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Estimating River Flows Across Basins Using Water Isotopes, Lillian McGill, Ashley E. Steel, Renee J. Brooks 2018 Univ. of Washington, United States

Estimating River Flows Across Basins Using Water Isotopes, Lillian Mcgill, Ashley E. Steel, Renee J. Brooks

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Global warming is expected to dramatically alter the timing and quantity of water within the nation’s river systems; however, these impacts will be heterogeneous both within river basins and across regions. A detailed understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of water sources across river networks is therefore central to managing the impacts of climate change. Stable isotopes of water (2H:1H & 18O:16O) provide an emerging method for elucidating the contributions of varying water sources to rivers. Because the stable isotope composition of precipitation varies geographically, variation in the stable isotope composition of river water indicates the volume-weighted ...


Application Of Salish Sea Model: Water Quality Improvement Through Anthropogenic Nutrient Reductions, Anise Ahmed 2018 Washington State Dept. of Ecology, United States

Application Of Salish Sea Model: Water Quality Improvement Through Anthropogenic Nutrient Reductions, Anise Ahmed

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Salish Sea includes a network of coastal waterways spanning the southwest British Columbia (Canada) and northwest Washington State (USA) and includes the major waterbodies, the Strait of Georgia, the Strait of Juan de Fuca and Puget Sound. The Salish Sea Model was developed by PNNL in cooperation with Ecology based on the unstructured FVCOM model for hydrodynamics and the CE-QUAL-ICM model for water quality. The model is forced by river and wastewater inflows, tides, wind and solar radiation. The land based freshwater inputs include almost 100 wastewater plants (municipal and industrial) as well as another 100 or so watershed inflows ...


Pcb And Pbde Levels In Southern And Northern Resident Killer Whales: Update On Contaminant Levels And Related Health Effects, Marie Noel, Gina Ylitalo, Brad Hanson, Jared Towers, Peter Ross 2018 Ocean Wise, Canada

Pcb And Pbde Levels In Southern And Northern Resident Killer Whales: Update On Contaminant Levels And Related Health Effects, Marie Noel, Gina Ylitalo, Brad Hanson, Jared Towers, Peter Ross

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Salish Sea’s killer whale populations are among the most contaminated marine mammals in the world and face risks related to the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related contaminants such as polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). While PCBs have long been banned, they continue to present toxic risks to marine mammals, along with a number of other, emerging persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) contaminants. Since PBTs have been identified as a threat to the recovery of resident killer whale populations under the auspices of the US Endangered Species Act and the Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA), documenting the presence, trends ...


Monitoring And Adaptation Management Of Revegetation In The Former Elwha Reservoirs, Joshua Chenoweth, Mike McHenry 2018 Olympic National Park, United States

Monitoring And Adaptation Management Of Revegetation In The Former Elwha Reservoirs, Joshua Chenoweth, Mike Mchenry

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Dam removal on the Elwha River exposed over 280 hectares of valley slope, terrace, and floodplain landforms covered in millions of cubic meters of sediments deposited before and during dam removal. These sediments are either extremely coarse in texture (sands, gravels and cobbles) or very fine (silt and clay) and range in depth from 0.5 to 20 meters. This unprecedented condition dictated an adaptive management approach to revegetation. A seven-year revegetation plan that included over 90 permanent plots monitored annually was implemented to provide management with insight into natural and managed revegetation progress in these distinctly different sediment surfaces ...


Reanalysis Of Continuous Shellfish Monitoring Data In Pursuit Of Temporal And Spatial Patterns Of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins In The Puget Sound/Salish Sea, Margaret L. Taylor, Erika McPhee-Shaw, Stephanie K. Moore, Cheryl Greengrove 2018 Stillaguamish Tribe, United States

Reanalysis Of Continuous Shellfish Monitoring Data In Pursuit Of Temporal And Spatial Patterns Of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins In The Puget Sound/Salish Sea, Margaret L. Taylor, Erika Mcphee-Shaw, Stephanie K. Moore, Cheryl Greengrove

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are of growing concern on the West Coast of North America. The dinoflagellate Alexandrium catanella is known to produce toxins that have the potential to concentrate in shellfish and, when consumed by humans or marine mammals, may result in Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) leading to illness or death. In Puget Sound, the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) collects and tests shellfish samples to protect the health and safety of shellfish consumers as well as the livelihood of the extensive local shellfish industry. Such data have been collected since the 1950s. We analyze data from 2003 ...


Evaluating Anthropogenic Threats To Endangered Killer Whales To Inform Effective Recovery Plans, Robert Lacy, Rob Williams, Erin Ashe, Chris Clark, Ken C. Balcomb, Lauren Brent, Daren Croft, Deborah Giles, Paul C. Paquet, Misty MacDuffee 2018 Chicago Zoological Society, United States

Evaluating Anthropogenic Threats To Endangered Killer Whales To Inform Effective Recovery Plans, Robert Lacy, Rob Williams, Erin Ashe, Chris Clark, Ken C. Balcomb, Lauren Brent, Daren Croft, Deborah Giles, Paul C. Paquet, Misty Macduffee

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Understanding cumulative effects of multiple threats is key to guiding effective management to conserve endangered species. The critically endangered, Southern Resident killer whale population of the northeastern Pacific Ocean provides a data-rich case to explore anthropogenic threats on population viability. Primary threats include: limitation of preferred prey, Chinook salmon; anthropogenic noise and disturbance, which reduce foraging efficiency; and high levels of stored contaminants, including PCBs. We constructed a population viability analysis to explore possible demographic trajectories and the relative importance of anthropogenic stressors. The population is fragile, with no growth projected under current conditions, and decline expected if new or ...


Geomorphic Challenges To Restoring Puget Sound Beaches, Hugh Shipman 2018 Washington State Dept. of Ecology, United States

Geomorphic Challenges To Restoring Puget Sound Beaches, Hugh Shipman

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Beaches constitute more than 50% of Puget Sound’s 4000 km shoreline. More than a quarter are armored or buried under fill and many others have been impacted indirectly by changes to adjacent shorelines and to sediment transport regimes. Restoring these beaches typically involves removing bulkheads and groins, excavating historic fill, replacing lost sediment, and replumbing tidal inlets and stream mouths. We often emphasize process-based restoration, but for beaches, what does this mean? Geomorphic processes operating on beaches include erosion, deposition, overwash, sediment supply and transport, stream flow, and shoreline migration. These physical processes in turn impact ecosystems by shaping ...


Boundary Bay Ambient Monitoring Program, Carrie Hightower 2018 Metro Vancouver Regional District, Canada

Boundary Bay Ambient Monitoring Program, Carrie Hightower

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Metro Vancouver Regional District’s (MVRD’s) Integrated Liquid Waste and Resource Management Plan (ILWRMP) includes a regulatory requirement to conduct ambient monitoring programs to assess, evaluate and forecast the effects of wastewater and stormwater discharges on the receiving environments. The Boundary Bay Ambient Monitoring Program (BBAMP) was initiated in 2009, in partnership with the Ministry of Environment, municipalities of Surrey, Delta and White Rock. Currently, the City of Surrey conducts monitoring of the upland fresh water conditions in tributaries and rivers that discharge into the bay while Metro Vancouver conducts marine monitoring in the bay. The fresh water and ...


River And Wastewater Effluent Nutrient Inputs Into The Salish Sea Model, Teizeen Mohamedali, Anise Ahmed, Sheelagh McCarthy 2018 Washington State Dept. of Ecology, United States

River And Wastewater Effluent Nutrient Inputs Into The Salish Sea Model, Teizeen Mohamedali, Anise Ahmed, Sheelagh Mccarthy

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The Salish Sea Model was developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratories in collaboration with the Washington State Department of Ecology. The model is being used to evaluate the relative effects of human nutrient inputs and climate influences on the occurrence of low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels throughout the Salish Sea, with a focus on evaluating water quality in Puget Sound. Developing an inventory of point and nonpoint source nutrient inputs entering the Salish Sea is essential to the model’s development. This presentation will present some significant updates to nutrient inputs developed for the Salish Sea Model from wastewater treatment ...


River Otters Of The Green-Duwamish: Biomonitors Of Ecological Health, Michelle Wainstein, Fred Koontz, Bobbi Miller, Gina Ylitalo, Bernadita Anulacion, Daryle Boyd, Sandra O’Neill, Philippe Thomas, Cornelya Klutsch 2018 Woodland Park Zoo, United States

River Otters Of The Green-Duwamish: Biomonitors Of Ecological Health, Michelle Wainstein, Fred Koontz, Bobbi Miller, Gina Ylitalo, Bernadita Anulacion, Daryle Boyd, Sandra O’Neill, Philippe Thomas, Cornelya Klutsch

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

River otters (Lontra canadensis) are apex predators that play an important role in aquatic ecosystems. They accumulate contaminants via their diet of fish and invertebrates, potentially serving as biomonitors of watershed health. In summer and fall 2016, we collected 33 otter scats from sites along the Green-Duwamish River, ranging from river miles 0-54. River miles 0-5 represent the Lower Duwamish Waterway (LDW), a U.S. Superfund site slated for a 17-year remediation. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at sites in the LDW were 9.1 and 19.3 mg/kg (geometric means, lipid weight) - above the reported threshold value of ...


Planning, Implementation, And Monitoring Pacific Salmonid Recovery Following The Removal Of Two Hydroelectric Dams On Washington's Elwha River, Roger Peters, Jeff Duda, George Pess, Martin Liermann, Sam Brenkman, Pat Crain, Brian Winter, Mike McHenry, Joe Anderson, Tim Randle 2018 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, United States

Planning, Implementation, And Monitoring Pacific Salmonid Recovery Following The Removal Of Two Hydroelectric Dams On Washington's Elwha River, Roger Peters, Jeff Duda, George Pess, Martin Liermann, Sam Brenkman, Pat Crain, Brian Winter, Mike Mchenry, Joe Anderson, Tim Randle

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The removal of Elwha and Glines Canyon dams on the Elwha River is the largest existing dam removal project in the United States. Project planning, implementation, and monitoring have occurred over 30 years and has required diverse technical expertise. Because of the size and nature of the project—two high-head dams releasing massive amounts of sediment into the river, estuary, and nearshore ecosystem—the project was unprecedented and required a great deal of technical expertise to plan, execute, and monitor. The relative success of this project required effective collaboration among individuals and organizations with varying missions. Individuals with diverse technical ...


Comparison Of Alexandrium Spp. Surface Sediment Cyst Maps From Quartermaster Harbor In 2007 And 2017, Cheryl Greengrove, Julie Masura, Thanh-Thuy Nguyen, Mitchell Schatz 2018 Univ. of Washington Tacoma, United States

Comparison Of Alexandrium Spp. Surface Sediment Cyst Maps From Quartermaster Harbor In 2007 And 2017, Cheryl Greengrove, Julie Masura, Thanh-Thuy Nguyen, Mitchell Schatz

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Quartermaster Harbor (QMH), in central Puget Sound, has historically been a hotspot for the occurrence of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp. and associated summer shellfish bed closures. Alexandrium spp. overwinters as cysts in the sediment and germinates into swimming vegetative cells during the summer when conditions are right. Alexandrium spp. produces neurotoxins which can be concentrated in the tissue of filter-feeding shellfish, which in turn can be fatal to humans if ingested. In 2005, the first Puget Sound wide surface sediment cyst mapping survey found QMH to have the highest concentration of Alexandrium spp. cysts in the sound. A more ...


Some Like It Hot: Using Citizen Science To Identify Marine Bird Hotspots In Puget Sound, Timothy Jones, Scott Pearson, Julia Parrish, Toby Ross, Peter Hodum, Eric Ward, Jennifer Lang, Adam Sedgley 2018 Univ. of Washington, United States

Some Like It Hot: Using Citizen Science To Identify Marine Bird Hotspots In Puget Sound, Timothy Jones, Scott Pearson, Julia Parrish, Toby Ross, Peter Hodum, Eric Ward, Jennifer Lang, Adam Sedgley

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Puget Sound, situated in the southern portion of the Salish Sea, supports approximately 172 marine bird species that face a multitude of threats, ranging from chronic oiling to entanglement in derelict fishing gear. As local population numbers shift due to both intrinsic and extrinsic forcing (e.g., on the breeding grounds), understanding the pattern of species' use of habitats and locations across the Sound can inform conservation planning. Using data collected by the Puget Sound Seabird Survey (PSSS) - a citizen science program that collects information on the abundance and distribution of marine birds in the nearshore environment throughout Puget Sound ...


Sightings Of Southern Resident Killer Whales In The Salish Sea 1976-2014, Shawn Larson, Jennifer Olsen, Richard Osborne 2018 Whale Museum, United States

Sightings Of Southern Resident Killer Whales In The Salish Sea 1976-2014, Shawn Larson, Jennifer Olsen, Richard Osborne

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Southern Resident Killer Whales (SRKWs) or orcas, Orcinus orca, are resident year round in the Salish Sea, the inland waterways of Washington State and Southern British Columbia. The Whale Museum (TWM) has been collecting opportunistic sightings reports on SRKWs since 1976 with a goal of providing managers and regulatory agencies with reliable spatial data on SRKWs. Information in this database comes from five identified killer whale sighting sources and is systematically evaluated for accuracy before integration into the data set. To date, TWM sighting database has documented a total of 83,428 SRKW sightings in the Salish Sea. Sightings are ...


Introduction To Challenges And Solutions For Shoreline Armor Removal And Design Of Soft Shore Protection, Jessica Cote, Kathryn Ketteridge 2018 Confluence Environmental Co., United States

Introduction To Challenges And Solutions For Shoreline Armor Removal And Design Of Soft Shore Protection, Jessica Cote, Kathryn Ketteridge

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Along coastlines all over the world, land use development has created a need for holding the shoreline in a static position or at least minimizing the dynamic movement of the shoreline. Intense development along the shorelines of the Salish Sea from the 1950s to the 1970s was conducted with limited regulatory oversight or understanding of the cumulative impacts that housing, transportation corridors and other infrastructure would have on the marine environment. Over the last couple of decades it has become widely understood that the practice of using hard armor (timber walls, concrete walls and rockeries) to stabilize shorelines has degraded ...


3d Hydrodynamic Modeling Of Lower Fraser River, Shaheli Masoom, Li Gu 2018 Metro Vancouver, Canada

3d Hydrodynamic Modeling Of Lower Fraser River, Shaheli Masoom, Li Gu

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

3-D Hydrodynamic Modelling of Lower Fraser River Shaheli Masoom and Li Gu Environmental Management and Quality Control Division, Liquid Waste Services Department, Metro Vancouver, Burnaby B.C., Canada Email: shaheli.masoom@metrovancouver.org; li.gu@metrovancouver.org Abstract Lower Fraser River, the largest fresh water inflow into the Salish Sea, receives discharges from the urban area of the Metro Vancouver region, along with treated effluent from three of Metro Vancouver Regional District’s (MVRD) wastewater treatment plants. The complex dynamics of this estuarine river plays a crucial role in the fate and effect of these liquid discharges. In particular, the ...


Sea Lice Infection Rates On Juvenile Chum Salmon In A Salish Sea Fjord With No Atlantic Salmon Net Pens, Micah Wait, James Fletcher, Adrian Tuohy 2018 Wild Fish Conservancy, United States

Sea Lice Infection Rates On Juvenile Chum Salmon In A Salish Sea Fjord With No Atlantic Salmon Net Pens, Micah Wait, James Fletcher, Adrian Tuohy

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

In 2017, Wild Fish Conservancy documented sea louse (Lepeoptheirus salmonis) infection rates on juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in the nearshore waters of Hood Canal, WA. Transmission of sea lice from the adult fish captive in salmon farms to wild outmigrating juvenile salmon has been posited as a primary impact of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) open net pen farming in the Salish Sea. Hood Canal is an isolated fjord that makes up the westernmost arm of Puget Sound. There are no open net pen Atlantic salmon farms in Hood Canal, sampling here should establish rates of sea lice infection on ...


An Overview Of The Salish Sea Model: Existence Of Reflux Mixing And Recurring Hypoxia, Tarang Khangaonkar, Adi Nugraha, Wenwei Xu, Wen Long, Laura Bianucci, Anise Ahmed, Teizeen Mohamedali, Greg Pelletier, Cristiana Figueroa-Kaminsky 2018 Pacific Northwest National Lab., United States

An Overview Of The Salish Sea Model: Existence Of Reflux Mixing And Recurring Hypoxia, Tarang Khangaonkar, Adi Nugraha, Wenwei Xu, Wen Long, Laura Bianucci, Anise Ahmed, Teizeen Mohamedali, Greg Pelletier, Cristiana Figueroa-Kaminsky

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

An improved version of a diagnostic hydrodynamic and biogeochemical model (nutrients, phytoplankton, carbon, dissolved oxygen, pH) of the Salish Sea has been developed with the ability to simulate characteristic circulation and water quality features. Notable improvements include expansion of the model domain beyond the Salish Sea, encompassing Vancouver Island and out to the continental shelf boundary. In this talk we present an overview of the model setup describing the model domain coverage, modeling framework, development of boundary conditions, and tidal, riverine, wastewater, and meteorological inputs. Ability of the model to reproduce known circulation features within the Salish Sea is highlighted ...


Uptake And Trophic Changes Of Pbdes In The Benthic Marine Food Chain, Brenda Burd, Chris Lowe, Carmen Morales, Peter Ross 2018 Ecostat Research Ltd., Canada

Uptake And Trophic Changes Of Pbdes In The Benthic Marine Food Chain, Brenda Burd, Chris Lowe, Carmen Morales, Peter Ross

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

We examine the influence of sediment factors on uptake of PBDEs into marine deposit and filter feeders, and transfer to higher trophic levels. Sediment PBDEs increase with %toc, AVS, organic flux, and fines. As a result, coarser, less organic sediments in JdF have lower [PBDEs] than the southern SoG. Sediment feeder [PBDE] variance was best explained by AVS>[PBDEs]>%TOC>OC flux. Therefore, increasing organic input and burn-down, and sediment PBDEs enhance tissue PBDEs. Dry weight PBDE accumulation (tissue/sediment) in sediment feeders decreased with increasing sediment PBDEs, resulting in tissue dilution at sediment concentrations >10,000pg/g in urban ...


Lessons From Elwha Ecosystem Restoration: Integrating Science, Policy, And Management, Pat Crain, Mike McHenry, George Pess, Roger Peters, Joseph Anderson, Sam Brenkman, Jeffrey Duda 2018 Olympic National Park, United States

Lessons From Elwha Ecosystem Restoration: Integrating Science, Policy, And Management, Pat Crain, Mike Mchenry, George Pess, Roger Peters, Joseph Anderson, Sam Brenkman, Jeffrey Duda

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

After decades of debate, planning, and environmental impact studies, the largest planned dam removal project in history was conducted on the Elwha River in Washington State, USA, from 2011 to 2014. Because this was such a unique and unprecedented project, the planning, implementation, and monitoring has occurred over 30 years and required diverse expertise across multiple stakeholders. This knowledge portfolio required that individuals and organizations with different missions collaborate effectively to ensure a successful project. The story of this river, with rugged headwaters, protected wilderness, legendary and culturally important salmon runs, and two hydroelectric dams whose placement marshaled wholesale socioeconomic ...


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