Interval Semigroups, 2011 University of New Mexico

#### Interval Semigroups, Florentin Smarandache, W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

In this book we introduce the notion of interval semigroups using intervals of the form [0, a], a is real. Several types of interval semigroups like fuzzy interval semigroups, interval symmetric semigroups, special symmetric interval semigroups, interval matrix semigroups and interval polynomial semigroups are defined and discussed. This book has eight chapters. The main feature of this book is that we suggest 241 problems in the eighth chapter. In this book the authors have defined 29 new concepts and illustrates them with 231 examples. Certainly this will find several applications. The authors deeply acknowledge Dr. Kandasamy for the proof reading …

Dsm Vector Spaces Of Refined Labels, 2011 University of New Mexico

#### Dsm Vector Spaces Of Refined Labels, Florentin Smarandache, W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

The study of DSm linear algebra of refined labels have been done by Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert, and Xinde Li.

In this book the authors introduce the notion of DSm vector spaces of refined labels. The reader is requested to refer the paper as the basic concepts are taken from that paper [35]. This book has six chapters. The first one is introductory in nature just giving only the needed concepts to make this book a self contained one. Chapter two introduces the notion of refined plane of labels, the three dimensional space of refined labels DSm vector spaces. Clearly …

Problems With And Without … Problems!, 2011 University of New Mexico

#### Problems With And Without … Problems!, Florentin Smarandache

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

This book is addressed to College honor students, researchers, and professors. It contains 136 original problems published by the author in various scientific journals around the world. The problems could be used to preparing for courses, exams, and Olympiads in mathematics. Many of these have a generalized form. For each problem we provide a detailed solution.

I was a professeur coopérant between 1982-1984, teaching mathematics in French language at Lycée Sidi EL Hassan Lyoussi in Sefrou, Province de Fès, Morocco. I used many of these problems for selecting and training, together with other Moroccan professors, in Rabat city, of the …

Uniform And Partially Uniform Redistribution Rules, 2011 University of New Mexico

#### Uniform And Partially Uniform Redistribution Rules, Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

This paper introduces two new fusion rules for combining quantitative basic belief assignments. These rules although very simple have not been proposed in literature so far and could serve as useful alternatives because of their low computation cost with respect to the recent advanced Proportional Conflict Redistribution rules developed in the DSmT framework.

G-Neutrosophic Space, 2011 University of New Mexico

#### G-Neutrosophic Space, Mumtaz Ali, Florentin Smarandache, Munazza Naz, Muhammad Shabir

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

The Concept of a G-space came into being as a consequence of Group action on an ordinary set. Over the history of Mathematics and Algebra, theory of group action has emerged and proven to be an applicable and effective framework for the study of different kinds of structures to make connection among them.

Generalized Interval Neutrosophic Soft Set And Its Decision Making Problem, 2011 University of New Mexico

#### Generalized Interval Neutrosophic Soft Set And Its Decision Making Problem, Said Broumi

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

In this work, we introduce the concept of generalized interval neutrosophic soft set and study their operations. Finally, we present an application of generalized interval neutrosophic soft set in decision making problem.

Elliptic Curves: Minimally Spanning Prime Fields And Supersingularity, 2011 Bard College

#### Elliptic Curves: Minimally Spanning Prime Fields And Supersingularity, Travis Mcgrath

*Senior Projects Spring 2011*

Elliptic curves are cubic curves that have been studied throughout history. From Diophantus of Alexandria to modern-day cryptography, Elliptic Curves have been a central focus of mathematics. This project explores certain geometric properties of elliptic curves defined over finite fields.

Fix a finite field. This project starts by demonstrating that given enough elliptic curves, their union will contain every point in the affine plane. We then find the fewest curves possible such that their union still contains all these points. Using some of the tools discussed in solving this problem, we then explore what can be said about the number …

Morse Theory, 2011 California State University, San Bernardino

#### Morse Theory, Rozaena Naim

*Theses Digitization Project*

This study will mainly concentrate on Morse Theory. Morse Theory is the study of the relations between functions on a space and the shape of the space. The main part of Morse Theory is to look at the critical points of a function, and to find information on the shape of the space using the information about the critical points.

Symmetric Generation Of M₂₂, 2011 California State University, San Bernardino

#### Symmetric Generation Of M₂₂, Bronson Cade Lim

*Theses Digitization Project*

This study will prove the Mathieu group M₂₂ contains two symmetric generating sets with control grougp L₃ (2). The first generating set consists of order 3 elements while the second consists of involutions.

On The Irreducibility Of The Cauchy-Mirimanoff Polynomials, 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

#### On The Irreducibility Of The Cauchy-Mirimanoff Polynomials, Brian C. Irick

*Doctoral Dissertations*

The Cauchy-Mirimanoff Polynomials are a class of polynomials that naturally arise in various classical studies of Fermat's Last Theorem. Originally conjectured to be irreducible over 100 years ago, the irreducibility of the Cauchy-Mirimanoff polynomials is still an open conjecture.

This dissertation takes a new approach to the study of the Cauchy-Mirimanoff Polynomials. The reciprocal transform of a self-reciprocal polynomial is defined, and the reciprocal transforms of the Cauchy-Mirimanoff Polynomials are found and studied. Particular attention is given to the Cauchy-Mirimanoff Polynomials with index three times a power of a prime, and it is shown that the Cauchy-Mirimanoff Polynomials of index …

Fractions Of Numerical Semigroups, 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

#### Fractions Of Numerical Semigroups, Harold Justin Smith

*Doctoral Dissertations*

Let S and T be numerical semigroups and let k be a positive integer. We say that S is the quotient of T by k if an integer x belongs to S if and only if kx belongs to T. Given any integer k larger than 1 (resp., larger than 2), every numerical semigroup S is the quotient T/k of infinitely many symmetric (resp., pseudo-symmetric) numerical semigroups T by k. Related examples, probabilistic results, and applications to ring theory are shown.

Given an arbitrary positive integer k, it is not true in general that every numerical semigroup S is the …

The Four-Color Theorem And Chromatic Numbers Of Graphs, 2010 Lynchburg College

#### The Four-Color Theorem And Chromatic Numbers Of Graphs, Sarah E. Cates

*Undergraduate Theses and Capstone Projects*

We study graph colorings of the form made popular by the four-color theorem. Proved by Appel and Haken in 1976, the Four-Color Theorem states that all planar graphs can be vertex-colored with at most four colors. We consider an alternate way to prove the Four-Color Theorem, introduced by Hadwiger in 1943 and commonly know as Hadwiger’s Conjecture. In addition, we examine the chromatic number of graphs which are not planar. More specifically, we explore adding edges to a planar graph to create a non-planar graph which has the same chromatic number as the planar graph which we started from.

Some New Transformations For Bailey Pairs And Wp-Bailey Pairs, 2010 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

#### Some New Transformations For Bailey Pairs And Wp-Bailey Pairs, James Mclaughlin

*Mathematics Faculty Publications*

We derive several new transformations relating WP-Bailey pairs. We also consider the corresponding relations relating standard Bailey pairs, and as a consequence, derive some quite general expansions for products of theta functions which can also be expressed as certain types of Lambert series.

An Identity Motivated By An Amazing Identity Of Ramanujan, 2010 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

#### An Identity Motivated By An Amazing Identity Of Ramanujan, James Mclaughlin

*Mathematics Faculty Publications*

Ramanujan stated an identity to the effect that if three sequences {an}, {bn} and {cn} are defined by r1(x) =: ∑∞ n=0 anx n , r2(x) =: ∑∞ n=0 bnx n and r3(x) =: ∑∞ n=0 cnx n (here each ri(x) is a certain rational function in x), then a 3 n + b 3 n − c 3 n = (−1)n , ∀ n ≥ 0. Motivated by this amazing identity, we state and prove a more general identity involving eleven sequences, the new identity being ”more general” in the sense that equality holds not just for the power …

Continued Fraction Proofs Of M-Versions Of Some Identities Of Rogers-Ramanujan-Slater Type, 2010 Northern Illinois University

#### Continued Fraction Proofs Of M-Versions Of Some Identities Of Rogers-Ramanujan-Slater Type, Douglas Bowman, James Mclaughlin, Nancy Wyshinksi

*Mathematics Faculty Publications*

We derive two general transformations for certain basic hypergeometric series from the recurrence formulae for the partial numerators and denominators of two q-continued fractions previously investigated by the authors. By then specializing certain free parameters in these transformations, and employing various identities of Rogers-Ramanujan type, we derive m-versions of these identities. Some of the identities thus found are new, and some have been derived previously by other authors, using different methods. By applying certain transformations due to Watson, Heine and Ramanujan, we derive still more examples of such m-versions of Rogers Ramanujan-type identities.

The Fibonacci Sequence, 2010 Parkland College

#### The Fibonacci Sequence, Arik Avagyan

*A with Honors Projects*

A review was made of the Fibonacci sequence, its characteristics and applications.

Super Special Codes Using Super Matrices, 2010 University of New Mexico

#### Super Special Codes Using Super Matrices, Florentin Smarandache, W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy, K. Ilanthenral

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

The new classes of super special codes are constructed in this book using the specially constructed super special vector spaces. These codes mainly use the super matrices. These codes can be realized as a special type of concatenated codes. This book has four chapters. In chapter one basic properties of codes and super matrices are given. A new type of super special vector space is constructed in chapter two of this book. Three new classes of super special codes namely, super special row code, super special column code and super special codes are introduced in chapter three. Applications of these …

Some Applications Of A Bailey-Type Transformation, 2010 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

#### Some Applications Of A Bailey-Type Transformation, James Mclaughlin, Peter Zimmer

*Mathematics Faculty Publications*

If k is set equal to aq in the definition of a WP Bailey pair, βn(a, k) = Xn j=0 (k/a)n−j (k)n+j (q)n−j (aq)n+j αj (a, k), this equation reduces to βn = Pn j=0 αj . This seemingly trivial relation connecting the αn’s with the βn’s has some interesting consequences, including several basic hypergeometric summation formulae, a connection to the Prouhet-Tarry-Escott problem, some new identities of the Rogers-Ramanujan-Slater type, some new expressions for false theta series as basic hypergeometric series, and new transformation formulae for poly-basic hypergeometric series.

General Wp-Bailey Chains, 2010 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

#### General Wp-Bailey Chains, James Mclaughlin, Peter Zimmer

*Mathematics Faculty Publications*

Motivated by a recent paper of Liu and Ma, we describe a number of general WP-Bailey chains. We show that many of the existing WP-Bailey chains (or branches of the WP-Bailey tree), including chains found by Andrews, Warnaar and Liu and Ma, arise as special cases of these general WP-Bailey chains. We exhibit three new branches of the WP-Bailey tree, branches which also follow as special cases of these general WP-Bailey chains. Finally, we describe a number of new transformation formulae for basic hypergeometric series which arise as consequences of these new WP-Bailey chains.

Ergodic And Combinatorial Proofs Of Van Der Waerden's Theorem, 2010 Claremont McKenna College

#### Ergodic And Combinatorial Proofs Of Van Der Waerden's Theorem, Matthew Samuel Rothlisberger

*CMC Senior Theses*

Followed two different proofs of van der Waerden's theorem. Found that the two proofs yield important information about arithmetic progressions and the theorem. van der Waerden's theorem explains the occurrence of arithmetic progressions which can be used to explain such things as the Bible Code.