# Logic and Foundations Commons™

## All Articles in Logic and Foundations

528 full-text articles. Page 7 of 20.

The Structure Of Models Of Second-Order Set Theories, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### The Structure Of Models Of Second-Order Set Theories, Kameryn J. Williams

##### Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation is a contribution to the project of second-order set theory, which has seen a revival in recent years. The approach is to understand second-order set theory by studying the structure of models of second-order set theories. The main results are the following, organized by chapter. First, I investigate the poset of T-realizations of a fixed countable model of ZFC, where T is a reasonable second-order set theory such as GBC or KM, showing that it has a rich structure. In particular, every countable partial order embeds into this structure. Moreover, we can arrange so that these embedding preserve …

On Rugina’S System Of Thought, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### On Rugina’S System Of Thought, Florentin Smarandache

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

This article investigates Rugina's orientation table and gives particular examples for several of its seven models. Leon Walras's Economics of Stable Equilibrium and Keynes's Economics of Disequilibrium are combined in Rugina's orientation table in systems which are s percent stable and 100 ÿ s percent unstable, where s may be 100, 95, 65, 50, 35, 5, and 0. Classical logic and modern logic are united in Rugina's integrated logic, and then generalized in neutrosophic logic.

Some Studies On Algebraic Integers In Q(I,√3) By Using Coset Diagram, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Some Studies On Algebraic Integers In Q(I,√3) By Using Coset Diagram, Florentin Smarandache, Saima Anis, Seok-Zun Song, Young Bae Jun

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

In this paper, we studied the action of Picard modular group PSL(2,Z[i])

Strong Degrees In Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Strong Degrees In Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs, Florentin Smarandache, Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Seema Mehra, Mohamed Talea, Manjeet Singh

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

The concept of single valued neutrosophic graphs (SVNGs) generalizes the concept of fuzzy graphs and intuitionistic fuzzy graphs. The purpose of this research paper is to define different types of strong degrees in SVNGs and introduce novel concepts, such as the vertex truth-membership, vertex indeterminacy-membership and falsity-membership sequence in SVNG with proof and numerical illustrations.

Neutrosophic Soft Rough Graphs With Application, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Neutrosophic Soft Rough Graphs With Application, Florentin Smarandache, Muhammad Akram, Hafsa M. Malik, Sundas Shahzadi

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

Neutrosophic sets (NSs) handle uncertain information while fuzzy sets (FSs) and intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFs) fail to handle indeterminate information. Soft set theory, neutrosophic set theory, and rough set theory are different mathematical models for handling uncertainties and they are mutually related. The neutrosophic soft rough set (NSRS) model is a hybrid model by combining neutrosophic soft sets with rough sets. We apply neutrosophic soft rough sets to graphs. In this research paper, we introduce the idea of neutrosophic soft rough graphs (NSRGs) and describe different methods of their construction. We consider the application of NSRG in decision-making problems. In …

Nn-Harmonic Mean Aggregation Operators-Based Mcgdm Strategy In A Neutrosophic Number Environment, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Nn-Harmonic Mean Aggregation Operators-Based Mcgdm Strategy In A Neutrosophic Number Environment, Florentin Smarandache, Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

A neutrosophic number (a + bI) is a significant mathematical tool to deal with indeterminate and incomplete information which exists generally in real-world problems, where a and bI denote the determinate component and indeterminate component, respectively. We define score functions and accuracy functions for ranking neutrosophic numbers. We then define a cosine function to determine the unknown weight of the criteria. We define the neutrosophic number harmonic mean operators and prove their basic properties. Then, we develop two novel multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM) strategies using the proposed aggregation operators. We solve a numerical example to demonstrate the feasibility, applicability, and …

Statistical Analysis Of Network Change, 2018 Portland State University

#### Statistical Analysis Of Network Change, Teresa D. Schmidt, Martin Zwick

##### Systems Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Networks are rarely subjected to hypothesis tests for difference, but when they are inferred from datasets of independent observations statistical testing is feasible. To demonstrate, a healthcare provider network is tested for significant change after an intervention using Medicaid claims data. First, the network is inferred for each time period with (1) partial least squares (PLS) regression and (2) reconstructability analysis (RA). Second, network distance (i.e., change between time periods) is measured as the mean absolute difference in (1) coefficient matrices for PLS and (2) calculated probability distributions for RA. Third, the network distance is compared against a reference distribution …

What Makes A Theory Of Infinitesimals Useful? A View By Klein And Fraenkel, 2018 Bar-Ilan University

#### What Makes A Theory Of Infinitesimals Useful? A View By Klein And Fraenkel, Vladimir Kanovei, Karin Katz, Mikhail Katz, Thomas Mormann

##### Journal of Humanistic Mathematics

Felix Klein and Abraham Fraenkel each formulated a criterion for a theory of infinitesimals to be successful, in terms of the feasibility of implementation of the Mean Value Theorem. We explore the evolution of the idea over the past century, and the role of Abraham Robinson's framework therein.

Categories Of Residuated Lattices, 2018 University of Denver

#### Categories Of Residuated Lattices, Daniel Wesley Fussner

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

We present dual variants of two algebraic constructions of certain classes of residuated lattices: The Galatos-Raftery construction of Sugihara monoids and their bounded expansions, and the Aguzzoli-Flaminio-Ugolini quadruples construction of srDL-algebras. Our dual presentation of these constructions is facilitated by both new algebraic results, and new duality-theoretic tools. On the algebraic front, we provide a complete description of implications among nontrivial distribution properties in the context of lattice-ordered structures equipped with a residuated binary operation. We also offer some new results about forbidden configurations in lattices endowed with an order-reversing involution. On the duality-theoretic front, we present new results on …

Special Subset Vertex Subgraphs For Social Networks, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Special Subset Vertex Subgraphs For Social Networks, Florentin Smarandache, W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Ilanthenral K

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

In this book authors for the first time introduce the new notion of special subset vertex subgraph of subset vertex graphs introduced recently in [46]. These subset vertex graphs takes the vertex set values from the power set P(X) of any set X. The main speciality of these subset vertex graphs is that once a set of subsets from P(X) is given, the edges of the graph are fixed in a unique way, so for a given collection of subset vertices the graph is always unique [46]. The special subset vertex subgraphs of G are the ones, which have the …

Neutrosophic Operational Research - Vol. 3., 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Neutrosophic Operational Research - Vol. 3., Florentin Smarandache, Mohamed Abdel Basset, Victor Chang

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

Foreword John R. Edwards This book is an excellent exposition of the use of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to generate data analytic insights to make evidence-based decisions, to improve productivity, and to manage cost-risk and benefitopportunity in public and private sectors. The design and the content of the book make it an up-to-date and timely reference for professionals, academics, students, and employees, in particular those involved in strategic and operational decisionmaking processes to evaluate and prioritize alternatives to boost productivity growth, to optimize the efficiency of resource utilization, and to maximize the effectiveness of outputs and impacts to stakeholders. It …

New Trends In Neutrosophic Theory And Applications Volume Ii, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### New Trends In Neutrosophic Theory And Applications Volume Ii, Florentin Smarandache, Surapati Pramanik

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

Neutrosophic set has been derived from a new branch of philosophy, namely Neutrosophy. Neutrosophic set is capable of dealing with uncertainty, indeterminacy and inconsistent information. Neutrosophic set approaches are suitable to modeling problems with uncertainty, indeterminacy and inconsistent information in which human knowledge is necessary, and human evaluation is needed. Neutrosophic set theory was proposed in 1998 by Florentin Smarandache, who also developed the concept of single valued neutrosophic set, oriented towards real world scientific and engineering applications. Since then, the single valued neutrosophic set theory has been extensively studied in books and monographs introducing neutrosophic sets and its applications, …

Neutrosophic Logic: The Revolutionary Logic In Science And Philosophy -- Proceedings Of The National Symposium, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Neutrosophic Logic: The Revolutionary Logic In Science And Philosophy -- Proceedings Of The National Symposium, Florentin Smarandache, Huda E. Khalid, Ahmed K. Essa

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

The first part of this book is an introduction to the activities of the National Symposium, as well as a presentation of Neutrosophic Scientific International Association (NSIA), based in New Mexico, USA, also explaining the role and scope of NSIA - Iraqi branch. The NSIA Iraqi branch presents a suggestion for the international instructions in attempting to organize NSIA's work. In the second chapter, the pivots of the Symposium are presented, including a history of neutrosophic theory and its applications, the most important books and papers in the advancement of neutrosophics, a biographical note of Prof. Florentin Smarandache in Arabic …

Mod Rectangular Natural Neutrosophic Numbers, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Mod Rectangular Natural Neutrosophic Numbers, Florentin Smarandache, K. Ilanthenral, W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

In this book authors introduce the new notion of MOD rectangular planes. The functions on them behave very differently when compared to MOD planes (square). These are different from the usual MOD planes. Algebraic structures on these MOD rectangular planes are defined and developed. However we have built only MOD interval natural neutrosophic products

Subset Vertex Graphs For Social Networks, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Subset Vertex Graphs For Social Networks, Florentin Smarandache, W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy, K. Ilanthenral

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

In this book authors for the first time introduce the notion of subset vertex graph using the vertex set as the subset of the power set P(S), S is assumed in this book to be finite; however it can be finite or infinite. We have defined two types of subset vertex graphs, one is directed and the other one is not directed. The most important fact which must be kept in record is that for a given set of vertices there exists one and only one subset vertex graph be it of type I or type II. Several important and …

Neutrosophic Multi-Criteria Decision Making, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Neutrosophic Multi-Criteria Decision Making, Florentin Smarandache, Jun Ye, Yanhui Guo

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

The notion of a neutrosophic quadruple BCK/BCI-number is considered in the first article (“Neutrosophic Quadruple BCK/BCI-Algebras”, by Young Bae Jun, Seok-Zun Song, Florentin Smarandache, and Hashem Bordbar), and a neutrosophic quadruple BCK/BCI-algebra, which consists of neutrosophic quadruple BCK/BCI-numbers, is constructed. Several properties are investigated, and a (positive implicative) ideal in a neutrosophic quadruple BCK-algebra and a closed ideal in a neutrosophic quadruple BCI-algebra are studied. Given subsets A and B of a BCK/BCI-algebra, the set NQ(A,B), which consists of neutrosophic quadruple BCK/BCInumbers with a condition, is established. Conditions for the set NQ(A,B) to be a (positive implicative) ideal of a …

Special Issue: Algebraic Structures Of Neutrosophic Triplets, Neutrosophic Duplets, Or Neutrosophic Multisets, Vol. I, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Special Issue: Algebraic Structures Of Neutrosophic Triplets, Neutrosophic Duplets, Or Neutrosophic Multisets, Vol. I, Florentin Smarandache, Xiaohong Zhang, Mumtaz Ali

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

Neutrosophic Linear Programming Problems, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Neutrosophic Linear Programming Problems, Florentin Smarandache, Abdel-Nasser Hussian, Mai Mohamed, Mohamed Abdel-Baset

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

Smarandache presented neutrosophic theory as a tool for handling undetermined information. Wang et al. introduced a single valued neutrosophic set that is a special neutrosophic sets and can be used expediently to deal with real-world problems, especially in decision support. In this paper, we propose linear programming problems based on neutrosophic environment. Neutrosophic sets are characterized by three independent parameters, namely truth-membership degree (T), indeterminacy-membership degree (I) and falsity-membership degree (F), which are more capable to handle imprecise parameters. We also transform the neutrosophic linear programming problem into a crisp programming model by using neutrosophic set parameters. To measure the …

Spanning Tree Problem With Neutrosophic Edge Weights, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Spanning Tree Problem With Neutrosophic Edge Weights, Florentin Smarandache, Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Arindam Dey, Le Hoang Son

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

Neutrosophic set and neutrosophic logic theory are renowned theories to deal with complex, not clearly explained and uncertain real life problems, in which classical fuzzy sets/models may fail to model properly. This paper introduces an algorithm for finding minimum spanning tree (MST) of an undirected neutrosophic weighted connected graph (abbr. UNWCG) where the arc/edge lengths are represented by a single valued neutrosophic numbers. To build the MST of UNWCG, a new algorithm based on matrix approach has been introduced. The proposed algorithm is compared to other existing methods and finally a numerical example is provided.

Operadores Con Conjunto Neutrosóficos De Valor Único Oversets, Undersets Y Offset, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Operadores Con Conjunto Neutrosóficos De Valor Único Oversets, Undersets Y Offset, Florentin Smarandache

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

Neutrosophic Over-/Under-/Off-Set and Logic were defined for the first time in 1995 and published in 2007. During 1995-2016 was presented them to various national and international conferences and seminars. These new notions are totally different from other sets/logics/probabilities. We extended the neutrosophic set respectively to Neutrosophic Overset {when some neutrosophic component is > 1}, to Neutrosophic Underset {when some neutrosophic component is < 0}, and to Neutrosophic Offset {when some neutrosophic components are off the interval [0, 1], i.e. some neutrosophic component > 1 and other neutrosophic component < 0}. This is no surprise since our realworld has numerous examples and applications of over-/under-/off-neutrosophic components. Palabras clave. desbordado neutrosophic, underset neutrosophic, neutrosophic offset, neutrosophic sobre la lógica, neutrosophic bajo la lógica, neutrosophic off lógica, neutrosophic sobre la probabilidad, neutrosophic bajo probabilidad, neutrosophic de probabilidad, más de miembros (grado de pertenencia> 1), bajo de miembros (grado de pertenencia <0) , (grado de pertenencia fuera del intervalo [0, 1]) offmembership.