining MTLI from the ...


Physical And Microbial Responses Of Dredged Sediment To Two-Soil-Stabilizing Amendments, Xanthan Gum And Guar Gum, For Use In Coastal Wetland Restoration, Lauren Land 2010 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Physical And Microbial Responses Of Dredged Sediment To Two-Soil-Stabilizing Amendments, Xanthan Gum And Guar Gum, For Use In Coastal Wetland Restoration, Lauren Land

LSU Master's Theses

In wetland sediments, organic matter provides a substrate for microbial activity. During metabolism, microbes release extracellular polymeric substances, which accumulate to bind soil particles. A similar concept can be implemented on a large scale to reduce wetland loss in Louisiana. Hypothetically, hydraulically dredged sediment can be amended with polymer and deposited on subsiding marshes as a restoration method where the polymer increases sediment stabilization until plants become established. This lab study focused on investigating the influence of natural polymer additions on particle aggregation to increase sediment stability and the effects on microbial activity. Sediments from three sites (i.e. freshwater ...


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