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Sea Surface Temperature Across The Subarctic North Pacific And Marginal Seas Through The Past 20,000 Years: A Paleoceanographic Synthesis, Catherine V. Davis, Sarah E. Myhre, Curtis Deutsch, Beth Caissie, Summer Praetorius, Marisa Borreggine, Robert Thunell 2020 University of South Carolina

Sea Surface Temperature Across The Subarctic North Pacific And Marginal Seas Through The Past 20,000 Years: A Paleoceanographic Synthesis, Catherine V. Davis, Sarah E. Myhre, Curtis Deutsch, Beth Caissie, Summer Praetorius, Marisa Borreggine, Robert Thunell

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

Deglacial sea surface conditions in the subarctic North Pacific and marginal seas are the subject of increasing interest in paleoceanography. However, a cohesive picture of near-surface oceanography from which to compare inter and intra-regional variability through the last deglaciation is lacking. We present a synthesis of sea surface temperature covering the open North Pacific and its marginal seas, spanning the past 20 ka using proxy records from foraminiferal calcite (δ18O and Mg/Ca) and coccolithophore alkenones (Uk’37). Sea surface temperature proxies tend to be in agreement through the Holocene, though Uk’37 records are often interpreted as warmer than ...


Effects Of Seawater Exchange On Water Chemistry Among Coastal Lakes With Intermittent Connections To The Sea, A. Challen Hyman, Dana Bigham Stephens 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Effects Of Seawater Exchange On Water Chemistry Among Coastal Lakes With Intermittent Connections To The Sea, A. Challen Hyman, Dana Bigham Stephens

VIMS Articles

Intermittently closed and open lakes and lagoons (ICOLLs) are a dynamic class of coastal waterbodies with the unique feature of intermittently connecting to the sea. Understanding the functioning and potential threats of these globally rare systems is important to their preservation and protection. Coastal dune lakes of northwest Florida are one example of an understudied group of ICOLLs which connect with the Gulf of Mexico for brief periods of time. Using a 17-year, monthly water chemistry dataset, we analyzed long-term patterns in water chemistry among 16 coastal dune lakes. Using salinity as a proxy for frequency of seawater inflows, principal ...


Exploring Crisis Communication And Information Dissemination On Social Media: Social Network Analysis Of Hurricane Irma Tweets, Xianlin JIn 2020 University of Kentucky

Exploring Crisis Communication And Information Dissemination On Social Media: Social Network Analysis Of Hurricane Irma Tweets, Xianlin Jin

Journal of International Crisis and Risk Communication Research

This study utilized social network analysis to identify the top 10 Twitter influentials during the Hurricane Irma crisis period and examined the relationship between social media attributes and the bridge influence of controlling information flow. The number of a user’s followers and tweets significantly predicted one’s control of information. Crisis information tended to be shared in scattered subgroups. Social network boundaries impeded information diffusion, and the communication pattern was largely one-way. The findings partially supported the opinion leader argument while indicating that influentials can directly generate information, which is consistent with the social-mediated crisis communication model. Such findings ...


Gender And Presence Of Children: Examining Media Uses, Informational Needs, And Source Preferences During The Flint, Michigan Water Crisis, Ashleigh M. Day, Sydney O'Shay-Wallace, Matthew W. Seeger, Shawn P. McElmurry 2020 The University of Texas at Tyler

Gender And Presence Of Children: Examining Media Uses, Informational Needs, And Source Preferences During The Flint, Michigan Water Crisis, Ashleigh M. Day, Sydney O'Shay-Wallace, Matthew W. Seeger, Shawn P. Mcelmurry

Journal of International Crisis and Risk Communication Research

In 2014, a water crisis emerged in Flint, Michigan. Using uses and gratifications theory as the guiding framework, this study examines if crisis-related media uses, informational needs, and source preferences are related to respondents’ gender and/or whether or not respondents had children. A random sample of 208 Flint residents yielded results that are largely consistent with extant research, although minor nuances were found. Media uses, preferred informational sources, and desire to receive future crisis-related health information varied between women and men. Women reported significantly higher use of Facebook and Instagram. However, there were not significant differences between genders or ...


Investigating The Significance Of Aerosols In Determining The Coronavirus Fatality Rate Among Three European Countries, Wenzhao Li, Rejoice Thomas, Hesham el-Askary, Thomas Piechota, Daniele Struppa, Khaled A. Abdel Ghaffar 2020 Chapman University

Investigating The Significance Of Aerosols In Determining The Coronavirus Fatality Rate Among Three European Countries, Wenzhao Li, Rejoice Thomas, Hesham El-Askary, Thomas Piechota, Daniele Struppa, Khaled A. Abdel Ghaffar

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The coronavirus pandemic has not only gripped the scientific community in the search for a vaccine or a cure but also in attempts using statistics and association analysis—to identify environmental factors that increase its potency. A study by Ogen (Sci Total Environ 726:138605, 2020a) explored the possible correlation between coronavirus fatality and high nitrogen dioxide exposure in four European countries—France, Germany, Italy and Spain. Meanwhile, another study showed the importance of nitrogen dioxide along with population density in determining the coronavirus pandemic rate in England. In this follow-up study, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) was introduced in conjunction ...


Water Quality Assessment In The Occurrence Of Acanthaster Spp. (Crown-Of-Thorns Starfish, Cots) On Coral Reefs In Menjangan Island, Bali, Indonesia, Novia Arinda Pradisty, Eghbert Elvan Ampou, Rizki Hanintyo 2020 Institute for Marine Research and Observation, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Bali 82251, Indonesia

Water Quality Assessment In The Occurrence Of Acanthaster Spp. (Crown-Of-Thorns Starfish, Cots) On Coral Reefs In Menjangan Island, Bali, Indonesia, Novia Arinda Pradisty, Eghbert Elvan Ampou, Rizki Hanintyo

Makara Journal of Science

Aquatic stressors are known to cause biological impairment that can result in biodiversity loss in several Marine Protected Areas (MPA), including in Menjangan Island, West Bali National Park. The objectives of this study were to correlate the changes in water quality parameters with the biological effect of Crown-of-Thorns starfish (CoTS) population dynamics and to assess the most applicable parameters for continuous environmental monitoring. Field observations and surveys were conducted three times in 2017, during the wet season, dry season and season transition, in order to assess the effect of seasonal variability. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) was performed to determine the relationship ...


Large Scale Upper-Level Precursors For Dust Storm Formation Over North Africa And Poleward Transport To The Iberian Peninsula. Part I: An Observational Analysis, J.A. G. Orza, Michael L. Kaplan, S. Dhital, S. Fiedler 2020 Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche

Large Scale Upper-Level Precursors For Dust Storm Formation Over North Africa And Poleward Transport To The Iberian Peninsula. Part I: An Observational Analysis, J.A. G. Orza, Michael L. Kaplan, S. Dhital, S. Fiedler

Publications

The analysis of three extreme African dust outbreaks over the Iberian Peninsula (IP) shows that a double Rossby wave breaking (RWB) process in the polar jet (PJ) creates the conditions for dust storm formation over subtropical deserts in North Africa and the restructuring of upper-level air flows critical for the dust transport poleward after ablation. Two consecutive anticyclonic RWBs initiate over the IP and the adjacent Atlantic, the first commencing 10 days before dust reaches the IP and the second three to five days later. The first RWB becomes quasi-stationary over the eastern Mediterranean when the second RWB develops. In ...


The Effect Of Urbanization On The Intensity Of Heavy Rainfall In The Midwestern United States, Adrianna Kremer 2020 State University of New York College at Brockport

The Effect Of Urbanization On The Intensity Of Heavy Rainfall In The Midwestern United States, Adrianna Kremer

Senior Honors Theses

In recent years, the global population has become more concentrated in cities and this urbanization has influenced a number of changes in climate and land use. While some studies have examined how urbanization impacts precipitation, most of these studies have examined precipitation patterns rather than intensity. Increases in the intensity of precipitation can increase the risk of flooding and flash floods, which can have devastating impacts. Stage IV multi-sensor precipitation data was used to examine heavy rainfall events during the warm-season (May-September) from 2003-2017 in Midwestern cities to examine how urbanization influences rainfall intensity. NCEI precipitation data was also used ...


Algal Biomarkers As A Proxy For Pco2: Constraints From Late Quaternary Sapropels In The Eastern Mediterranean, Caitlyn R. Witkowski, Marcel T.J. van der Meer, Brian Blais, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, Stefan Schouten 2020 Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research

Algal Biomarkers As A Proxy For Pco2: Constraints From Late Quaternary Sapropels In The Eastern Mediterranean, Caitlyn R. Witkowski, Marcel T.J. Van Der Meer, Brian Blais, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, Stefan Schouten

Science and Technology Faculty Journal Articles

Records of carbon dioxide concentrations (partial pressure expressed as pCO2) over Earth’s history provide trends that are critical to understand our changing world. To better constrain pCO2 estimations, here we test organic pCO2 proxies against the direct measurements of pCO2 recorded in ice cores. Based on the concept of stable carbon isotopic fractionation due to photosynthetic CO2 fixation (Ɛp), we use the stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of the recently proposed biomarker phytol (from all photoautotrophs), as well as the conventionally used alkenone biomarkers (from specific species) for comparison, to reconstruct pCO2 over several ...


Annual Concentration And Flux Of Non-Sea-Salt Sulfate In The Wais Divide Ice Core (Wdc) For The Last 11,000 Years, Jihong Cole-Dai 2020 South Dakota State University

Annual Concentration And Flux Of Non-Sea-Salt Sulfate In The Wais Divide Ice Core (Wdc) For The Last 11,000 Years, Jihong Cole-Dai

Ice Core and Environmental Chemistry Lab Datasets

Annual concentration and flux of non-sea-slat sulfate in the WAIS Divide ice core (WDC) for the last 11,000 years.


Influence Of Atmospheric Circulation On Severe Flooding In The Atacama Desert, Jonathan DeGraw 2020 Purdue University

Influence Of Atmospheric Circulation On Severe Flooding In The Atacama Desert, Jonathan Degraw

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


High Wind Alerts: A System Created With Observations From The X-Band Teaching And Research Radar, Lauren Warner 2020 Purdue University

High Wind Alerts: A System Created With Observations From The X-Band Teaching And Research Radar, Lauren Warner

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Following the August 13, 2011, Indiana State Fair stage collapse tragedy, caused by a wind gust from an approaching thunderstorm, Purdue University enforced a wind speed restriction of 30 mph (13 m s-1) for tents at outdoor events. During these events, volunteers stand outside with handheld anemometers, measuring and reporting when the wind speeds exceed this limit. In this study, we report testing of a new system to automate high-wind alerts based on observations from a Doppler radar, the X-band Teaching and Research Radar (XTRRA), near Purdue’s campus. XTRRA scans over campus at low elevations approximately every 5 minutes ...


Thermal Stress-Related Spatiotemporal Variations In High-Latitude Coral Reef Benthic Communities, Nicholas P. Jones, Joana Figueiredo, David S. Gilliam 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Thermal Stress-Related Spatiotemporal Variations In High-Latitude Coral Reef Benthic Communities, Nicholas P. Jones, Joana Figueiredo, David S. Gilliam

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

High-latitude coral reef communities have been postulated as the first areas to undergo reorganisation under climate change. Tropicalisation has been identified in some high-latitude communities and is predicted in others, but it is unclear how the resident benthic taxa are affected. We conducted a long-term (2007–2016) assessment of changes to benthic community cover in relation to thermal stress duration on the Southeast Florida Reef Tract (SEFRT). Thermal stress events, both hot and cold, had acute (thermal stress duration affected benthic cover that year) and chronic (thermal stress duration affected benthic cover the following year) impacts on benthic cover. Chronic ...


Long Term Air Quality Analysis In Reference To Thermal Power Plants Using Satellite Data In Singrauli Region, India, H. K. Romana, Ramesh P. Singh, D. P. Shukla 2020 IIT Mandi

Long Term Air Quality Analysis In Reference To Thermal Power Plants Using Satellite Data In Singrauli Region, India, H. K. Romana, Ramesh P. Singh, D. P. Shukla

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The exponentially growing population and related anthropogenic activities have led to modifications in local environment. The change in local environment, evolving pattern of land use, concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols alter the energy balance of our climate system. This alteration in climate is leading to pre-mature deaths worldwide. This study analyses the air quality of Singrauli region, Madhya Pradesh, India for the past 15 years. Otherwise known as Urjanchal “the energy capital” of India has been declared as critically polluted by CPCB. The study provides an updated list of thermal power plants in the study area and their emission ...


Effects Of Surfactants On The Generation Of Sea Spray During Tropical Cyclones, Breanna L. Vanderplow 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Effects Of Surfactants On The Generation Of Sea Spray During Tropical Cyclones, Breanna L. Vanderplow

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Despite significant improvement in computational and observational capabilities, predicting intensity and intensification of major tropical cyclones remains a challenge. In 2017 Hurricane Maria intensified to a Category 5 storm within 24 hours, devastating Puerto Rico. In 2019 Hurricane Dorian, predicted to remain tropical storm, unexpectedly intensified into a Category 5 storm and destroyed the Bahamas. The official forecast and computer models were unable to predict rapid intensification of these storms. One possible reason for this is that key physics, including microscale processes at the air-sea interface, are poorly understood and parameterized in existing forecast models.

Under tropical cyclones, the air-sea ...


Data-Driven, Multi-Model Workflow Suggests Strong Influence From Hurricanes On The Generation Of Turbidity Currents In The Gulf Of Mexico, Courtney K. Harris, Jaia Syvitski, H. G. Arango, et al 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science-William & Mary

Data-Driven, Multi-Model Workflow Suggests Strong Influence From Hurricanes On The Generation Of Turbidity Currents In The Gulf Of Mexico, Courtney K. Harris, Jaia Syvitski, H. G. Arango, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Turbidity currents deliver sediment rapidly from the continental shelf to the slope and beyond; and can be triggered by processes such as shelf resuspension during oceanic storms; mass failure of slope deposits due to sediment- and wave-pressure loadings; and localized events that grow into sustained currents via self-amplifying ignition. Because these operate over multiple spatial and temporal scales, ranging from the eddy-scale to continental-scale; coupled numerical models that represent the full transport pathway have proved elusive though individual models have been developed to describe each of these processes. Toward a more holistic tool, a numerical workflow was developed to address ...


Prioritizing The Largest, Oldest Corals For Disease Intervention In A Coral Disease-Ravaged Area: Southeast Florida Coral Reef Ecosystem Conservation Area., Alysha Brunelle 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Prioritizing The Largest, Oldest Corals For Disease Intervention In A Coral Disease-Ravaged Area: Southeast Florida Coral Reef Ecosystem Conservation Area., Alysha Brunelle

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Coral diseases appear to be more devastating than ever before. When a virulent disease ravages a coral ecosystem, it can significantly change the population’s demographics and cause local extinctions. Disease intervention response during such an event is impossible at a landscape scale, therefore priorities must be considered. Saving the largest, oldest colonies of reef-building species is a good choice due to their high fecundity and ecological function. Their size, as a proxy for age, is an indicator of their resistance to previous perturbations which may indicate higher fitness. Their size also provides habitat to many organisms and wave resistance ...


The Source Detection Of 28 September 2018 Sulawesi Tsunami By Using Ionospheric Gnss Total Electron Content Disturbance, Jann-Yenq Liu, Chi-Yen Lin, Yuh-Ing Chen, Tso-Ren Wu, Meng-Ju Chung, Tien-Chi Liu, Yu-Lin Tsai, Loren C. Chang, Chi-Kuang Chao, Dimitar Ouzounov, Katsumi Hattori 2020 National Central University

The Source Detection Of 28 September 2018 Sulawesi Tsunami By Using Ionospheric Gnss Total Electron Content Disturbance, Jann-Yenq Liu, Chi-Yen Lin, Yuh-Ing Chen, Tso-Ren Wu, Meng-Ju Chung, Tien-Chi Liu, Yu-Lin Tsai, Loren C. Chang, Chi-Kuang Chao, Dimitar Ouzounov, Katsumi Hattori

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The 28 September 2018 magnitude Mw7.8 Palu, Indonesia earthquake (0.178° S, 119.840° E, depth 13 km) occurred at 10:02 UTC. The major earthquake triggered catastrophic liquefaction, landslides, and a near-field tsunami. The ionospheric total electron content (TEC) derived from records of 5 ground-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers is employed to detect tsunami traveling ionospheric disturbances (TTIDs). In total, 15 TTIDs have been detected. The ray-tracing and beamforming techniques are then used to find the TTID source location. The bootstrap method is applied in order to further explore the possible location of the tsunami source ...


Algal Coverage Detection And Classification Using Envi: Correlation With Dissolved Oxygen Levels In Elkhorn Slough, Ca, Jason Dawson 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Algal Coverage Detection And Classification Using Envi: Correlation With Dissolved Oxygen Levels In Elkhorn Slough, Ca, Jason Dawson

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Estuaries are exposed to varying stressors, whether they be physical, chemical, or environmental. The most notable of stressors is eutrophication of coastal and inland ecosystems. This is a result of increased supply of nutrients fueling production within the system. One outcome of this increased nutrient load to the system is that of algal blooms. These blooms can impact the aesthetic appearance and degrade the quality of health of the system. Many of these coastal zones and waterways are critical habitats for many biological (some endangered) species and serve as recreational areas for human populations. Elkhorn Slough, California is one of ...


Weather And Climate Summary And Forecast: August 2020 Report, Gregory V. Jones 2020 Linfield University

Weather And Climate Summary And Forecast: August 2020 Report, Gregory V. Jones

Linfield University Wine Studies Reports

This report provides a summary of the weather and climate forecast for August 2020. It includes forecast information specific to the Pacific Northwest and the western United States, as well as forecast information for other portions of the United States and abroad.


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