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Using Traditional Ecological Knowledge To Protect Wetlands: The Swinomish Tribe's Wetlands Cultural Assessment Project, Todd Mitchell, Nicole J. Casper 2018 Swinomish Indian Tribal Community, United States

Using Traditional Ecological Knowledge To Protect Wetlands: The Swinomish Tribe's Wetlands Cultural Assessment Project, Todd Mitchell, Nicole J. Casper

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

“Traditional” wetland physical assessment modules do not adequately identify Tribal cultural values of wetlands and thus wetlands may not be adequately protected for cultural uses. This Swinomish Wetlands Cultural Assessment Project has developed a cultural resource scoring module that can be incorporated into wetland assessments to better inform wetland protections. Local native knowledge was gathered about the traditional uses of 99 native wetland plant species. A cultural scoring matrix was developed based on the presence of traditionally used plants in several use categories including: construction, ceremonial, subsistence, medicinal, common use, plant rarity, and place of value for each wetland. The ...


Survey Of Per- And Poly-Fluoroalkyl Substances (Pfass) In Washington State Rivers And Lakes, Callie Mathieu, Melissa McCall 2018 Washington State Dept. of Ecology, United States

Survey Of Per- And Poly-Fluoroalkyl Substances (Pfass) In Washington State Rivers And Lakes, Callie Mathieu, Melissa Mccall

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of man-made chemicals used in many industrial and consumer products, such as water-, stain-, and oil-repelling coatings, and fire-fighting foams. In 2008, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) found low levels, but widespread occurrence, of PFASs in Washington State freshwater systems. To determine whether the concentrations and/or compound make up has changed following shifts in manufacturing, Ecology conducted a follow-up study in 2016 to characterize current environmental levels of PFAS contaminants. Across the state, Ecology collected surface water from 15 waterbodies, effluent from 5 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), freshwater fish ...


Taking Stock Of Avian Responses To Puget Sound Estuary Restoration: Inventory And Assessment, Trina Bayard, Marla Koberstein, Gary Slater, Todd Hass 2018 Audubon Washington, United States

Taking Stock Of Avian Responses To Puget Sound Estuary Restoration: Inventory And Assessment, Trina Bayard, Marla Koberstein, Gary Slater, Todd Hass

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Tidally-influenced estuarine habitats in the Pacific Northwest are ecologically important wintering and migratory stopover habitat for shorebirds, waterfowl and other marine birds, yet there is limited understanding of how estuarine restoration activities affect avian populations in our region. This is problematic - habitat restoration is considered an important conservation strategy in national and regional waterfowl and shorebird management plans. The Puget Sound Ecosystem Monitoring Program Marine Birds Work Group is working to address this information gap through a multi-phase inventory, assessment, and regional implementation project. Our inventory of large-scale estuary restoration projects in Puget Sound reveals that the majority of projects ...


Protection And Restoration Of Salmon Bearing Streams In Agricultural Landscapes Of The Puget Sound Basin: A Synthesis Of Approaches To Reach-Scale Planning For Eight Focus Areas, Colin Hume 2018 Washington State Dept. of Ecology, United States

Protection And Restoration Of Salmon Bearing Streams In Agricultural Landscapes Of The Puget Sound Basin: A Synthesis Of Approaches To Reach-Scale Planning For Eight Focus Areas, Colin Hume

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

In 2015 the Department of Ecology led development of a new initiative to protect and restore riparian areas on salmon bearing streams across agricultural landscapes of the Puget Sound Basin. Using Environmental Protection Agency National Estuary Program funding through the Watershed Lead Organization, the initiative solicited grant proposals from local organizations to develop reach-scale plans for river reaches that provide the strategic basis for a subsequent phase of implementation funding to acquire riparian zones from willing landowners either through conservation easement or fee-simple purchase. Grants were awarded to an array of partnerships between land trusts, Native American tribes, local governments ...


Soft Shore Protection: Lessons Learned From 20 Years Of Project Design And Implementation, Jim Johannessen, Alexis Blue, Andrea MacLennan 2018 Coastal Geologic Services, United States

Soft Shore Protection: Lessons Learned From 20 Years Of Project Design And Implementation, Jim Johannessen, Alexis Blue, Andrea Maclennan

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Hard armor structures, including bulkheads, seawalls, soldier piles, and other structures are present at 29% of Washington shores of the Salish Sea, as documented in mapping conducted by CGS for the ESRP Beach Strategies project . Hard armor adversely affects nearshore ecosystems by disrupting natural processes of sediment input and transport, reducing resiliency of down-drift coastal areas to impacts of sea level rise, and impairing essential forage fish spawning and other habitats. Soft shore protection, also referred to as sustainable shorelines or nature based solutions, allows for slowing erosion while maintaining natural processes. Soft sure protection design and implementation have received ...


Regional Approaches Using Green Stormwater Solutions: Multi-Benefit/Functional Stormwater Parks In Kitsap County, Christopher May 2018 Kitsap County Public Works, United States

Regional Approaches Using Green Stormwater Solutions: Multi-Benefit/Functional Stormwater Parks In Kitsap County, Christopher May

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Stormwater management has evolved from simple flood reduction to conventional water quality treatment to flow-control AND water-quality to the current low impact development (LID) or Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GSI) approach. Along the way, we have utilized stormwater best management practices (BMP's) at various scales, from neighborhood ponds to large regional facilities, to the small distributed BMP's that characterize the LID/GSI approach. Based on our experience in Kitsap County, we believe that a blending of approaches, both conventional and green, as well as working at multiple scales is necessary to effectively manage the impacts of our urbanizing landscape ...


First Records Of The Genus Azadinium (Dinophyceae) From Puget Sound, Washington State, Vera Trainer, Joo-Hwan Kim, Brian Bill, Nicolaus Adams, Urban Tillmann, Bernd Krock, Neil Harrington 2018 NOAA NWFSC, United States

First Records Of The Genus Azadinium (Dinophyceae) From Puget Sound, Washington State, Vera Trainer, Joo-Hwan Kim, Brian Bill, Nicolaus Adams, Urban Tillmann, Bernd Krock, Neil Harrington

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Lipophilic toxins, in particular those associated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), are an emerging threat to shellfish harvesting in Washington State. While Washington was the first state to implement the routine testing of shellfish for DSP toxins in 2012 after the occurrence DSP in Sequim Bay, WA in 2011, there continue to be occasional reports of DSP-like illnesses likely tied to the consumption of shellfish from Puget Sound. To address these illness of unknown etiology, we began a Monitoring and Event Response to Harmful Algal Blooms project in 2015 to identify whether species of the genus Azadinium were present in ...


Kukutali Preserve: Co-Managing The First Tribal-State Park In Washington, Karen Mitchell, Todd A. Mitchell 2018 Swinomish Indian Tribal Community, United States

Kukutali Preserve: Co-Managing The First Tribal-State Park In Washington, Karen Mitchell, Todd A. Mitchell

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Kukutali Preserve (Kukutali) is a unit of Deception Pass State Park and located within the Swinomish Indian Reservation near LaConner, Washington, as established by treaty in 1855. The upland area included in Kukutali was sold out of tribal ownership in 1928 and spent most of the next 82 years in private title with minimal development; as a result, Kukutali contains examples of rare, pristine habitat. Parks had long been interested in acquiring the property to preserve, and provide public recreational access to, its diverse ecosystems. SITC also had a long-standing wish to reacquire the property and restore access to its ...


Forage Fish In The Southern Salish Sea: Results Of The Midwater Acoustic Trawl Survey, Todd Sandell, Michael Burger, Adam Lindquist, Patrick Biondo, Dayv Lowry 2018 Washington Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, United States

Forage Fish In The Southern Salish Sea: Results Of The Midwater Acoustic Trawl Survey, Todd Sandell, Michael Burger, Adam Lindquist, Patrick Biondo, Dayv Lowry

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The WDFW conducted a mid-water trawl/hydroacoustic survey at 18 index reaches across the southern Salish Sea (SSS) from Olympia to the Canadian Border, and into the eastern Strait of Juan de Fuca. Sampling occurred every other month from February 2016 to February 2017 to gather hydroacoustic data paired with pelagic trawls, vertical plankton tows, and CTD casts. Although 96 different species of fish and invertebrates were captured in the trawls, nine species made up 96% of the overall catch. Catch data demonstrated that Pacific Herring, a common prey of salmon, groundfish, seabirds, and marine mammals, were the most abundant ...


The Ecosystem Approach: Recovering Rivers To Help Save The Southern Resident Killer Whales, Colleen Weiler, Deborah Giles, Regina Asmutis-Silvia 2018 Whale and Dolphin Conservation, United States

The Ecosystem Approach: Recovering Rivers To Help Save The Southern Resident Killer Whales, Colleen Weiler, Deborah Giles, Regina Asmutis-Silvia

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The “ecosystem approach” to managing habitats is of growing interest in the world of conservation biology, with the realization that recovery of protected species ultimately relies on the health of their environment. In the case of the critically endangered Southern Resident Killer Whale (SRKW) population, prey depletion is a major threat to their survival. Research has shown that the SRKWs are highly dependent on Chinook salmon; thus the restoration of Chinook throughout the U.S. and Canada Pacific region is crucial for SRKW recovery. The significant decline of salmon abundance can be attributed to habitat loss and degradation throughout their ...


Urban-Industrial Shoreline Restoration Techniques: Duwamish Waterway And Elliott Bay, George Blomberg 2018 Port of Seattle, United States

Urban-Industrial Shoreline Restoration Techniques: Duwamish Waterway And Elliott Bay, George Blomberg

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Title: Urban-industrial shoreline restoration techniques: Duwamish Waterway and Elliott Bay Seattle’s present-day Elliott Bay and south-harbor industrial area comprises approximately 5,300 acres, 80 percent of Seattle’s industrial area. This man-made landscape is enormously productive, providing approximately 225,000 regional jobs, totaling $7-9 billion in annual payroll. Seattle’s industrial environment displaced another highly productive landscape, eliminating 98 percent of native intertidal, shallow sub-tidal, and riparian fish and wildlife habitat in the former Green-Duwamish estuarine wetland and nearshore system. Working in this complex environment, the Port has restored, created or enhanced 31 acres of habitat at 16 sites ...


Light Availability Controls In The Benthic Nearshore Ecosystem Of The Elwha River, Hannah Glover, Andrea S. Ogston, Emily F. Eidam, Ian M. Miller, Stephen P. Rubin, Helen D. Berry 2018 Univ. of Washington, United States

Light Availability Controls In The Benthic Nearshore Ecosystem Of The Elwha River, Hannah Glover, Andrea S. Ogston, Emily F. Eidam, Ian M. Miller, Stephen P. Rubin, Helen D. Berry

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The Elwha River Restoration Project was the largest US dam removal project to date, both in dam height and sediment released. During dam removal in 2011–2014, ~18 Mt of sediment washed downriver, and macroalgae virtually disappeared from the adjacent nearshore ecosystem. The link between current benthic light availability and sediment delivery and transport has been investigated in order to understand conditions during dam removal. Seven instrument platforms were deployed on the 10-m isobath along a 16 km transect centered on the river mouth for seven fortnightly periods in 2016 and 2017 to monitor near-bed photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), suspended ...


Ocean Acidification Driven Changes In Ph Exposure Of Zooplankton: Projections From The Salish Sea Model, Paul McElhany, Vathsala DeSilva, Tarang Khangaonkar 2018 Northwest Fisheries Science Ctr., United States

Ocean Acidification Driven Changes In Ph Exposure Of Zooplankton: Projections From The Salish Sea Model, Paul Mcelhany, Vathsala Desilva, Tarang Khangaonkar

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The Salish Sea Model explicitly evaluates the dynamics of carbonate chemistry parameters (pH, DIC, Alkalinity) at relatively small spatial and temporal scales. These model components served as a basis for estimating the pH exposure dynamics of simulated zooplankton. Zooplankton were modeled assuming a variety of movement behaviors including passive drift with the currents, daily vertical migrations and directed movement toward food or way from unfavorable conditions. These movement behaviors capture the range of possibilities for many of the species in Salish Sea. The pH conditions from the Salish Sea Model included simulations from multiple seasons in recent years and projections ...


Recognizing And Integrating Wildlife As Elwha Restoration Agents, John McLaughlin, Kim Sager-Fradkin, Kurt Jenkins, Rebecca McCaffery, Patti Happe 2018 Western Washington Univ., United States

Recognizing And Integrating Wildlife As Elwha Restoration Agents, John Mclaughlin, Kim Sager-Fradkin, Kurt Jenkins, Rebecca Mccaffery, Patti Happe

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Ecosystem restoration involving large dam removal spans large spatial extents, long time scales, and diverse societal constituencies. Restoration success requires collaboration among partner organizations. Success also can be facilitated by integrating components and processes of the ecosystem itself in restoration planning and practice. We review early and future roles of wildlife in restoration of valleys flooded by Elwha dams, with implications for dam removals on other rivers. Detecting early wildlife responses depended on baseline inventories prior to dam removal, followed by monitoring during and after dam removal. Pre-removal studies revealed patterns of small and mid-sized mammal occupancy, bear movement, amphibian ...


Shoreline Armor Removal: Challenges And Solutions To Working With Private Property Owners, Lisa Kaufman 2018 Northwest Straits Foundation, United States

Shoreline Armor Removal: Challenges And Solutions To Working With Private Property Owners, Lisa Kaufman

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Shoreline armoring is a pressure on the nearshore ecosystem altering a variety of sediment and biological processes which in turn alter the structure and function of the nearshore ecosystem. It is also a subject that elicits an emotional response from landowners concerned about the stability of their shoreline property in the face of sea level rise and increasing storm surge. The Northwest Straits Foundation and its partners have been engaging with shoreline landowners to encourage behavior change through education, outreach, and incentives that remove or reduce the barriers for consideration of alternatives to hard armor. This presentation will highlight the ...


Harmful Algae In The Strait Of Georgia, Citizen Science Data, Svetlana Esenkulova, Isobel Pearsall 2018 Pacific Salmon Foundation, Canada

Harmful Algae In The Strait Of Georgia, Citizen Science Data, Svetlana Esenkulova, Isobel Pearsall

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The Citizen Science Program was initiated by the Pacific Salmon Foundation, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, and Ocean Networks Canada in 2015. This Program was designed to achieve oceanographic monitoring of the Strait of Georgia on temporal and spatial scale that had never been done before. Samples and measurements were taken at approximately 80 sites on a bi-monthly (or higher) frequency from February to October, 2015 to 2017. This presentation will be focused on the spatial and temporal distribution of harmful algae based on the analysis of about 5000 phytoplankton samples. Preliminary results indicate that during the sampling period in the ...


Skagit Delta Alternatives Analysis: Using Output From The Salish Sea Hydrodynamic Model To Quantify Benefits And Impacts Of Restoration Project Concepts, Jenna Friebel, Jenny Baker, Polly Hicks 2018 Washington State Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, United States

Skagit Delta Alternatives Analysis: Using Output From The Salish Sea Hydrodynamic Model To Quantify Benefits And Impacts Of Restoration Project Concepts, Jenna Friebel, Jenny Baker, Polly Hicks

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The Skagit Hydrodynamic Model Project was initiated by the Farms, Fish, and Flood Initiative (3FI) to conduct a landscape-scale alternative analysis in the Skagit River delta region. Twenty-three proposed restoration projects were assessed based on a number of quantitative indicators identified by representatives from each interest (Farm, Fish, and Flood). The study area focused on the Skagit River delta downstream of Mount Vernon, Washington. This reach of the Skagit River is tidally influenced and includes both the North Fork and South Fork distributaries, Skagit Bay, Padilla Bay, and the Swinomish Channel. The study area indirectly included approximately 55,000 acres ...


Where Have All The Forage Fish Gone? Response Of Rhinoceros Auklets To An Anomalously Poor Breeding Season, Peter Hodum, Scott Pearson, Tom Good 2018 Univ. of Puget Sound, United States

Where Have All The Forage Fish Gone? Response Of Rhinoceros Auklets To An Anomalously Poor Breeding Season, Peter Hodum, Scott Pearson, Tom Good

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The effectiveness of using seabirds as indicators of marine conditions is predicated on the idea that focal species are sensitive to changes in environmental parameters. Species with more behavioral plasticity may be less sensitive to and presumably buffered from a wider range of environmental conditions, thereby compensating for potential perturbations in the system. Rhinoceros Auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata) breeding populations in Washington State typically show little interannual variability in reproductive parameters, suggesting that they are relatively insensitive to the range of conditions that they typically experience. However, in 2016, we documented a highly anomalous breeding season for Rhinoceros Auklets on Protection ...


A Gis Solution To Evaluating Remedial Alternatives In Sediment Remediation And Recovery, Leon M. Delwiche 2018 NewFields, United States

A Gis Solution To Evaluating Remedial Alternatives In Sediment Remediation And Recovery, Leon M. Delwiche

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

NewFields supports the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) with sediment issues related to cleanup in various ports and harbors in Puget Sound, Washington. To be compliant with Ecology’s regulations, sites must attain sediment cleanup levels (SCLs) for hazardous substances within a reasonable timeframe through a combination of active remediation and natural recovery. To derive optimal site cleanup scenarios compliant with regulations a methodology was needed to estimate the spatial and temporal extent of remediation. A GIS-based sediment remediation/recovery model was designed using ESRI ArcGIS Model Builder. The model incorporates the SEDCAM sediment attenuation model and analytical results ...


Salmon Farms: Are We Making Progress, Alexandra Morton 2018 Raincoast Research Society, Canada

Salmon Farms: Are We Making Progress, Alexandra Morton

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Commercial finfish aquaculture has endured a turbulent thirty years since its arrival in British Columbia. The international record on the state of wild salmonid populations exposed to salmon farms is not encouraging as there is no region where salmon farming and stable wild salmonid populations coexist. The industry has made changes as it matures, reporting better siting, sea lice control and vaccines. However at the same time the number of fish per farm has risen to 1.7 million, adjacent commercial fisheries are largely closed, orca are increasing failing to carry offspring full term and First Nations are without food ...


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