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Management Effects On Breeding And Foraging Numbers And Movements Of Double-Crested Cormorants In The Les Cheneaux Islands, Lake Huron, Michigan, Brian S. Dorr, Tony Aderrnan, Peter H. Butchko, Scott C. Barras 2010 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Management Effects On Breeding And Foraging Numbers And Movements Of Double-Crested Cormorants In The Les Cheneaux Islands, Lake Huron, Michigan, Brian S. Dorr, Tony Aderrnan, Peter H. Butchko, Scott C. Barras

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The yellow perch fishery of the Les Cheneaux Islands (LCl) region of Lake Huron, MI suffered a collapse in 2000, attributed in part to the increase of double-crested cormorants (Phalocrocorax auritus) in the region. A management program involving egg-oiling and lethal culling was initiated in 2004 to reduce cormorant foraging on yellow perch in the LC1. Counts of cormorant nests, nests oiled, cormorants culled, and aerial counts and telemetry surveys were used to evaluate management. Management contributed to a 74% reduction of cormorants on breeding colonies from 2004 to 2007. Cormorants used the LC1 area significantly more (P<0.05) than surrounding areas. Aerial counts of foraging cormorants declined significantly (P<0.05) over the entire survey area but not within the LCl proper. However, aerial counts of cormorants in the LCI were five-fold less than cormorant counts in the same area in 1995. Reduced cormorant numbers were attributed in part to the elimination of cormorant nesting on a large colony due to the introduction of raccoons. Although the numbers of cormorants using the LC1 did not decline, flocks were significantly smaller and more dispersed after management began. The reduced number of cormorants from 1995 levels and more dispersed foraging likely reduced predation on fish stocks including yellow perch in the LC1. Our findings indicate that the relationship between reduction in cormorant breeding numbers and reduced cormorant foraging in a given area is complex and may be influenced by density dependent factors such as intraspecific competition and quality of the forage base.


Evaluation Of Harassment Of Migrating Double-Crested Cormorants To Limit Depredation On Selected Sport Fisheries In Michigan, Brian S. Dorr, Ashley Moerke, Michael Bur, Chuck Bassett, Tony Aderman, Dan Traynor, Russell D. Singleton, Peter H. Butchko, Jimmy D. Taylor II 2010 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Evaluation Of Harassment Of Migrating Double-Crested Cormorants To Limit Depredation On Selected Sport Fisheries In Michigan, Brian S. Dorr, Ashley Moerke, Michael Bur, Chuck Bassett, Tony Aderman, Dan Traynor, Russell D. Singleton, Peter H. Butchko, Jimmy D. Taylor Ii

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Diverse management techniques have been used to mitigate conflicts between humans and double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) including harassment methods supplemented by lethal take. In this study we evaluated impacts or programs to harass spring migrating cormorants on the walleye (Sander vitreus) fishery in Brevoort Lake and the yellow perch (Perca flavescens ) and walleye fisheries at Drummond Island. Cormorant foraging declined significantly (p < 0.05) at both locations subsequent to initiation of harassment programs. Overall harassment deteired 90% of cormorant foraging attempts while taking less than 6% lethally on average at each site. Yellow perch were a predominate prey item in number and biomass at both locations. Walleye made up a small proportion of the diet at both locations. However, both walleye and yellow perch abundance increased significantly (p<0.05) at Drummond Island. Walleye abundance at age 3 increased to record levels in 2008 following 3 years of cormorant management at Brevoort Lake. The estimated cormorant consumption of age 1 walleye in the absence of management at Brevoort Lake during 2005 would account for 55% of the record 2006 age 1 walleye population. These results support the hypothesis, that cormorant predation on spawning aggregations of sportfish was a significant mortality factor and cormorant management reduced sportfish mortality and increased abundance at both locations. Continuation of harassment programs and .fishery assessments will determine whether improvement of targeted sport fisheries through control of spring migrating cormorants is sustainable.


An Evaluation Of Diazacon As A Potential Contraceptive In Non-Native Rose-Ringed Parakeets, Mark Lambert, Giovanna Massel, Christi Yoder, David Cowan 2010 Food and Environment Research Agency, United Kingdom

An Evaluation Of Diazacon As A Potential Contraceptive In Non-Native Rose-Ringed Parakeets, Mark Lambert, Giovanna Massel, Christi Yoder, David Cowan

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Rose-ringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri) have become widely established outside their native range through accidental or deliberate release. Potential economic impacts on agriculture, conservation concerns, and mixed public opinion regarding the species have highlighted the need to develop effective but humane management options. Fertility control might provide such a solution if a safe and environmentally benign contraceptive was available. The chemical 20,25-diazacholesterol dihydrochloride (diazacon) has previously been used to reduce reproductive output in avian species through reduction of blood cholesterol and cholesterol-dependent reproductive hormones. We orally dosed captive rose-ringed parakeets with a solution of either 9 mg/kg or 18 ...


Reproductive Biology Of Male Brown Treesnakes (Boiga Irregularis) On Guam, Tom Mathies, John A. Cruz, Valentine A. Lance, Julie A. Savidge 2010 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services

Reproductive Biology Of Male Brown Treesnakes (Boiga Irregularis) On Guam, Tom Mathies, John A. Cruz, Valentine A. Lance, Julie A. Savidge

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Reproductive biology of males in the Guam population of the Brown Treesnake, Boiga irregularis, was investigated through monthly examinations of the urogenital system organs and plasma testosterone levels. All males examined during the 12 consecutive months of the study were spermatogenic and had sperm in the ductus epididymis and ductus deferens. No evidence of testicular recrudescence or regression was observed. Testis mass did not vary among months. Epithelial height of the kidney sexual segment was the only feature examined that varied significantly among months, with lowest heights observed in May through July. Despite this variation, the sexual segment in all ...


Contraceptive Efficacy Of A Novel Intrauterine Device (Iud) In White-Tailed Deer, Karl D. Malcolm, Timothy R. Van Deelen, David Drake, Darrel J. Kesler, Kurt C. VerCauteren 2010 University of Wisconsin, Madison, Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology

Contraceptive Efficacy Of A Novel Intrauterine Device (Iud) In White-Tailed Deer, Karl D. Malcolm, Timothy R. Van Deelen, David Drake, Darrel J. Kesler, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) pose risks to property, health, and safety of human beings. Public concerns about lethal management can impair efforts to address these issues, particularly in urban settings. Several techniques developed for reducing reproductive output of deer have limited utility because they require repeated dosing to achieve permanent effect and face uncertain regulatory approval for use beyond experimentation. From 10 August 2006 through 30 December 2007, we evaluated the contraceptive efficacy of copper-containing intrauterine devices (IUDs) implanted trans-cervically in white-tailed deer at the E.S. George Reserve in Pinckney, Michigan. Intrauterine devices were implanted before (n = 9 ...


Evaluation Of Feral Swine- Specific Feeder Systems, David B. Long, Tyler A. Campbell, Giovanna Massei 2010 United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Florida Field Station

Evaluation Of Feral Swine- Specific Feeder Systems, David B. Long, Tyler A. Campbell, Giovanna Massei

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Feral swine (Sus scrofa) have been introduced across many portions of the globe, including rangeland ecosystems of the United States. Feral swine populations are expanding because of their adaptability, high reproductive potential, and because they are (accidentally and intentionally) released by humans. Today, feral swine are the most abundant exotic ungulate in the United States.

Rangeland ecosystems are impacted by feral swine primarily through soil disturbance caused by rooting activities. Within these systems, natural disturbances (e.g., burrowing, grazing by native animals, and periodic fire) generally increase or maintain species diversity. However, rooting by feral swine often occurs at intensities ...


Seeking A Second Opinion: Uncertainty In Disease Ecology, Brett T. McClintock, James D. Nichols, Larissa L. Bailey, Darryl I. MacKenzie, William. L. Kendall, Alan B. Franklin 2010 USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center

Seeking A Second Opinion: Uncertainty In Disease Ecology, Brett T. Mcclintock, James D. Nichols, Larissa L. Bailey, Darryl I. Mackenzie, William. L. Kendall, Alan B. Franklin

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Analytical methods accounting for imperfect detection are often used to facilitate reliable inference in population and community ecology. We contend that similar approaches are needed in disease ecology because these complicated systems are inherently difficult to observe without error. For example, wildlife disease studies often designate individuals, populations, or spatial units to states (e.g., susceptible, infected, post-infected), but the uncertainty associated with these state assignments remains largely ignored or unaccounted for. We demonstrate how recent developments incorporating observation error through repeated sampling extend quite naturally to hierarchical spatial models of disease effects, prevalence, and dynamics in natural systems. A ...


A Silent Enzootic Of An Orthopoxvirus In Ghana, West Africa: Evidence For Multi-Species Involvement In The Absence Of Widespread Human Disease, Mary G. Reynolds, Darin S. Carroll, Victoria A. Olson, Christine Hughes, Jack Galley, Anna Likos, Joel M. Montgomery, Richard Suu-Ire, Mubarak O. Kwasi, J. Jeffrey Root, Zach Braden, Jason Abel, Cody Clemmons, Russell Regnery, Kevin Karem, Inger K. Damon 2010 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

A Silent Enzootic Of An Orthopoxvirus In Ghana, West Africa: Evidence For Multi-Species Involvement In The Absence Of Widespread Human Disease, Mary G. Reynolds, Darin S. Carroll, Victoria A. Olson, Christine Hughes, Jack Galley, Anna Likos, Joel M. Montgomery, Richard Suu-Ire, Mubarak O. Kwasi, J. Jeffrey Root, Zach Braden, Jason Abel, Cody Clemmons, Russell Regnery, Kevin Karem, Inger K. Damon

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Human monkeypox has never been reported in Ghana, but rodents captured in forested areas of southern Ghana were the source of the monkeypox virus introduced into the United States in 2003. Subsequent to the outbreak in the United States, 204 animals were collected from two commercial trapping sites in Ghana. Animal tissues were examined for the presence of orthopoxvirus (OPXV) DNA using a real-time polymerase chain reaction, and sera were assayed for antibodies against OPXV. Animals from five genera (Cricetomys , Graphiurus , Funiscirus, and Heliosciurus ) had antibodies against OPXV, and three genera (Cricetomys , Graphiurus , and Xerus) had evidence of OPXV DNA ...


The Earliest House Sparrow Introductions To North America, Michael P. Moulton, Wendell P. Cropper Jr., Michael L. Avery, Linda E. Moulton 2010 University of Florida

The Earliest House Sparrow Introductions To North America, Michael P. Moulton, Wendell P. Cropper Jr., Michael L. Avery, Linda E. Moulton

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Several authors have argued that three separate introductions of roughly 100 individuals were required initially to establish the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) in the Brooklyn, New York area. We argue that these claims are in error and that the actual record suggests that it is likely the initial introduction of just 16 birds in 1851 was all that was required to establish the species in New York. We further suggest that a similar level of scrutiny of historical records will reveal more examples of misinterpretations and errors, casting doubt on the validity of studies that claim propagule pressure has played ...


Test Of Localized Management For Reducing Deer Browsing In Forest Regeneration Areas, Brad F. Miller, Tyler A. Campbell, Ben Laseter, W. Mark Ford, Karl Miller 2010 Arkansas Game and Fish Commission

Test Of Localized Management For Reducing Deer Browsing In Forest Regeneration Areas, Brad F. Miller, Tyler A. Campbell, Ben Laseter, W. Mark Ford, Karl Miller

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) browsing in forest regeneration sites can affect current and future stand structure and species composition. Removal of deer social units (localized management) has been proposed as a strategy to alleviate deer overbrowsing in forest systems. We conducted an experimental localized removal in a high-density deer population in the central Appalachians of West Virginia, USA, during winter 2002. We removed 51 deer within a 1.1-km2 area that encompassed 2 forest regeneration sites (14 ha). During the summer following removal, we detected decreases in distance from the removal area in 8 of 30 (26.7%) adult ...


The Versatility Of Graded Acoustic Measures In Classification Of Predation Threats By The Tufted Titmouse Baeolophus Bicolor: Exploring A Mixed Framework For Threat Communication, Kathryn E. Sieving, Stacia A. Hetrick, Michael L. Avery 2010 Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida

The Versatility Of Graded Acoustic Measures In Classification Of Predation Threats By The Tufted Titmouse Baeolophus Bicolor: Exploring A Mixed Framework For Threat Communication, Kathryn E. Sieving, Stacia A. Hetrick, Michael L. Avery

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Many mammal and bird species respond to predator encounters with alarm vocalizations that generate risk-appropriate responses in listeners. Two conceptual frameworks are typically applied to the information encoded in alarm calls and to associated anti-predator behaviors. ‘Functionally referential’ alarm systems encode nominal classes or categories of risk in distinct call types that refer to distinct predation-risk situations. ‘Risk-based’ alarms encode graded or ranked threat-levels by varying the production patterns of the same call types as the urgency of predation threat changes. Recent work suggests that viewing alarm-response interactions as either referential or risk-based may oversimplify how animals use information in ...


Potential Economic Damage From Introduction Of Brown Tree Snakes, Boiga Irregularis (Reptilia: Colubridae), To The Islands Of Hawai‘I, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Karen Gebhardt, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, Steven S. Shwiff 2010 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Potential Economic Damage From Introduction Of Brown Tree Snakes, Boiga Irregularis (Reptilia: Colubridae), To The Islands Of Hawai‘I, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Karen Gebhardt, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, Steven S. Shwiff

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis) has caused ecological and economic damage to Guam, and the snake has the potential to colonize other islands in the Pacific Ocean. This study quantifies the potential economic damage if the snake were translocated, established in the state of Hawaii, and causing damage at levels similar to those on Guam. Damages modeled included costs of medical treatments due to snakebites, snake-caused power outages, and decreased tourism resulting from effects of the snake. Damage caused by presence of the Brown Tree Snake on Guam was used as a guide to estimate potential economic damage to ...


Polyurea Elastomer Protects Utility Pole Crossarms From Damage By Pileated Woodpeckers, Shelagh Tupper, William Andelt, John Cummings, Charles Weisner, Richard Harness 2010 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services

Polyurea Elastomer Protects Utility Pole Crossarms From Damage By Pileated Woodpeckers, Shelagh Tupper, William Andelt, John Cummings, Charles Weisner, Richard Harness

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Woodpeckers cause severe damage to utility poles and crossarms, resulting in substantial economic losses to utility companies. We evaluated effectiveness of a polyurea elastomer coating material for reducing damage by captive pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) to utility pole crossarms. Because woodpeckers inflicted essentially no damage to the fully coated crossarms, we infer that the coating material holds substantial promise for protecting utility pole crossarms. Additional research should be conducted to evaluate the coating under field conditions.


Evaluation Of Christmas Bird Counts And Landscape Factors As Indicators Of Local Blackbird And European Starling Winter Roosts, Matthew Strassburg, George M. Linz, William Bleier 2010 Department of Biological Sciences, North Dakota State University

Evaluation Of Christmas Bird Counts And Landscape Factors As Indicators Of Local Blackbird And European Starling Winter Roosts, Matthew Strassburg, George M. Linz, William Bleier

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Red-winged blackbirds (RWBL) and common grackles (COGR) are the two most abundant blackbird species on the continent; Brewer's blackbirds (BRBL) are a much less common, but closely related species, and along with European starlings (EUST), they are two of the most common groups of birds in North America, with combined populations that reach into the several hundreds of millions and make up a significant portion of the avian population (Yasukawa and Searcy 1995). Although the most common bird on the continent, certain regions have seen declines in RWBL for a number of decades. In Ohio and North Dakota, this ...


Potential Attractants For Detecting And Removing Invading Gambian Giant Pouched Rats (Cricetomys Gambianus), Gary W. Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, Patrick Burke 2010 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services

Potential Attractants For Detecting And Removing Invading Gambian Giant Pouched Rats (Cricetomys Gambianus), Gary W. Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, Patrick Burke

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

BACKGROUND: Native to Africa, Gambian giant pouched rats (Gambian rats; Cricetomys gambianus Waterh.) are a threatening invasive species on a Florida island, Grassy Key. Gambian giant pouched rats shifted from a domestic pet to invading species after suspected release from a pet breeder. Because of the large size of Gambian rats (weighing up to 2.8 kg), they pose a serious threat to native species (particularly nesting species) and agricultural crops, especially if Gambian rats invade mainland Florida. Also, Gambian rats pose a threat from disease, as they were implicated in a monkeypox outbreak in the mid-western United States in ...


Epizootiologic Survey Of Mycobacterium Bovis In Wildlife And Farm Environments In Northern Michigan, Gary W. Witmer, Amanda E. Fine, James Gionfriddo, Michael Pipas, Kirk Shively, Kim Piccolo, Patrick Burke 2010 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services

Epizootiologic Survey Of Mycobacterium Bovis In Wildlife And Farm Environments In Northern Michigan, Gary W. Witmer, Amanda E. Fine, James Gionfriddo, Michael Pipas, Kirk Shively, Kim Piccolo, Patrick Burke

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Bovine tuberculosis (bovine TB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, has reemerged in northern Michigan, USA, with detections in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 1994 and in cattle in 1998. Since then, significant efforts have been directed toward reducing deer densities in the area in the hopes of reducing the bovine TB prevalence rate in deer and eliminating spillover of the disease into cattle. Despite the success of the efforts to reduce deer densities, additional cattle herds have become infected. Other mammals can be infected with M. bovis, and some carnivores and omnivores had been found to be infected with the disease ...


Capture Of Ungulates In Central Asia Using Drive Nets: Advantages And Pitfalls Illustrated By The Endangered Mongolian Saiga Saiga Tatarica Mongolica, Joel Berger, Kim M. Murray, Bayarbaatar Buuveibaatar, Mike R. Dunbar, Badamjav Lkhagvasuren 2010 University of Montana, Missoula

Capture Of Ungulates In Central Asia Using Drive Nets: Advantages And Pitfalls Illustrated By The Endangered Mongolian Saiga Saiga Tatarica Mongolica, Joel Berger, Kim M. Murray, Bayarbaatar Buuveibaatar, Mike R. Dunbar, Badamjav Lkhagvasuren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The study of mammals suffering intense poaching in remote areas poses an increasingly difficult conservation challenge, in part because the extreme flightiness of such species complicates safe capture. The benefits of handling (an opportunity to obtain biological information and attach radio collars) must be weighed against stress to the animals and potential capture-related mortality. In parts of Central Asia this problem is not trivial, as populations have been heavily harvested and opportunities for restraint are often limited. Mongolian saiga Saiga tatarica mongolica, being both Endangered and poached, typifies these issues. Here we describe capture protocols for adult females handled quickly ...


Seroprevalence Of Equine Influenza Virus In Northeast And Southern Mexico, B. J. Blitvitch, L. A. Ibarra-Juarez, A. J. Cortes-Guzman, J. J. Root, A. B. Franklin, H. J. Sullivan, I. Fernandez-Salas 2010 Iowa State University

Seroprevalence Of Equine Influenza Virus In Northeast And Southern Mexico, B. J. Blitvitch, L. A. Ibarra-Juarez, A. J. Cortes-Guzman, J. J. Root, A. B. Franklin, H. J. Sullivan, I. Fernandez-Salas

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Equine influenza A virus (EIV) is a highly infectious respiratory pathogen of horses (Hannant and Mumford 1996, Palese and Shaw 2007). The illness is characterised by an abrupt onset of fever, depression, coughing and nasal discharge, and is often complicated by secondary bacterial infections that can lead to pneumonia and death. Two subtypes of EIV, H3N8 and H7N7, have been isolated. The H7N7 subtype was first isolated from a horse in Czechoslovakia in 1956 (Prague/56), and the H3N8 subtype was first isolated from a horse in Miami in 1963 (Sovinova and others 1958, Waddell and others 1963). The last ...


In Memory William B. Jackson 1926-2010, Michael W. Fall 2010 Human-Wildlife Interactions

In Memory William B. Jackson 1926-2010, Michael W. Fall

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

DR. WILLIAM B. JACKSON of Chicago, Illinois, passed away July 15, 2010. He was a scientist, teacher, husband, father, grandfather, and friend. Over the years, he served as an advisor and mentor to many people who found their way to his classes or offices at Bowling Green State University (BGSU).

He was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, September 10, 1926, and spent many hours collecting insects and watching birds, becoming president of his high school nature club and an Eagle Scout. He earned B.A. and M.A. degrees from the University of Wisconsin, and his Sc.D. in vertebrate ecology ...


Water And Solute Transport In The Shallow Subsurface Of A Riverine Wetland Natural Levee, April Elea Newman 2010 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Water And Solute Transport In The Shallow Subsurface Of A Riverine Wetland Natural Levee, April Elea Newman

LSU Master's Theses

In riverine wetlands, the rate and magnitude of water exchanged between river channels and adjacent wetlands have a major influence on hydrologic function and associated aquatic habitat and water quality. River channels are generally separated from backswamps by natural levees; however, preferential flow may allow potentially substantial water and solute exchange between them. Determining the influence of preferential flow on water and solute transport in natural levees requires an innovative approach that allows measurement of transport rates at a scale large enough to capture field-scale variability. To test the hypothesis that preferential flow is important to subsurface water movement through ...


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