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Large Scale Upper-Level Precursors For Dust Storm Formation Over North Africa And Poleward Transport To The Iberian Peninsula. Part I: An Observational Analysis, J.A. G. Orza, Michael L. Kaplan, S. Dhital, S. Fiedler 2020 Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche

Large Scale Upper-Level Precursors For Dust Storm Formation Over North Africa And Poleward Transport To The Iberian Peninsula. Part I: An Observational Analysis, J.A. G. Orza, Michael L. Kaplan, S. Dhital, S. Fiedler

Publications

The analysis of three extreme African dust outbreaks over the Iberian Peninsula (IP) shows that a double Rossby wave breaking (RWB) process in the polar jet (PJ) creates the conditions for dust storm formation over subtropical deserts in North Africa and the restructuring of upper-level air flows critical for the dust transport poleward after ablation. Two consecutive anticyclonic RWBs initiate over the IP and the adjacent Atlantic, the first commencing 10 days before dust reaches the IP and the second three to five days later. The first RWB becomes quasi-stationary over the eastern Mediterranean when the second RWB develops. In ...


The Source Detection Of 28 September 2018 Sulawesi Tsunami By Using Ionospheric Gnss Total Electron Content Disturbance, Jann-Yenq Liu, Chi-Yen Lin, Yuh-Ing Chen, Tso-Ren Wu, Meng-Ju Chung, Tien-Chi Liu, Yu-Lin Tsai, Loren C. Chang, Chi-Kuang Chao, Dimitar Ouzounov, Katsumi Hattori 2020 National Central University

The Source Detection Of 28 September 2018 Sulawesi Tsunami By Using Ionospheric Gnss Total Electron Content Disturbance, Jann-Yenq Liu, Chi-Yen Lin, Yuh-Ing Chen, Tso-Ren Wu, Meng-Ju Chung, Tien-Chi Liu, Yu-Lin Tsai, Loren C. Chang, Chi-Kuang Chao, Dimitar Ouzounov, Katsumi Hattori

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The 28 September 2018 magnitude Mw7.8 Palu, Indonesia earthquake (0.178° S, 119.840° E, depth 13 km) occurred at 10:02 UTC. The major earthquake triggered catastrophic liquefaction, landslides, and a near-field tsunami. The ionospheric total electron content (TEC) derived from records of 5 ground-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers is employed to detect tsunami traveling ionospheric disturbances (TTIDs). In total, 15 TTIDs have been detected. The ray-tracing and beamforming techniques are then used to find the TTID source location. The bootstrap method is applied in order to further explore the possible location of the tsunami source ...


Data-Driven, Multi-Model Workflow Suggests Strong Influence From Hurricanes On The Generation Of Turbidity Currents In The Gulf Of Mexico, Courtney K. Harris, Jaia Syvitski, H. G. Arango, et al 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science-William & Mary

Data-Driven, Multi-Model Workflow Suggests Strong Influence From Hurricanes On The Generation Of Turbidity Currents In The Gulf Of Mexico, Courtney K. Harris, Jaia Syvitski, H. G. Arango, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Turbidity currents deliver sediment rapidly from the continental shelf to the slope and beyond; and can be triggered by processes such as shelf resuspension during oceanic storms; mass failure of slope deposits due to sediment- and wave-pressure loadings; and localized events that grow into sustained currents via self-amplifying ignition. Because these operate over multiple spatial and temporal scales, ranging from the eddy-scale to continental-scale; coupled numerical models that represent the full transport pathway have proved elusive though individual models have been developed to describe each of these processes. Toward a more holistic tool, a numerical workflow was developed to address ...


Algal Coverage Detection And Classification Using Envi: Correlation With Dissolved Oxygen Levels In Elkhorn Slough, Ca, Jason Dawson 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Algal Coverage Detection And Classification Using Envi: Correlation With Dissolved Oxygen Levels In Elkhorn Slough, Ca, Jason Dawson

All HCAS Student Theses, Dissertations, and Capstones

Estuaries are exposed to varying stressors, whether they be physical, chemical, or environmental. The most notable of stressors is eutrophication of coastal and inland ecosystems. This is a result of increased supply of nutrients fueling production within the system. One outcome of this increased nutrient load to the system is that of algal blooms. These blooms can impact the aesthetic appearance and degrade the quality of health of the system. Many of these coastal zones and waterways are critical habitats for many biological (some endangered) species and serve as recreational areas for human populations. Elkhorn Slough, California is one of ...


Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction Of Quaternary Saltville, Virginia, Using Ostracode Autecology, Austin Gause 2020 East Tennessee State University

Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction Of Quaternary Saltville, Virginia, Using Ostracode Autecology, Austin Gause

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Saltville valley in southwestern Virginia is home to Quaternary localities containing paleontological and archaeological remains. Historically the valley has been mined for salt and the small lakes, ponds and springs along the valley floor have a brackish signature. A preliminary report on the site’s ostracode fauna suggested that the site’s water was not always saline. This study analyzed modern and Quaternary ostracodes to understand the valley’s hydrologic and chemical evolution. Sediments contained primarily freshwater species, including the environmentally sensitive Candona crogmaniana. The presence of Pelocypris tuberculatum and a new Fabaeformiscandona species throughout a vertical section spanning ...


Bonnet Carré Spillway Freshwater Transport And Corresponding Biochemical Properties In The Mississippi Bight, Sabrina M. Parra, Virginie Sanial, Adam D. Boyette, M. Kemal Cambazoglu, Inia M. Soto, Adam T. Greer, Luciano M. Chiaverano, Angie Hoover, Michael S. Dinniman 2020 Old Dominion University

Bonnet Carré Spillway Freshwater Transport And Corresponding Biochemical Properties In The Mississippi Bight, Sabrina M. Parra, Virginie Sanial, Adam D. Boyette, M. Kemal Cambazoglu, Inia M. Soto, Adam T. Greer, Luciano M. Chiaverano, Angie Hoover, Michael S. Dinniman

CCPO Publications

Large freshwater pulses to coastal ecosystems change local hydrologic regimes and alter biogeochemical processes. The Mississippi Bight coastal ecosystem, located in the northern Gulf of Mexico shelf, is influenced by extensive freshwater inputs: the Mississippi River (MSR) and several smaller rivers to the east. Under river flood conditions, MSR waters flow through the Bonnet Carré Spillway (BCS) to relieve pressure on levees in New Orleans, Louisiana. In 2015, mild wintertime temperatures and heavy rainfall throughout the MSR watershed led to extreme flooding and prompted an unusually early BCS opening on January 10, 2016 for 23 days. This study examines the ...


A Stratospheric Approach To Diagnose The North American Winter Dipole, Henrik Panosyan 2020 Utah State University

A Stratospheric Approach To Diagnose The North American Winter Dipole, Henrik Panosyan

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

It has been well established in the literature that the stratosphere is dynamically coupled with the troposphere during boreal winter. The North American Winter Dipole is comprised of an upper-tropospheric contrast between a ridge over western North America, and a trough over eastern North America. The variance of this circulation regime has increased in recent years, with its amplified states being associated with extremes ranging from drought and floods, to extreme cold air outbreaks. This study explores the stratospheric link to this extreme weather regime, in the hopes of ultimately improving the predictability of this regime on intraseasonal-to-seasonal timescales. We ...


Application Of Autoencoders For Latent Pattern Analysis In Image Time Series, Jiena He 2020 Clark University

Application Of Autoencoders For Latent Pattern Analysis In Image Time Series, Jiena He

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

The Earth system is considered to possess certain modes - preferred patterns of variability that can represent the latent structure of the climate system, also known as teleconnections. There are approaches to discover these patterns, Principal Components Analysis and Empirical Orthogonal Teleconnection (EOT) analysis. However, while the latter is very effective, it is computationally intensive. An autoencoder is an unsupervised neural network that learns an efficient neural representation of input data. It is considered as a dimensionality reduction tool that is highly similar to PCA and EOT. The hidden layer of an autoencoder represents the most significant information of the input ...


Relative Impacts Of Global Changes And Regional Watershed Changes On The Inorganic Carbon Balance Of The Chesapeake Bay, Pierre St-Laurent, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Raymond G. Najjar, Elizabeth Shadwick, Hanquin Tian, Yuanzhi Yao 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Relative Impacts Of Global Changes And Regional Watershed Changes On The Inorganic Carbon Balance Of The Chesapeake Bay, Pierre St-Laurent, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Raymond G. Najjar, Elizabeth Shadwick, Hanquin Tian, Yuanzhi Yao

VIMS Articles

The Chesapeake Bay is a large coastal-plain estuary that has experienced considerable anthropogenic changeover the past century. At the regional scale, land-use change has doubled the nutrient input from rivers and led to an increase in riverine carbon and alkalinity. The bay has also experienced global changes, including the rise of atmospheric temperature and CO2. Here we seek to understand the relative impact of these changes on the inorganic carbon balance of the bay between the early 1900s and the early 2000s. We use a linked land–estuarine–ocean modeling system that includes both inorganic and organic carbon and nitrogen ...


Understanding Physical Processes Represented By The Monin–Obukhov Bulk Formula For Momentum Transfer, Jielun Sun, Eugene S. Takle, Otávio C. Acevedo 2020 NorthWest Research Associates

Understanding Physical Processes Represented By The Monin–Obukhov Bulk Formula For Momentum Transfer, Jielun Sun, Eugene S. Takle, Otávio C. Acevedo

Agronomy Publications

Physical processes represented by the Monin–Obukhov bulk formula for momentum are investigated with field observations. We discuss important differences between turbulent mixing by the most energetic non-local, large, coherent turbulence eddies and local turbulent mixing as traditionally represented by K-theory (analog to molecular diffusion), especially in consideration of developing surface-layer stratification. The study indicates that the neutral state in a horizontally homogeneous surface layer described in the Monin–Obukhov bulk formula represents a special neutrality regardless of wind speed, for example, the surface layer with no surface heating/cooling. Under this situation, the Monin–Obukhov bulk formula agrees well ...


Before Disaster Strikes: Preparing America To Be Disaster Resilient, Cole Hoyt 2020 William & Mary Law School

Before Disaster Strikes: Preparing America To Be Disaster Resilient, Cole Hoyt

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

Major natural disasters in the United States are occurring more frequently and are causing more damage and destruction than ever before in the nation’s history. With the increased number and intensity of natural disasters, America’s failing infrastructure and current resiliency plan are inadequate to successfully prepare and respond to such catastrophic events. As a direct result, natural disasters in the United States cause scores of deaths and injuries, inflict billions of dollars’ worth of damage per disaster, and make it increasingly more difficult for Americans to recover and return to a sense of normalcy.

The World Health Organization ...


Brain-Encysting Trematodes (Euhaplorchis Californiensis) Decrease Raphe Serotonergic Activity In California Killifish (Fundulus Parvipinnis), Siri H. Helland-Riise, Marco A. Vindas, Ida B. Johansen, Lauren E. Nadler, Kelly L. Weinersmith, Ryan F. Hechinger, Øyvind Øverli 2020 Norwegian Academy of Sciences - Oslo

Brain-Encysting Trematodes (Euhaplorchis Californiensis) Decrease Raphe Serotonergic Activity In California Killifish (Fundulus Parvipinnis), Siri H. Helland-Riise, Marco A. Vindas, Ida B. Johansen, Lauren E. Nadler, Kelly L. Weinersmith, Ryan F. Hechinger, Øyvind Øverli

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Modulation of brain serotonin (5-HT) signalling is associated with parasite-induced changes in host behaviour, potentially increasing parasite transmission to predatory final hosts. Such alterations could have substantial impact on host physiology and behaviour, as 5-HT serves multiple roles in neuroendocrine regulation. These effects, however, remain insufficiently understood, as parasites have been associated with both increased and decreased serotonergic activity. Here, we investigated effects of trematode Euhaplorchis californiensis metacercariae on post-stress serotonergic activity in the intermediate host California killifish (Fundulus parvipinnis). This parasite is associated with conspicuous behaviour and increased predation of killifish by avian end-hosts, as well as inhibition of ...


Atmospheric Contrail Detection With A Deep Learning Algorithm, Nasir Siddiqui 2020 University of Minnesota Morris Digital Well

Atmospheric Contrail Detection With A Deep Learning Algorithm, Nasir Siddiqui

Scholarly Horizons: University of Minnesota, Morris Undergraduate Journal

Aircraft contrail emission is widely believed to be a contributing factor to global climate change. We have used machine learning techniques on images containing contrails in hopes of being able to identify those which contain contrails and those that do not. The developed algorithm processes data on contrail characteristics as captured by long-term image records. Images collected by the United States Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Management user facility(ARM) were used to train a deep convolutional neural network for the purpose of this contrail classification. The neural network model was trained with 1600 images taken by the Total ...


Monitoring Residual Soil Moisture And Its Association To The Long-Term Variability Of Rainfall Over The Upper Blue Nile Basin In Ethiopia, Getachew Ayehu, Tsegaye Tadesse, Berhan Gessesse 2020 Ethiopian Space Science & Technology Institute & Bahir Dar University

Monitoring Residual Soil Moisture And Its Association To The Long-Term Variability Of Rainfall Over The Upper Blue Nile Basin In Ethiopia, Getachew Ayehu, Tsegaye Tadesse, Berhan Gessesse

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Monitoring soil moisture and its association with rainfall variability is important to comprehend the hydrological processes and to set proper agricultural water use management to maximize crop growth and productivity. In this study, the European Space Agency’s Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI) soil moisture product was applied to assess the dynamics of residual soil moisture in autumn (September to November) and its response to the long-term variability of rainfall in the Upper Blue Nile Basin (UBNB) of Ethiopia from 1992 to 2017. The basin was found to have autumn soil moisture (ASM) ranging from 0.09–0.38 m ...


Glyoxal’S Impact On Dry Ammonium Salts: Fast And Reversible Surface Aerosol Browning, David O. De Haan PhD, Lelia N. Hawkins PhD, Kevin Jansen, Hannah G. Welsh, Raunak Pednekar, Alexia de Loera, Natalie G. Jimenez, Margaret A. Tolbert PhD, Mathieu Cazaunau PhD, Aline Gratien, Antonin Bergé, Edouard Pangui, Paola Formenti, Jean-François Doussin 2020 University of San Diego

Glyoxal’S Impact On Dry Ammonium Salts: Fast And Reversible Surface Aerosol Browning, David O. De Haan Phd, Lelia N. Hawkins Phd, Kevin Jansen, Hannah G. Welsh, Raunak Pednekar, Alexia De Loera, Natalie G. Jimenez, Margaret A. Tolbert Phd, Mathieu Cazaunau Phd, Aline Gratien, Antonin Bergé, Edouard Pangui, Paola Formenti, Jean-François Doussin

Chemistry and Biochemistry: Faculty Scholarship

Alpha-dicarbonyl compounds are believed to form brown carbon in the atmosphere via reactions with ammonium sulfate (AS) in cloud droplets and aqueous aerosol particles. In this work, brown carbon formation in AS and other aerosol particles was quantified as a function of relative humidity (RH) during exposure to gas-phase glyoxal (GX) in chamber experiments. Under dry conditions (RH < 5%), solid AS, AS/glycine, and methylammonium sulfate aerosol particles brown within minutes upon exposure to GX, while sodium sulfate particles do not. When GX concentrations decline, browning goes away, demonstrating that this dry browning process is reversible. Declines in aerosol albedo are found to be a function of [GX]2, and are consistent between AS and AS/glycine aerosol. Dry methylammonium sulfate aerosol browns 4´ more than dry AS aerosol, but deliquesced AS aerosol browns much less than dry AS aerosol. Optical measurements at 405, 450, and 530 nm provide an ...


Glyoxal’S Impact On Dry Ammonium Salts: Fast And Reversible Surface Aerosol Browning (Raw Data), David O. De Haan PhD, Lelia N. Hawkins PhD, Margaret A. Tolbert PhD, Jean-François Doussin 2020 University of San Diego

Glyoxal’S Impact On Dry Ammonium Salts: Fast And Reversible Surface Aerosol Browning (Raw Data), David O. De Haan Phd, Lelia N. Hawkins Phd, Margaret A. Tolbert Phd, Jean-François Doussin

Chemistry and Biochemistry: Faculty Scholarship

Alpha-dicarbonyl compounds are believed to form brown carbon in the atmosphere via reactions with ammonium sulfate (AS) in cloud droplets and aqueous aerosol particles. In this work, brown carbon formation in AS and other aerosol particles was quantified as a function of relative humidity (RH) during exposure to gas-phase glyoxal (GX) in chamber experiments. Under dry conditions (RH < 5%), solid AS, AS/glycine, and methylammonium sulfate aerosol particles brown within minutes upon exposure to GX, while sodium sulfate particles do not. When GX concentrations decline, browning goes away, demonstrating that this dry browning process is reversible. Declines in aerosol albedo are found to be a function of [GX]2, and are consistent between AS and AS/glycine aerosol. Dry methylammonium sulfate aerosol browns 4´ more than dry AS aerosol, but deliquesced AS aerosol browns much less than dry AS aerosol. Optical measurements at 405, 450, and 530 nm provide an estimated Ångstrom absorbance coefficient of -16 ±4. This coefficient and the empirical relationship between GX and albedo are used to estimate an upper limit to global radiative forcing by brown carbon formed by 70 ppt GX reacting with AS (+7.6 ´10-5 W/m2). This quantity is < 1% of the total radiative forcing by secondary brown carbon, but occurs almost entirely in the ultraviolet range.

The zipped data files are in the following formats: Igor experiments (.pxp), Word documents (.docx), Excel spreadsheets (.xlsx), organized by experiment number. “Optical” files contain cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) extinction, scattering and albedo data; PILS/waveguide data (experiments 1,2, and ...


Wave-Optics Investigation Of Turbulence Thermal Blooming Interaction: Ii. Using Time-Dependent Simulations, Mark F. Spencer 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Wave-Optics Investigation Of Turbulence Thermal Blooming Interaction: Ii. Using Time-Dependent Simulations, Mark F. Spencer

Faculty Publications

Part II of this two-part paper uses wave-optics simulations to look at the Monte Carlo averages associated with turbulence and time-dependent thermal blooming (TDTB). The goal is to investigate turbulence thermal blooming interaction (TTBI). At wavelengths near 1 μm, TTBI increases the amount of constructive and destructive interference (i.e., scintillation) that results from high-power laser beam propagation through distributed-volume atmospheric aberrations. As a result, we use the spherical-wave Rytov number, the number of wind-clearing periods, and the distortion number to gauge the strength of the simulated turbulence and TDTB. These parameters simply greatly given propagation paths with constant atmospheric ...


Wave-Optics Investigation Of Turbulence Thermal Blooming Interaction: I. Using Steady-State Simulations, Mark F. Spencer 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Wave-Optics Investigation Of Turbulence Thermal Blooming Interaction: I. Using Steady-State Simulations, Mark F. Spencer

Faculty Publications

Part I of this two-part paper uses wave-optics simulations to look at the Monte Carlo averages associated with turbulence and steady-state thermal blooming (SSTB). The goal is to investigate turbulence thermal blooming interaction (TTBI). At wavelengths near 1 μm, TTBI increases the amount of constructive and destructive interference (i.e., scintillation) that results from high-power laser beam propagation through distributed-volume atmospheric aberrations. As a result, we use the spherical-wave Rytov number and the distortion number to gauge the strength of the simulated turbulence and SSTB. These parameters simplify greatly given propagation paths with constant atmospheric conditions. In addition, we use ...


Implications Of Four-Dimensional Weather Cubes For Improved Cloud-Free Line-Of-Sight Assessments Of Free-Space Optical Communications Link Performance, Steven T. Fiorino, Santasri Bose-Pillai, Jaclyn Schmidt, Brannon Elmore, Kevin J. Keefer 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Implications Of Four-Dimensional Weather Cubes For Improved Cloud-Free Line-Of-Sight Assessments Of Free-Space Optical Communications Link Performance, Steven T. Fiorino, Santasri Bose-Pillai, Jaclyn Schmidt, Brannon Elmore, Kevin J. Keefer

Faculty Publications

We advance the benefits of previously reported four-dimensional (4-D) weather cubes toward the creation of high-fidelity cloud-free line-of-sight (CFLOS) beam propagation for realistic assessment of autotracked/dynamically routed free-space optical (FSO) communication datalink concepts. The weather cubes accrue parameterization of optical effects and custom atmospheric resolution through implementation of numerical weather prediction data in the Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference atmospheric characterization and radiative transfer code. 4-D weather cube analyses have recently been expanded to accurately assess system performance (probabilistic climatologies and performance forecasts) at any wavelength/frequency or spectral band in the absence of field tests and employment ...


Turbulence Profiling Using Pupil Plane Wavefront Data Derived Fried Parameter Values For A Dynamically Ranged Rayleigh Beacon, Steven M. Zuraski, Elizabeth Beecher, Jack E. McCrae, Steven T. Fiorino 2020 Air Force Research Laboratory

Turbulence Profiling Using Pupil Plane Wavefront Data Derived Fried Parameter Values For A Dynamically Ranged Rayleigh Beacon, Steven M. Zuraski, Elizabeth Beecher, Jack E. Mccrae, Steven T. Fiorino

Faculty Publications

Long-range optical imaging applications are typically hindered by atmospheric turbulence. The effect of turbulence on an imaging system can manifest itself as an image blur effect usually quantified by the phase distortions present in the system. The blurring effect can be understood on the basis of the measured strength of atmospheric optical turbulence along the propagation path and its impacts on phase perturbation statistics within the imaging system. One method for obtaining these measurements is by the use of a dynamically ranged Rayleigh beacon system that exploits strategically varied beacon ranges along the propagation path, effectively obtaining estimates of the ...


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