Urban Multi-Scale Environmental Predictor - An Extensive Tool For Climate Services In Urban Areas, 2017 Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
Urban Multi-Scale Environmental Predictor - An Extensive Tool For Climate Services In Urban Areas, Fredrik Lindberg, Sue Grimmond, Andrew Gabey, Bei Huang, Christoph W. Kent, Ting Sun, Natalie E. Theeuwes, Leena Järvi, Helen Ward, Izzy Capel-Timms, Yy Chang, Per Jonsson, Niklas Krave, Dongwei Liu, D Meyer, K Frans G. Olofson, Jian-Guo Tan, Dag Wästberg, Lingbo Xue, Zhe Zhang
Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial (FOSS4G) Conference Proceedings
The city based climate service tool UMEP (Urban Multi-scale Environmental Predictor) is a coupled modelling system that combines models essential for urban climate processes and is developed as an extensive QGIS plugin. An application is presented to illustrate its potential, specifically of the identification of heat waves and cold waves in cities. The tool has broad utility for applications related to outdoor thermal comfort, urban energy consumption, climate change mitigation etc. It includes tools to: enable users to input atmospheric and surface data from multiple sources, prepare meteorological data for use in urban areas, undertake simulations and consider scenarios, and ...
Exploring The Relationship Between Climate And Forest Conditions In Forest Classee De La Mondah (Gabon) Using Remote Sensing Data, 2017 Tokyo University of Information Sciences
Exploring The Relationship Between Climate And Forest Conditions In Forest Classee De La Mondah (Gabon) Using Remote Sensing Data, Mariano Mboumba
Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial (FOSS4G) Conference Proceedings
This study aims to examine the relationship between temperature and precipitation as climatic factors and the vegetation characteristics in Forêt Classée de la Mondah (Gabon). A pixel based spatial analysis procedure with QGIS was used to extract vegetation characteristics from MODIS on Terra, NDVI band, data from February 2000 to December 2015, while temperature and precipitation were monitored from January 1980 to December 2015 to highlight climate fluctuations in the study area. Two regression analyses were conducted : one between temperature and NDVI and the other one between precipitation and NDVI. Results showed that temperature and precipitation did not vary significantly ...
Collaborative Research: Synergistic Merging Of Traditional Aeronomy With Targeted High-Frequency (Hf) Heating Diagnostics, Herbert C. Carlson
Funded Research and Data
No abstract provided.
Technical Note: A Minimally-Invasive Experimental System For Pco2 Manipulation In Plankton Cultures Using Passive Gas Exchange (Atmospheric Carbon Control Simulator), 2017 Western Washington University, USA
Technical Note: A Minimally-Invasive Experimental System For Pco2 Manipulation In Plankton Cultures Using Passive Gas Exchange (Atmospheric Carbon Control Simulator), Brooke Love, M. Brady Olson, Tristen Wuori
As research into the biotic effects of ocean acidification has increased, the methods for simulating these environmental changes in the laboratory have multiplied. Here we describe the atmospheric carbon control simulator (ACCS) for the maintenance of plankton under controlled pCO2 conditions, designed for species sensitive to the physical disturbance introduced by the bubbling of cultures and for studies involving trophic interaction. The system consists of gas mixing and equilibration components coupled with large volume atmospheric simulation chambers. These chambers allow gas exchange to counteract the changes in carbonate chemistry induced by the metabolic activity of the organisms. The system is ...
Consistency Of Projected Drought Over The Sahel With Changes In The Monsoon Circulation And Extremes In A Regional Climate Model Projections, M. B. Sylla, A. T. Gaye, G. S. Jenkins, Jeremy S. Pal, F. Giorgi
As a step toward an increased understanding of climate change over West Africa, in this paper we analyze the relationship between rainfall changes and monsoon dynamics in high-resolution regional climate model experiments performed using the Regional Climate Model (RegCM3). Multidecadal simulations are carried out for present-day and future climate conditions under increased greenhouse gas forcing driven by the global climate model European Center/Hamburg 5 (ECHAM5). Compared to the present day, the future scenario simulation produces drier conditions over the Sahel and wetter conditions over orographic areas. The Sahel drying is accompanied by a weaker monsoon flow, a southward migration ...
Regional Climate Modeling For The Developing World: The Ictp Regcm3 And Regcnet, 2017 Loyola Marymount University
Regional Climate Modeling For The Developing World: The Ictp Regcm3 And Regcnet, Jeremy S. Pal, Filippo Giorgi, Xunqiang Bi, Nellie Elguindi, Fabien Solmon, Xuejie Gao, Sara A. Rauscher, Raquel Francisco, Ashraf Zakey, Jonathan Winter, Moetasim Ashfaq, Faisal S. Syed, Jason L. Bell, Noah S. Diffenbaugh, Jagadish Karmacharya, Abourahamane Konaré, Daniel Martinez, Rosmeri P. Da Rocha, Lisa C. Sloan, Allison L. Steiner
Regional climate models are important research tools available to scientists around the world, including in economically developing nations (EDNs). The Earth Systems Physics (ESP) group of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) maintains and distributes a state-of-the-science regional climate model called the ICTP Regional Climate Model version 3 (RegCM3), which is currently being used by a large research community for a diverse range of climate-related studies. The RegCM3 is the central, but not only, tool of the ICTP-maintained Regional Climate Research Network (RegCNET) aimed at creating south–south and north–south scientific interactions on the topic of ...
Volcanic Eruptions At East Pacific Rise Near 9°50'N, 2017 Western Washington University, USA
Volcanic Eruptions At East Pacific Rise Near 9°50'N, James P. Cowen, Brooke Love, Brian Glazier, Daniel J. Fornari, Timothy M. Shank, S. Adam Soule, Alexander Treusch, Kyle R. Pomranig, R. Chadwick Holmes, Maya Tolstoy
Evidence for recent volcanic eruptions along the fast spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) crest near 9°50'N spanning about 4 to 5 months of activity was discovered in April and May 2006 as a result of studies related to the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) Ridge2000 (R2K) program. In April, during routine recovery and redeployment of ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) at the EPR R2K Integrated Study Site (ISS) near 9°50'N, eight of 12 OBS could not be recovered [Tolstoy et al, 2006]. Anomalous turbidity and temperature structure in the water column along the ridge axis confirmed ...
Connection Between The Midlatitude Mesosphere And Sudden Stratospheric Warmings As Measured By Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar, Leda Sox, Vincent B. Wickwar, Chad Fish, Joshua P. Herron
While the mesospheric temperature anomalies associated with Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) have been observed extensively in the polar regions, observations of these anomalies at midlatitudes are much more sparse. The Rayleigh-scatter lidar system, which operated at the Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences on the campus of Utah State University (41.7°N, 111.8°W), collected a very dense set of observations, from 1993 to 2004, over a 45–90 km altitude range. This paper focuses on Rayleigh lidar temperatures derived during the six major SSW events that occurred during the 11 year period when the lidar was operating ...
Data From: Observing System Simulation Experiments For An Array Of Autonomous Biogeochemical Profiling Floats In The Southern Ocean, 2017 RSMAS, University of Miami
Data From: Observing System Simulation Experiments For An Array Of Autonomous Biogeochemical Profiling Floats In The Southern Ocean, Igor Kamenkovich, Angelique Haza, Alison R. Gray, Carolina O. Dufour, Zulema Garraffo
Supplementary Data and Tools
Data in this collection is from Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) that were carried in support of the SOCCOM program. Synthetic profiles were extracted from model-simulated dissolved oxygen and inorganic carbon. Full maps were then reconstructed from these sparse datasets, using objective mapping. For description of the model and reconstruction method please see Kamenkovich, I., A. Haza, A. Gray, C. Dufour, and Z. Garraffo: "Observing System Simulation Experiments for an array of autonomous biogeochemical profiling floats in the Southern Ocean", Journal of Geophysical Research, DOI: 10.1002/2017JC012819
Oyster Aquaculture Site Selection Using Landsat 8-Derived Sea Surface Temperature, Turbidity, And Chlorophyll A., 2017 University of Maine, Orono
Oyster Aquaculture Site Selection Using Landsat 8-Derived Sea Surface Temperature, Turbidity, And Chlorophyll A., Jordan Snyder
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Remote sensing data is useful for selection of aquaculture sites because it can provide water-quality products mapped with no cost to users. However, the spatial resolution of most ocean color satellites is too coarse to provide usable data within many estuaries. The more recently launched Landsat 8 satellite has both the spatial resolution and the necessary signal to noise ratio to provide temperature, as well as ocean color derived products along complex coastlines. The state of Maine (USA) has an abundance of estuarine indentations (~3,500 miles of tidal shoreline within 220 miles of coast), and an expanding aquaculture industry ...
Effects Of Graphical Weather Information Versus Textual Weather Information On Situation Awareness In Meteorology, 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University
Effects Of Graphical Weather Information Versus Textual Weather Information On Situation Awareness In Meteorology, Stefan Melendez M.S.A., Andrew Dattel Ph.D., Christopher Herbster Ph.D., Debbie Schaum M.A., Andrey Babin
National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)
Prior to a flight, pilots gather meteorological information in order to assess the weather conditions pertaining to their flight and to make decisions based on it. This information can come in various formats, such as text and graphical weather information. Research has shown that people have varying learning preferences and that most people prefer visual learning to verbal learning (i.e., graphical over text). It is hypothesized that this difference in learning preference can affect the way pilots interpret and apply the information they obtain prior to their flight. The researcher hypothesizes that graphical weather information has a greater, more ...
Ocean Wind Speed Measurement Using Wideband Gnss-R Signals, 2017 Purdue University
Ocean Wind Speed Measurement Using Wideband Gnss-R Signals, Brandon J. Kozel, Han Zhang, James L. Garrison, Benjamin Nold
The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium
The use of Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) for remote sensing of ocean wind speeds has been explored for nearly two decades and has become an important passive remote sensing technique for verification of hurricane formation models. To obtain wind speed measurements, reflected GNSS signals are first cross-correlated with locally generated copies to construct delay-doppler maps (DDMs). Through statistical models, DDMs can provide information about the mean-square slope (MSS) of the ocean surface, which is related to wind speed. Previous studies have focused on legacy signals such as GPS L1. However, it is expected that the MSS relationship with ocean ...
Using P-Band Signals Of Opportunity Radio Waves For Root Zone Soil Moisture Remote Sensing, 2017 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology
Using P-Band Signals Of Opportunity Radio Waves For Root Zone Soil Moisture Remote Sensing, Phillip H. Lipinski, Benjamin R. Nold, James L. Garrison
The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium
Retrieval of Root Zone Soil Moisture (RZSM) is important for understanding the carbon cycle for use in climate change research as well as meteorology, hydrology, and precision agriculture studies. A current method of remote sensing, GNSS-R uses GPS signals to measure soil moisture content and vegetation biomass, but it is limited to 3-5 cm of soil penetration depth. Signals of Opportunity (SoOp) has emerged as an extension of GNSS-R remote sensing using communication signals. P-band communication signals (370 MHz) will be studied as an improved method of remote sensing of RZSM. P-band offers numerous advantages over GNSS-R, including stronger signal ...
Environmentally-Driven Variation In The Population Dynamics Of Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia Patronus), 2017 University of Southern Mississippi
Environmentally-Driven Variation In The Population Dynamics Of Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia Patronus), Grant D. Adams
Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) is an abundant forage fish distributed throughout the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM). Gulf Menhaden support the second largest fishery, by weight, in the United States and represent a key linkage between upper and lower trophic levels. Variation in the population dynamics can, therefore, pose consequences for the ecology and economy in the NGOM. Here we aim to understand variation in the individual and population dynamics of Gulf Menhaden throughout ontogeny and how such variation relates to environmental processes. We utilized a suite of fishery-dependent and –independent, remote sensing, modeled, and in situ data to explicitly ...
Large Marine Protected Areas Represent Biodiversity Now And Under Climate Change, 2017 Old Dominion University
Large Marine Protected Areas Represent Biodiversity Now And Under Climate Change, T. E. Davies, S. M. Maxwell, K. Kaschner, C. Garilao, N. C. Ban
Biological Sciences Faculty Publications
Large marine protected areas (>30,000 km2) have a high profile in marine conservation, yet their contribution to conservation is contested. Assessing the overlap of large marine protected areas with 14,172 species, we found large marine protected areas cover 4.4% of the ocean and at least some portion of the range of 83.3% of the species assessed. Of all species within large marine protected areas, 26.9% had at least 10% of their range represented, and this was projected to increase to 40.1% in 2100. Cumulative impacts were significantly higher within large marine protected areas ...
Synergistic Use Of Remote Sensing And Modeling To Assess An Anomalously High Chlorophyll-A Event During Summer 2015 In The South Central Red Sea, Wenzhao Li, Hesham El-Askary, K. P. Manikandan, Mohamed A. Qurban, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova
Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research
An anomalously high chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) event (>2 mg/m3) during June 2015 in the South Central Red Sea (17.5° to 22°N, 37° to 42°E) was observed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the Terra and Aqua satellite platforms. This differs from the low Chl-a values (<0.5 mg/m3) usually encountered over the same region during summertime. To assess this anomaly and possible causes, we used a wide range of oceanographical and meteorological datasets, including Chl-a concentrations, sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), mixed layer depth (MLD), ocean current velocity and aerosol optical depth (AOD) obtained from different sensors and models. Findings confirmed this anomalous behavior in the spatial domain using Hovmöller data analysis techniques, while a time series analysis addressed monthly and daily variability. Our analysis suggests that a combination of factors controlling nutrient supply contributed to the anomalous phytoplankton growth. These factors include horizontal transfer of upwelling water through eddy circulation and possible mineral fertilization from atmospheric dust deposition. Coral reefs might have provided extra nutrient supply, yet this is out of the scope of our analysis. We thought that dust deposition from a coastal dust jet event in late June, coinciding with the phytoplankton blooms in the area under investigation, might have also contributed as shown by our AOD findings. However, a lag cross correlation showed a two- month lag between strong dust outbreak and the high Chl-a anomaly. The high Chl-a concentration at the edge of the eddy emphasizes the importance of horizontal advection in fertilizing oligotrophic (nutrient poor) Red Sea waters.
Estimation Of Bubble-Mediated Air–Sea Gas Exchange From Concurrent Dms And Co2 Transfer Velocities At Intermediate–High Wind Speeds, 2017 Plymouth Marine Laboratory
Estimation Of Bubble-Mediated Air–Sea Gas Exchange From Concurrent Dms And Co2 Transfer Velocities At Intermediate–High Wind Speeds, Thomas G. Bell, Sebastian Landwehr, Scott D. Miller, Warren J. De Bruyn, Adrian H. Callaghan, Brian Scanlon, Brian Ward, Mingxi Yang, Eric S. Saltzman
Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research
Simultaneous air–sea fluxes and concentration differences of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and carbon dioxide (CO2/ were measured during a summertime North Atlantic cruise in 2011. This data set reveals significant differences between the gas transfer velocities of these two gases (1kw/ over a range of wind speeds up to 21ms1. These differences occur at and above the approximate wind speed threshold when waves begin breaking. Whitecap fraction (a proxy for bubbles) was also measured and has a positive relationship with 1kw, consistent with enhanced bubble-mediated transfer of the less soluble CO2 relative to that of the more soluble DMS. However ...
Observing The Quantumbehavior Of Light In An Undergraduate Laboratory, 2017 Utah State University
Observing The Quantumbehavior Of Light In An Undergraduate Laboratory, M. S. Neel, J. J. Thorn, V. W. Donato, G. S. Bergreen, Robert E. Davies, M. Beck
While the classical, wavelike behavior of light (interference and diffraction) has been easily observed in undergraduate laboratories for many years, explicit observation of the quantum nature of light (i.e., photons) is much more difficult. For example, while well-known phenomena such as the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering strongly suggest the existence of photons, they are not definitive proof of their existence. Here we present an experiment, suitable for an undergraduate laboratory, that unequivocally demonstrates the quantum nature of light. Spontaneously downconverted light is incident on a beamsplitter and the outputs are monitored with single-photon counting detectors. We observe a ...
Identification Of Extreme Precipitation Threat Across Midlatitude Regions Based On Short-Wave Circulations, 2017 Utah State University
Identification Of Extreme Precipitation Threat Across Midlatitude Regions Based On Short-Wave Circulations, Shih-Yu (Simon) Wang, Robert E. Davies, Robert R. Gillies
The most severe thunderstorms, producing extreme precipitation, occur over subtropical and midlatitude regions. Atmospheric conditions conducive to organized, intense thunderstorms commonly involve the coupling of a low-level jet (LLJ) with a synoptic short wave. The midlatitude synoptic activity is frequently modulated by the circumglobal teleconnection (CGT), in which meridional gradients of the jet stream act as a guide for short Rossby waves. Previous research has linked extreme precipitation events with either the CGT or the LLJ but has not linked the two circulation features together. In this study, a circulation-based index was developed by combining (a) the degree of the ...
Connecting Subseasonal Movements Of The Winter Mean Ridge In Western North America To Inversion Climatology In Cache Valley, Utah, Shi-Yu (Simon) Wang, Robert R. Gillies, Randy Martin, Robert E. Davies, Marty R. Booth
A 10-yr record of PM2.5 (particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm), collected in Cache Valley near downtown Logan, Utah, reveals a strong peak in the PM2.5 concentration climatology that is tightly localized in mid-January. The cause of this subseasonal variation in the PM2.5 climatology is investigated through dynamical downscaling and large-scale diagnostics. Climatological analysis of the U.S. winter mean ridge reveals a mid-January subseasonal shift in the zonal direction, likely in response to variations in the Rossby wave source over the central North Pacific Ocean. This displacement of the winter mean ridge, in turn ...