# Logic and Foundations Commons™

## All Articles in Logic and Foundations

528 full-text articles. Page 4 of 20.

Model Theory Of Groups And Monoids, 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Model Theory Of Groups And Monoids, Laura M. Lopez Cruz

##### Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

We first show that arithmetic is bi-interpretable (with parameters) with the free monoid and with partially commutative monoids with trivial center. This bi-interpretability implies that these monoids have the QFA property and that finitely generated submonoids of these monoids are definable. Moreover, we show that any recursively enumerable language in a finite alphabet X with two or more generators is definable in the free monoid. We also show that for metabelian Baumslag-Solitar groups and for a family of metabelian restricted wreath products, the Diophantine Problem is decidable. That is, we provide an algorithm that decides whether or not a given …

A Paradox Solved (Or 3), 2020 Ouachita Baptist University

#### A Paradox Solved (Or 3), Lee Grisham

##### Scholars Day Conference

I gained an interest in paradoxes when I was introduced to the Grandfather paradox as a child, and began studying time travel, along with all the effects and thought experiments it could lead to. This, in turn, led to my researching many more paradoxes and having something to do in my free time that didn’t require anything outside my own thoughts. Several paradoxes I found stumped me then, and still do to this day. However, there are some that I have recently begun to feel like I am understanding much more clearly. One day this past semester, I was thinking …

Inductive Constructions In Logic And Graph Theory, 2020 Belmont University

#### Inductive Constructions In Logic And Graph Theory, Davis Deaton

##### Honors Scholars Collaborative Projects

Just as much as mathematics is about results, mathematics is about methods. This thesis focuses on one method: induction. Induction, in short, allows building complex mathemati- cal objects from simple ones. These mathematical objects include the foundational, like logical statements, and the abstract, like cell complexes. Non-mathematicians struggle to find a common thread throughout all of mathematics, but I present induction as such a common thread here. In particular, this thesis discusses everything from the very foundations of mathematics all the way to combina- torial manifolds. I intend to be casual and opinionated while still providing all necessary formal rigor. …

2020 California State University, San Bernardino

#### Collaboration (Reacting To The Past/Math/History/Writing), James Hayashi

##### Q2S Enhancing Pedagogy

This is an assignment for a Freshman level course in the College of Natural Science. By the end students will have an understanding of valid research, collaboration and communication skills. Faculty that chooses to use this assignment will be preparing students for an active learning environment, and understanding a “Big Idea”, valid research, technology and communication skills.

Faculty should give an example of what is valid research. As students are completing this assignment mini deadlines (check-ins) shall be set. With the check-ins for this assignment focus on how the group will communicate the check point and the collaboration.

The focus …

Semi De Morgan Logic Properly Displayed, 2020 Utrecht University

#### Semi De Morgan Logic Properly Displayed, Giuseppe Greco, Fei Qin, M. Andrew Moshier, Alessandra Palmigiano

##### Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

In the present paper, we endow semi De Morgan logic and a family of its axiomatic extensions with proper multi-type display calculi which are sound, complete, conservative, and enjoy cut elimination and subformula property. Our proposal builds on an algebraic analysis of the variety of semi De Morgan algebras, and applies the guidelines of the multi-type methodology in the design of display calculi.

Math 220p Foundations Of Mathematics, 2020 CUNY Queens College

#### Math 220p Foundations Of Mathematics, Nicholas Vlamis

##### Open Educational Resources

No abstract provided.

Introduction To Game Theory: A Discovery Approach, 2020 Linfield College

#### Introduction To Game Theory: A Discovery Approach, Jennifer Firkins Nordstrom

##### Linfield Authors Book Gallery

Game theory is an excellent topic for a non-majors quantitative course as it develops mathematical models to understand human behavior in social, political, and economic settings. The variety of applications can appeal to a broad range of students. Additionally, students can learn mathematics through playing games, something many choose to do in their spare time! This text also includes an exploration of the ideas of game theory through the rich context of popular culture. It contains sections on applications of the concepts to popular culture. It suggests films, television shows, and novels with themes from game theory. The questions in …

Neutrosophic In Latin America, Advances And Perspectives (Neutrosofía En Latinoamérica, Avances Y Perspectivas), 2020 University of New Mexico

#### Neutrosophic In Latin America, Advances And Perspectives (Neutrosofía En Latinoamérica, Avances Y Perspectivas), Maykel Leyva-Vazquez, Jesus Estupinan, Florentin Smarandache

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

Neutrosophy has given way to its own research method by constituting a unified field of logic for a transdisciplinary study that crosses the borders between the sciences. This paper analyzes the impact of neutrosophic theory in Latin America, its main drivers and the state of the research. The increase in publications since the creation of the Latin American Association of Neutrosophic Sciences is noteworthy. The most approached areas are found in the interrelation of the social sciences and neutrosophy, presenting outstanding results in these areas of research. The most outstanding university and institutions are the Autonomous Regional University of the …

Octagonal Neutrosophic Number: Its Different Representations, Properties, Graphs And De-Neutrosophication With The Application Of Personnel Selection, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### Octagonal Neutrosophic Number: Its Different Representations, Properties, Graphs And De-Neutrosophication With The Application Of Personnel Selection, Muhammad Saqlain, Florentin Smarandache

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

To deal with fluctations in decision-making, fuzzy / neutrosophic numbers are used. The problem having more fluctuations are difficult to sovle. Thus it is a dire need to define higher order number, also It is a very curious question by researchers all around the world that how octagonal neutrosophic number can be represented and how to be graphed? In this research article, the primarily focused on the representation and graphs of octagonal neutrosophic number. at last, a case study is done using VIKOR method based on octagonal neutrosophic number. These representations will be helpful in multi-criteria decision making problems in …

Introduction To Neutroalgebraic Structures And Antialgebraic Structures (Revisited), 2020 University of New Mexico

#### Introduction To Neutroalgebraic Structures And Antialgebraic Structures (Revisited), Florentin Smarandache

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

In all classical algebraic structures, the Laws of Compositions on a given set are well-defined. But this is a restrictive case, because there are many more situations in science and in any domain of knowledge when a law of composition defined on a set may be only partially-defined (or partially true) and partially-undefined (or partially false), that we call NeutroDefined, or totally undefined (totally false) that we call AntiDefined. Again, in all classical algebraic structures, the Axioms (Associativity, Commutativity, etc.) defined on a set are totally true, but it is again a restrictive case, because similarly there are numerous situations …

Neutroalgebra Is A Generalization Of Partial Algebra, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### Neutroalgebra Is A Generalization Of Partial Algebra, Florentin Smarandache

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

In this paper we recall, improve, and extend several definitions, properties and applications of our previous 2019 research referred to NeutroAlgebras and AntiAlgebras (also called NeutroAlgebraic Structures and respectively AntiAlgebraic Structures). Let be an item (concept, attribute, idea, proposition, theory, etc.). Through the process of neutrosphication, we split the nonempty space we work on into three regions {two opposite ones corresponding to and , and one corresponding to neutral (indeterminate) (also denoted ) between the opposites}, which may or may not be disjoint – depending on the application, but they are exhaustive (their union equals the whole space). A NeutroAlgebra …

Fifteenth International Photovideoanthology On Paradoxism, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### Fifteenth International Photovideoanthology On Paradoxism, Florentin Smarandache

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

Paradoxism is an international movement in science and culture, founded by Florentin Smarandache in 1980s, based on excessive use of antitheses, oxymoron, contradictions, and paradoxes. During three decades (1980-2020) hundreds of authors from tenth of countries around the globe contributed papers to 15 international paradoxist anthologies.

In 1995, the author extended the paradoxism to a new branch of philosophy called neutrosophy, that gave birth to many scientific branches, such as: neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic set, neutrosophic probability and statistics, neutrosophic algebraic structures and so on with multiple applications in engineering, computer science, administrative work, medical research etc.

Quadruple Neutrosophic Theory And Applications Volume I, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### Quadruple Neutrosophic Theory And Applications Volume I, Florentin Smarandache, Memet Şahin, Vakkas Uluçay, Abdullah Kargin

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

Neutrosophic set has been derived from a new branch of philosophy, namely Neutrosophy. Neutrosophic set is capable of dealing with uncertainty, indeterminacy and inconsistent information. Neutrosophic set approaches are suitable to modeling problems with uncertainty, indeterminacy and inconsistent information in which human knowledge is necessary, and human evaluation is needed. Neutrosophic set theory firstly proposed in 1998 by Florentin Smarandache, who also developed the concept of single valued neutrosophic set, oriented towards real world scientific and engineering applications. Since then, the single valued neutrosophic set theory has been extensively studied in books and monographs introducing neutrosophic sets and its applications, …

2020 University of New Mexico

#### Extension Of Hypergraph To N-Superhypergraph And To Plithogenic N-Superhypergraph, And Extension Of Hyperalgebra To N-Ary (Classical-/Neutro-/Anti-)Hyperalgebra, Florentin Smarandache

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

We recall and improve our 2019 concepts of n-Power Set of a Set, n-SuperHyperGraph, Plithogenic n-SuperHyperGraph, and n-ary HyperAlgebra, n-ary NeutroHyperAlgebra, n-ary AntiHyperAlgebra respectively, and we present several properties and examples connected with the real world.

Neutro-Bck-Algebra, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### Neutro-Bck-Algebra, Florentin Smarandache, Mohammad Hamidi

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

This paper introduces the novel concept of Neutro-BCK-algebra. In Neutro-BCK-algebra, the outcome of any given two elements under an underlying operation (neutro-sophication procedure) has three cases, such as: appurtenance, non-appurtenance, or indeterminate. While for an axiom: equal, non-equal, or indeterminate. This study investigates the Neutro-BCK-algebra and shows that Neutro-BCK-algebra are different from BCK-algebra. The notation of Neutro-BCK-algebra generates a new concept of NeutroPoset and Neutro-Hass-diagram for NeutroPosets. Finally, we consider an instance of applications of the Neutro-BCK-algebra.

On Neutro-Be-Algebras And Anti-Be-Algebras, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### On Neutro-Be-Algebras And Anti-Be-Algebras, Florentin Smarandache, Akbar Rezaei

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

In this paper, the concepts of Neutro-BE-algebra and Anti-BE-algebra are introduced, and some related properties and four theorems are investigated. We show that the classes of Neutro-BE-algebra and Anti-BE-algebras are alternatives of the class of BE-algebras.

2020 University of New Mexico

#### Generalizations And Alternatives Of Classical Algebraic Structures To Neutroalgebraic Structures And Antialgebraic Structures, Florentin Smarandache

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

In this paper we present the development from paradoxism to neutrosophy, which gave birth to neutrosophic set and logic and especially to NeutroAlgebraic Structures (or NeutroAlgebras) and AntiAlgebraic Structures (or AntiAlgebras) that are generalizations and alternatives of the classical algebraic structures.

Interval Valued Neutrosophic Shortest Path Problem By A* Algorithm, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### Interval Valued Neutrosophic Shortest Path Problem By A* Algorithm, Florentin Smarandache, S. Khrisna Prabha, Said Broumi

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

Many researchers have been proposing various algorithms to unravel different types of fuzzy shortest path problems. There are many algorithms like Dijkstra’s, Bellman-Ford,Floyd-Warshall and kruskal’s etc are existing for solving the shortest path problems. In this work a shortest path problem with interval valued neutrosophic numbers is investigated using the proposed algorithm. A* algorithm is extensively applied in pathfinding and graph traversal.Unlike the other algorithms mentioned above, A* algorithm entails heuristic function to uncover the cost of path that traverses through the particular state. In the structured work A* algorithm is applied to unravel the length of the shortest path …

(Φ, Ψ)-Weak Contractions In Neutrosophic Cone Metric Spaces Via Fixed Point Theorems, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### (Φ, Ψ)-Weak Contractions In Neutrosophic Cone Metric Spaces Via Fixed Point Theorems, Florentin Smarandache, Wadei F. Al-Omeri

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

In this manuscript, we obtain common fixed point theorems in the neutrosophic cone metric space. Also, notion of (Φ, Ψ)-weak contraction is defined in the neutrosophic cone metric space by using the idea of altering distance function. Finally, we review many examples of cone metric spaces to verify some properties.

New Challenges In Neutrosophic Theory And Applications, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### New Challenges In Neutrosophic Theory And Applications, Florentin Smarandache, Stefan Vladutescu, Miihaela Colhon, Wadei Al-Omeri, Saeid Jafari, Muhammad Zahir Khan, Muhammad Farid Khan, Muhammad Aslam, Abdur Razzaque Mughal

##### Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

Neutrosophic theory has representatives on all continents and, therefore, it can be said to be a universal theory. On the other hand, according to the three volumes of “The Encyclopedia of Neutrosophic Researchers” (2016, 2018, 2019), plus numerous others not yet included in Encyclopedia book series, about 1200 researchers from 73 countries have applied both the neutrosophic theory and method. Neutrosophic theory was founded by Professor Florentin Smarandache in 1998; it constitutes further generalization of fuzzy and intuitionistic fuzzy theories. The key distinction between the neutrosophic set/logic and other types of sets/logics lies in the introduction of the degree of …