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Climatological Changes: Meteorological Parameters Affecting The Spatial Redistribution Of U.S. Tornadoes, Ashley Dicks 2019 Purdue University

Climatological Changes: Meteorological Parameters Affecting The Spatial Redistribution Of U.S. Tornadoes, Ashley Dicks

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Climatological changes in the environments of key meteorological parameters that affect Significant Tornado Days (SigTorDs) have been determined for two active tornado regions defined as Box α and Box β, centered, respectively, over Oklahoma and Alabama and their respective environs. The North American Regional Reanalysis data was selected for 1980–2013, providing two successive 17-year periods corresponding to the last 34 years of previous research findings that focused on the aforementioned regions. This data record also corresponds to an increasing surface air temperature trend for the continental United States. Period I (1980–1996) and Period II (1997–2013) defined the ...


An Observational Study Of Winter Weather-Related Traffic Crashes In Nebraska, Jacob Petr 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

An Observational Study Of Winter Weather-Related Traffic Crashes In Nebraska, Jacob Petr

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

The responsibilities of meteorologists have evolved over time from simply providing a forecast to needing to also understand how those predictions will impact society and then communicating those risks in a clear, concise, and consistent manner. Increased motor vehicle crash numbers due to adverse weather conditions represent one such impact worthy of further study. Snowfall, in particular, significantly increases the overall risk of a crash, which can result in extensive property damage, severe injuries, and even loss of life.This project seeks to supplement traffic crash information in Nebraska by assessing how snowfall impacts crashes across the state. Crash data ...


Analysis Of Hurricane Track Forecast Accuracy During The 2018 Season, Jonathan D. Unger 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Analysis Of Hurricane Track Forecast Accuracy During The 2018 Season, Jonathan D. Unger

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Hurricane track forecasting has become more accurate in recent years due to technological advances in modeling methods. However, due to the complex nature of the relationship between oceanic and atmospheric variables and hurricane tracks, noteworthy errors in track prediction, especially for predictions several days into the future, still remain. In this study, two different methods of forecasting hurricane tracks are compared. Using the four United States landfalling hurricanes of the 2018 season as a sample, the official forecast tracks published by the National Hurricane Center (NHC) and hypothetical tracks based purely on climatology were mapped simultaneously with the preliminary best ...


Future Context For Thermal Comfort: Impact Of A Changing Climate On Energy Demand And Human Thermal Comfort, Bryan Mann, Ulrike Passe, Shannon Rabideau, Eugene S. Takle 2019 Iowa State University

Future Context For Thermal Comfort: Impact Of A Changing Climate On Energy Demand And Human Thermal Comfort, Bryan Mann, Ulrike Passe, Shannon Rabideau, Eugene S. Takle

Eugene Takle

Typical climate conditions for the 20th century may not provide the full range of temperature, precipitation and humidity extremes that likely will be encountered for the built environment of the 21st century. It is important to understand the impact of changing climate on building energy consumption, building design and thermal comfort in existing buildings. Therefore sensitivity studies were conducted for an exemplary location: Mason City Iowa. Based on future scenario climates for the period 2040-2070 produced by eight global/regional climate models, future typical meteorological year (FTMY) data sets were developed for this location and basic energy calculations were conducted ...


Investigation Of Grace-Derived Information On Forest Drought Stress Across The Contiguous Us, Beichen Zhang 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Investigation Of Grace-Derived Information On Forest Drought Stress Across The Contiguous Us, Beichen Zhang

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

This research derives z-score monthly groundwater storage (GWS) anomalies and z-score monthly root zone soil moisture (RZSM) anomalies from products of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Data Assimilation (GRACE-DA). Z-score monthly GWS and RZSM anomalies are compared to two drought indicators: Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) to investigate the usefulness of GRACE-DA information to detect drought conditions at tree-ring sites. This study also compares z-score monthly GWS and RZSM anomalies with the Tree Ring Standardized Growth Index (TRSGI) that is resampled by bootstrapping to investigate the capability of monitoring forest drought stress. Finally, this research uses ...


Application Of The Optimal Estimation Method (Oem) To Retrieve Relative Humidity From Raman Lidar Backscatter Measurements., Shayamila N. Mahagammulla Gamage, Robert Sica, Alexander Haefele 2019 Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada

Application Of The Optimal Estimation Method (Oem) To Retrieve Relative Humidity From Raman Lidar Backscatter Measurements., Shayamila N. Mahagammulla Gamage, Robert Sica, Alexander Haefele

Western Research Forum

Accurate measurements of relative humidity (RH) vertical profiles in the atmosphere is important for understanding the earth's weather and the climate system. RH represent the current state of the water vapor in the atmosphere with respect to the ambient air related to saturation. Even minor changes of the RH in the lower atmosphere has a large impact of the global circulation and cloud formation. Due to its high variability RH measurements in the lower atmosphere is significantly challenging. Raman lidar is one of the potential tools that can provide vertical profiles of RH. Typically, temperature and water vapor mixing ...


Climate Change Impacts On Winter Wheat Yield In Northern China, Xiu Geng, Fang Wang, Wei Ren, Zhixin Hao 2019 Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

Climate Change Impacts On Winter Wheat Yield In Northern China, Xiu Geng, Fang Wang, Wei Ren, Zhixin Hao

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Exploring the impacts of climate change on agriculture is one of important topics with respect to climate change. We quantitatively examined the impacts of climate change on winter wheat yield in Northern China using the Cobb–Douglas production function. Utilizing time-series data of agricultural production and meteorological observations from 1981 to 2016, the impacts of climatic factors on wheat production were assessed. It was found that the contribution of climatic factors to winter wheat yield per unit area (WYPA) was 0.762–1.921% in absolute terms. Growing season average temperature (GSAT) had a negative impact on WYPA for the ...


Comparison Of Simulations Of Updraft Mass Fluxes And Their Response To Increasing Aerosol Concentration Between A Bin Scheme And A Bulk Scheme In A Deep-Convective Cloud System, Seoung Soo Lee, Chang-Hoon Jung, Sen Chiao, Junshik Um, Yong-Sang Choi, Won Jun Choi 2019 University of Maryland at College Park

Comparison Of Simulations Of Updraft Mass Fluxes And Their Response To Increasing Aerosol Concentration Between A Bin Scheme And A Bulk Scheme In A Deep-Convective Cloud System, Seoung Soo Lee, Chang-Hoon Jung, Sen Chiao, Junshik Um, Yong-Sang Choi, Won Jun Choi

Faculty Publications

Key microphysical processes whose parameterizations have substantial impacts on the simulation of updraft mass fluxes and their response to aerosol are investigated in this study. For this investigation, comparisons of these parameterizations are made between a bin scheme and a bulk scheme. These comparisons show that the differences in the prediction of cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) between the two schemes determine whether aerosol-induced invigoration of updrafts or convection occurs. While the CDNC prediction leads to aerosol-induced invigoration of updrafts and an associated 20% increase in the peak value of the updraft-mass-flux vertical profile in the bin scheme, it leads ...


Comparison Of Simulations Of Updraft Mass Fluxes And Their Response To Increasing Aerosol Concentration Between A Bin Scheme And A Bulk Scheme In A Deep-Convective Cloud System, Seoung Soo Lee, Chang-Hoon Jung, Sen Chiao, Junshik Um, Yong-Sang Choi, Won Jun Choi 2019 University of Maryland at College Park

Comparison Of Simulations Of Updraft Mass Fluxes And Their Response To Increasing Aerosol Concentration Between A Bin Scheme And A Bulk Scheme In A Deep-Convective Cloud System, Seoung Soo Lee, Chang-Hoon Jung, Sen Chiao, Junshik Um, Yong-Sang Choi, Won Jun Choi

Sen Chiao

Key microphysical processes whose parameterizations have substantial impacts on the simulation of updraft mass fluxes and their response to aerosol are investigated in this study. For this investigation, comparisons of these parameterizations are made between a bin scheme and a bulk scheme. These comparisons show that the differences in the prediction of cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) between the two schemes determine whether aerosol-induced invigoration of updrafts or convection occurs. While the CDNC prediction leads to aerosol-induced invigoration of updrafts and an associated 20% increase in the peak value of the updraft-mass-flux vertical profile in the bin scheme, it leads ...


Indexing: Narrating Interdisciplinary Connections In The Classroom, Jack J. Mino, Elizabeth Trobaugh, Steven Winters, James Dutcher 2019 Holyoke Community College

Indexing: Narrating Interdisciplinary Connections In The Classroom, Jack J. Mino, Elizabeth Trobaugh, Steven Winters, James Dutcher

Learning Communities Research and Practice

An integrative tool that we have piloted in two LCs, the interdisciplinary index, is an integrative template that students use to make connections between disciplines. In the learning community, “Cli-Fi: Stories and Science of the Coming Climate Apocalypse,” faculty developed the Climate-Change Stress Index (CCSI) that students used to identify evidence of climate-change impacts in the fictional setting of each novel they read. In another learning community, “All things Connect: Living with Nature in Mind,” students again used an index consisting Ecopsychology principles to describe, explain, and/or evaluate how these principles informed excerpts from environmental literature. We present a ...


Editorial: Special Issue: Safety & Efficiency Of Civil Aviation: Selected Papers From The World Conferences Of The Air Transport Research Society And The World Conference On Transport Society - 2013, Paul Hooper, Ian Douglas, Chunyan Yu, Stefano Paleari 2019 University of New South Wales

Editorial: Special Issue: Safety & Efficiency Of Civil Aviation: Selected Papers From The World Conferences Of The Air Transport Research Society And The World Conference On Transport Society - 2013, Paul Hooper, Ian Douglas, Chunyan Yu, Stefano Paleari

Chunyan Yu

The Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) is a Special Interest Group (SIG) of the World Conference on Transport Research Society (WCTRS). The ATRS annual World Conference was held at the University of Bergamo, Bergamo, Italy on 26-29 June 2013 and it attracted 266 papers from 37 countries. Also, the WCTRS triennial World Conference was held on 15- 18 July at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during which the ATRS organised several sessions devoted to air transport topics. This special issue of the Journal of Air Transport Studies has drawn upon all of this material to present four papers that promote improvements ...


Climatology And Change Of Extreme Precipitation Events In Taiwan Based On Weather Types, Yi-chao Wu, Shih-Yu (Simon) Wang, Yi-Chiang Yu, Chu-Ying Kung, An-Hsiang Wang, Sebastian A. Los, Wan-Ru Huang 2019 National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction

Climatology And Change Of Extreme Precipitation Events In Taiwan Based On Weather Types, Yi-Chao Wu, Shih-Yu (Simon) Wang, Yi-Chiang Yu, Chu-Ying Kung, An-Hsiang Wang, Sebastian A. Los, Wan-Ru Huang

Plants, Soils, and Climate Faculty Publications

Taiwan's most significant natural hazards are caused by hydrological extremes resulting from excessive precipitation. The threat of extreme precipitation is posed by several different types of weather patterns that affect Taiwan. This study examined the bi‐decadal changes in rainfall by defining an extreme precipitation occurrence (EPO) for a range of event durations from 1 to 24 hr. Three major weather types affecting EPO in Taiwan were identified from 1993 to 2015: the front type consisting of either a frontal zone or convective systems developing with an apparent Meiyu cloudband, diurnal rainfall events when no apparent synoptic features are ...


Intercomparison Of Small Unmanned Aircraft System (Suas) Measurements For Atmospheric Science During The Lapse-Rate Campaign, Lindsay Barbieri, Stephan T. Kral, Sean C. C. Bailey, Amy E. Frazier, Jamey D. Jacob, Joachim Reuder, David Brus, Phillip B. Chilson, Christopher Crick, Carrick Detweiler, Abhiram Doddi, Jack Elston, Hosein Foroutan, Javier González-Rocha, Brian R. Greene, Marcelo I. Guzman, Adam L. Houston, Ashraful Islam, Osku Kemppinen, Dale Lawrence, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Shane D. Ross, Michael P. Sama, David G. Schmale III, Travis J. Schuyler, Ajay Shankar, Suzanne W. Smith, Sean Waugh, Cory Dixon, Steve Borenstein, Gijs de Boer 2019 University of Vermont

Intercomparison Of Small Unmanned Aircraft System (Suas) Measurements For Atmospheric Science During The Lapse-Rate Campaign, Lindsay Barbieri, Stephan T. Kral, Sean C. C. Bailey, Amy E. Frazier, Jamey D. Jacob, Joachim Reuder, David Brus, Phillip B. Chilson, Christopher Crick, Carrick Detweiler, Abhiram Doddi, Jack Elston, Hosein Foroutan, Javier González-Rocha, Brian R. Greene, Marcelo I. Guzman, Adam L. Houston, Ashraful Islam, Osku Kemppinen, Dale Lawrence, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Shane D. Ross, Michael P. Sama, David G. Schmale Iii, Travis J. Schuyler, Ajay Shankar, Suzanne W. Smith, Sean Waugh, Cory Dixon, Steve Borenstein, Gijs De Boer

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) are rapidly transforming atmospheric research. With the advancement of the development and application of these systems, improving knowledge of best practices for accurate measurement is critical for achieving scientific goals. We present results from an intercomparison of atmospheric measurement data from the Lower Atmospheric Process Studies at Elevation—a Remotely piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE) field campaign. We evaluate a total of 38 individual sUAS with 23 unique sensor and platform configurations using a meteorological tower for reference measurements. We assess precision, bias, and time response of sUAS measurements of temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed ...


Past, Present, And Future Arctic Climate And National/Community Risk Assessment, Jeff Auger 2019 The University of Maine

Past, Present, And Future Arctic Climate And National/Community Risk Assessment, Jeff Auger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Arctic is warming at a rate nearly double that of the global average. The enhanced rate of warming impacts weather and climate across the Northern Hemisphere. As the meridional (south to north) thermal gradient weakens, the middle-latitude westerlies are expected to slow and become “wavier” increasing heat and moisture advection to higher latitudes. A quasi-stationary ridge-trough system of the jet stream increases chances for droughts, floods, heatwaves, and cold spells. These impacts have already been observed as North American forest fires and early or extended Great Lake ice out. It is more important than ever to understand how the ...


The Dionysus Project: Classifying & Monitoring Vineyards With Satellite Remote Sensing & Image Analysis, Evelin Perez-Flores, Nicole Flores 2019 CUNY New York City College of Technology

The Dionysus Project: Classifying & Monitoring Vineyards With Satellite Remote Sensing & Image Analysis, Evelin Perez-Flores, Nicole Flores

Publications and Research

Climate change is expected to impact the wine industry by shifting suitable growing regions away from established regions and increasing the demand for freshwater supplies to maintain vineyard health. This creates challenges for maintaining vineyards since the grapevines need to be appropriately stressed to produce quality grapes for quality wine. This requires precision management of freshwater application and canopy management to produce a grape that has the appropriate concentration of flavors and sugars. Vineyards in the U.S. are typically monitored by vineyard managers at the large scale, lacking the resolution needed to identify grapevine growth at the subfield level ...


Using A Balloon-Launched Unmanned Glider To Validate Real-Time Wrf Modeling, Travis J. Schuyler, S. M. Iman Gohari, Gary Pundsack, Donald Berchoff, Marcelo I. Guzman 2019 University of Kentucky

Using A Balloon-Launched Unmanned Glider To Validate Real-Time Wrf Modeling, Travis J. Schuyler, S. M. Iman Gohari, Gary Pundsack, Donald Berchoff, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The use of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) for meteorological measurements has expanded significantly in recent years. SUAS are efficient platforms for collecting data with high resolution in both space and time, providing opportunities for enhanced atmospheric sampling. Furthermore, advances in mesoscale weather research and forecasting (WRF) modeling and graphical processing unit (GPU) computing have enabled high resolution weather modeling. In this manuscript, a balloon-launched unmanned glider, complete with a suite of sensors to measure atmospheric temperature, pressure, and relative humidity, is deployed for validation of real-time weather models. This work demonstrates the usefulness of sUAS for validating and improving ...


General Aviation Weather Encounter Case Studies, John M. Lanicci, Massoud Bazargan, Daniel Halperin, Scott Shappell, Jaclyn Baron, Rebecca Iden, Carla Hackworth, Kali Holcomb 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

General Aviation Weather Encounter Case Studies, John M. Lanicci, Massoud Bazargan, Daniel Halperin, Scott Shappell, Jaclyn Baron, Rebecca Iden, Carla Hackworth, Kali Holcomb

Scott Shappell

This study presents a compilation of 24 cases involving general aviation (GA) pilots’ weather encounters over the continental U.S. The project team interviewed pilots who had experienced a weather encounter, and we examined their backgrounds, flight experience, and weather encounter details. Results from meteorological data analysis for each weather encounter were consistent with findings of larger GA weather accident studies in terms of the types of hazards encountered and flight phase during which the encounters occurred. Investigation of pilot weather products and the sources from which they were obtained revealed a lack of uniformity of pre-flight data sources and ...


Movement Of Lifetime Maximum Intensity Locations During The North Atlantic Hurricane Season, Morgan Steckler 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Movement Of Lifetime Maximum Intensity Locations During The North Atlantic Hurricane Season, Morgan Steckler

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Where a storm reaches its lifetime maximum intensity (LMI) can be a powerful indicator of tropical cyclone intensification patterns. Any changes in this location may demonstrate how hurricanes are affected by climate change. Studies on the annual and decadal trends in LMI location have shown that the latitude where storms are reaching their LMI is shifting, but at different rates and in different directions depending on the ocean basin. In the North Atlantic, for example, LMI location seems to be moving slightly closer to the equator, especially for those storms with the greatest intensities. LMI location patterns have yet to ...


Comparison Of Terrain Effects In Divergent Versus Non-Divergent Barotropic Models, Tyler E. Green, Thomas A. Guinn 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Comparison Of Terrain Effects In Divergent Versus Non-Divergent Barotropic Models, Tyler E. Green, Thomas A. Guinn

Beyond: Undergraduate Research Journal

The effects of including terrain in divergent and non-divergent, single-level barotropic models are examined in detail using a global spectral model. The non-divergent model solves the barotropic vorticity equation, while the divergent model solves the shallow water equations. In both models, the impact of terrain is evaluated by examining the evolution of the predicted heights of a pressure surface. Four simulations with initially zonal flow were run for each model using a two-dimensional Gaussian mountain shape for terrain, with two different mean fluid depths of 5,000 m and 7,500 m, and two different peak mountain heights of 2 ...


Taking Action: A Case Study Analyzing The Deficiencies And Potential Opportunities For Improvement In The Severe Weather Warning System, Carson Meredith 2019 Western Kentucky University

Taking Action: A Case Study Analyzing The Deficiencies And Potential Opportunities For Improvement In The Severe Weather Warning System, Carson Meredith

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

The United States is one of the most prone areas in the world to experience severe weather. A warning system operated by the National Weather Service alerts the public of the dangers of severe weather. The purpose of this project is to analyze the effectiveness of the National Weather Service warning system across Kentucky and Tennessee. A case study is presented analyzing six severe weather events in areas warned by the National Weather Service offices in Louisville, Kentucky and Nashville, Tennessee in 2018. Factors reviewed include effectiveness in issuing timely warnings, verification (i.e., whether or not severe weather actually ...


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