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Review Of Issues Concerning The Use Of Reproductive Inhibitors, With Particular Emphasis On Resolving Human-Wildlife Conflicts In North America, Kathleen A. Fagerstone, Lowell A. Miller, Gary Killian, Christi A. Yoder 2010 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services

Review Of Issues Concerning The Use Of Reproductive Inhibitors, With Particular Emphasis On Resolving Human-Wildlife Conflicts In North America, Kathleen A. Fagerstone, Lowell A. Miller, Gary Killian, Christi A. Yoder

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

This manuscript provides an overview of past wildlife contraception efforts and discusses the current state of research. Two fertility control agents, an avian reproductive inhibitor containing the active ingredient nicarbazin and an immunocontraceptive vaccine, have received regulatory approval with the Environmental Protection Agency and are commercially available in the USA. OvoControl G Contraceptive Bait for Canada Geese and Ovo Control for pigeons are delivered as oral baits. An injectable immunocontraceptive vaccine (GonaCon Immunocontraceptive Vaccine) was registered with the Environmental Protection Agency for use in female white-tailed deer in September 2009. An injectable product (GonaCon Immunocontraceptive Vaccine) is registered for use ...


Hrc Enews — 2010 Winter, Megan K. Svarz 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Hrc Enews — 2010 Winter, Megan K. Svarz

Publications (HRC)

This issue contains staff accomplishments and announcements, event listings, a "new faces" listing for new staff, affiliates, and researchers, and an "on the move" section listing new developments.


Potential Economic Damage From Introduction Of Brown Tree Snakes, Boiga Irregularis (Reptilia: Colubridae), To The Islands Of Hawai‘I, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Karen Gebhardt, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, Steven S. Shwiff 2010 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Potential Economic Damage From Introduction Of Brown Tree Snakes, Boiga Irregularis (Reptilia: Colubridae), To The Islands Of Hawai‘I, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Karen Gebhardt, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, Steven S. Shwiff

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis) has caused ecological and economic damage to Guam, and the snake has the potential to colonize other islands in the Pacific Ocean. This study quantifies the potential economic damage if the snake were translocated, established in the state of Hawaii, and causing damage at levels similar to those on Guam. Damages modeled included costs of medical treatments due to snakebites, snake-caused power outages, and decreased tourism resulting from effects of the snake. Damage caused by presence of the Brown Tree Snake on Guam was used as a guide to estimate potential economic damage to ...


Reproductive Biology Of Male Brown Treesnakes (Boiga Irregularis) On Guam, Tom Mathies, John A. Cruz, Valentine A. Lance, Julie A. Savidge 2010 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services

Reproductive Biology Of Male Brown Treesnakes (Boiga Irregularis) On Guam, Tom Mathies, John A. Cruz, Valentine A. Lance, Julie A. Savidge

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Reproductive biology of males in the Guam population of the Brown Treesnake, Boiga irregularis, was investigated through monthly examinations of the urogenital system organs and plasma testosterone levels. All males examined during the 12 consecutive months of the study were spermatogenic and had sperm in the ductus epididymis and ductus deferens. No evidence of testicular recrudescence or regression was observed. Testis mass did not vary among months. Epithelial height of the kidney sexual segment was the only feature examined that varied significantly among months, with lowest heights observed in May through July. Despite this variation, the sexual segment in all ...


Integrity Of Mating Behaviors And Seasonal Reproduction In Coyotes (Canis Latrans) Following Treatment With Estradiol Benzoate, Debra A. Carlson, Eric M. Gese 2010 Utah State University, Logan, Department of Wildland Resources

Integrity Of Mating Behaviors And Seasonal Reproduction In Coyotes (Canis Latrans) Following Treatment With Estradiol Benzoate, Debra A. Carlson, Eric M. Gese

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Coyotes (Canis latrans) are seasonally monestrous and form perennial pair-bonds. Breeding is dominated by each pack’s alpha male and female, and both sexes share responsibility for territory defense and pup-rearing. They are also opportunistic predators on domestic livestock and pets. But while dominant adults have been implicated as primary killers, depredation is reduced when coyotes are without pups. Contraception, therefore, may represent a non-lethal solution for conflicts between coyotes and humans. Steroid hormones successfully control fertility in some species, but have been considered contraindicated in wildlife and canids in particular; specific concerns include possible induction of aberrant behavior, or ...


Jaguars, Livestock, And People In Brazil: Realities And Perceptions Behind The Conflict, Sandra C. Cavalcanti, Silvio Marchini, Alexandra Zimmermann, Eric M. Gese, David W. Macdonald 2010 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Jaguars, Livestock, And People In Brazil: Realities And Perceptions Behind The Conflict, Sandra C. Cavalcanti, Silvio Marchini, Alexandra Zimmermann, Eric M. Gese, David W. Macdonald

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The jaguar (Panthera onca) is the largest predator in the Neotropics and is arguably the most charismatic species for .conservation in Central and South America. Regrettably, the jaguar is also the carnivore that is least compatible with humans in twenty-first century Brazil. This fundamental incompatibility is due to the jaguar's need for abundant, large prey, as well as extensive, undisturbed habitat. Humans (also large, top predators) have competed directly with jaguars for food (i.e. native and domestic ungulates) for as long as they have coexisted (Jorgenson and Redford 1993), and lately threaten them directly and indirectly through deforestation ...


Evidence For Recent Population Bottlenecks In Northern Spotted Owls (Strix Occidentalis Caurina), W. Chris Funk, Eric D. Forsman, Matthew Johnson, Thomas D. Mullins, Susan M. Haig 2010 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Evidence For Recent Population Bottlenecks In Northern Spotted Owls (Strix Occidentalis Caurina), W. Chris Funk, Eric D. Forsman, Matthew Johnson, Thomas D. Mullins, Susan M. Haig

USGS Staff -- Published Research

The northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is one of the most controversial threatened subspecies ever listed under the US Endangered Species Act. Despite protection of its remaining forest habitat, recent field studies show continued declines of northern spotted owls. One potential threat to northern spotted owls which has not yet been shown is loss of genetic variation from population bottlenecks. Bottlenecks can increase the probability of mating among related individuals, potentially causing inbreeding depression, and can decrease adaptive potential. Here we report evidence for recent bottlenecks in northern spotted owls using a large genetic dataset (352 individuals and 10 ...


The Cleaning Of Burned And Contaminated Archaeological Maize Prior To 87sr/86sr Analysis, L.V. Benson, H. E. Taylor, T. I. Plowman, D. A. Roth, R. C. Antweiler 2010 U.S. Geological Survey

The Cleaning Of Burned And Contaminated Archaeological Maize Prior To 87sr/86sr Analysis, L.V. Benson, H. E. Taylor, T. I. Plowman, D. A. Roth, R. C. Antweiler

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Accurate trace-metal and strontium-isotope analyses of archaeological corn cobs require that metal contaminants be removed prior to chemical analysis. Archaeological cobs are often coated with construction debris, dust, or soilwhich contains mineral particles. In addition, most archaeological cobs are partially or completely burned and the burned parts incorporate mineral debris in their hardened residual structures. Unburned cobs are weak ion exchangers and most metals within a cob are not firmly bound to cob organic matter; therefore, immersing cobs in acids and rinsing them in deionized water to remove mineral contaminants may result in the undesirable loss of metals, including strontium ...


Tree-Ring Dates And Demographic Change In The Southern Colorado Plateau And Rio Grande Regions, Michael S. Berry, Larry Benson 2010 Bureau of Reclamation, Salt Lake City, UT

Tree-Ring Dates And Demographic Change In The Southern Colorado Plateau And Rio Grande Regions, Michael S. Berry, Larry Benson

USGS Staff -- Published Research

In this chapter, tree-ring dates from the southern Colorado Plateau, Mogollon Highlands, and Rio Grande areas (fig. 3-1) (hereafter referred to as the study area) are used to estimate regional-scale timber-harvesting and construction activities between AD 600 and 1600 (the Basketmaker III through Pueblo IV periods). Within that time span, we focus our attention particularly on the AD 1045-1300 period, a time when anomalously wet periods alternated with megadroughts (fig. 3.2). Treering- date distributions (histograms) for eight archaeological subregions within the study area have been created using a database of more than twenty-four thousand tree-ring dates from archaeological sites ...


Development And Application Of A Pollen-Based Paleohydrologic Reconstruction From The Lower Roanoke River Basin, North Carolina, Usa, Debra Willard, Christopher Bernhardt, Roger Brown, Bryan Landacre, Philip A. Townsend 2010 US Geological Survey

Development And Application Of A Pollen-Based Paleohydrologic Reconstruction From The Lower Roanoke River Basin, North Carolina, Usa, Debra Willard, Christopher Bernhardt, Roger Brown, Bryan Landacre, Philip A. Townsend

USGS Staff -- Published Research

We used pollen assemblages to reconstruct late-Holocene paleohydrologic patterns in floodplain deposits from the lower Roanoke River basin (North Carolina, southeastern USA). Using 120 surface samples from 38 transects, we documented statistical relationships between pollen assemblages, vegetation, and landforms. Backswamp pollen assemblages (long hydroperiods) are dominated by Nyssa (tupelo) and Taxodium (cypress) and have high pollen concentrations. Sediments from elevated levees and seasonally flooded forests (shorter hydroperiods) are characterized by dominant Pinus (pine) pollen, variable abundance of hardwood taxa, and low pollen concentrations. We apply the calibration data set to interpret past vegetation and paleohydrology. Pollen from a radiocarbon-dated sediment ...


Absorption And Biotransformation Of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers De-71 And De-79 In Chicken (Gallus Gallus), Mallard (Anas Platyrhynchos), American Kestrel (Falco Sparverius) And Black-Crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax Nycticorax) Eggs, Moira A. McKernan, Barnett A. Rattner, Jeff S. Hatfield, Robert C. Hale, Mary Ann Ottinger 2010 University of Maryland

Absorption And Biotransformation Of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers De-71 And De-79 In Chicken (Gallus Gallus), Mallard (Anas Platyrhynchos), American Kestrel (Falco Sparverius) And Black-Crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax Nycticorax) Eggs, Moira A. Mckernan, Barnett A. Rattner, Jeff S. Hatfield, Robert C. Hale, Mary Ann Ottinger

USGS Staff -- Published Research

We recently reported that air cell administration of penta-brominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) evokes biochemical and immunologic effects in chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos at very low doses, and impairs pipping (i.e., stage immediately prior to hatching) and hatching success at 1.8 µg g-1 egg (actual dose absorbed) in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). In the present study, absorption of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners was measured following air cell administration of a penta-BDE mixture (11.1 lg DE-71 g-1 egg) or an octa-brominated diphenyl ether mixture (octa BDE; DE-79; 15.4 lg DE-79 g-1 egg). Uptake ...


Song Of Wekiva: Florida’S Wild River And Its Democratic Vista, Steve Phelan 2010 Rollins College

Song Of Wekiva: Florida’S Wild River And Its Democratic Vista, Steve Phelan

Faculty Publications

Today hundreds of thousands enjoy the river every year. We are a different breed. When I take our children or my students to the river or walk along its sandy uplands to show them undiscovered and unmapped springs popping out of the ground, they and I are still abiding in a domesticated world that erects a substantial, almost impervious barrier to the wilderness of the river. Nevertheless, that wildness is built unconsciously into our bodies. We are not like the Timucuans, the first humans to come down the St. Johns River and eventually up the Wekiva to the two main ...


A Silent Enzootic Of An Orthopoxvirus In Ghana, West Africa: Evidence For Multi-Species Involvement In The Absence Of Widespread Human Disease, Mary G. Reynolds, Darin S. Carroll, Victoria A. Olson, Christine Hughes, Jack Galley, Anna Likos, Joel M. Montgomery, Richard Suu-Ire, Mubarak O. Kwasi, J. Jeffrey Root, Zach Braden, Jason Abel, Cody Clemmons, Russell Regnery, Kevin Karem, Inger K. Damon 2010 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

A Silent Enzootic Of An Orthopoxvirus In Ghana, West Africa: Evidence For Multi-Species Involvement In The Absence Of Widespread Human Disease, Mary G. Reynolds, Darin S. Carroll, Victoria A. Olson, Christine Hughes, Jack Galley, Anna Likos, Joel M. Montgomery, Richard Suu-Ire, Mubarak O. Kwasi, J. Jeffrey Root, Zach Braden, Jason Abel, Cody Clemmons, Russell Regnery, Kevin Karem, Inger K. Damon

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Human monkeypox has never been reported in Ghana, but rodents captured in forested areas of southern Ghana were the source of the monkeypox virus introduced into the United States in 2003. Subsequent to the outbreak in the United States, 204 animals were collected from two commercial trapping sites in Ghana. Animal tissues were examined for the presence of orthopoxvirus (OPXV) DNA using a real-time polymerase chain reaction, and sera were assayed for antibodies against OPXV. Animals from five genera (Cricetomys , Graphiurus , Funiscirus, and Heliosciurus ) had antibodies against OPXV, and three genera (Cricetomys , Graphiurus , and Xerus) had evidence of OPXV DNA ...


Subspecies Status And Population Genetic Structure In Piping Plover (Charadrius Melodus), Mark P. Miller, Susan M. Haig, Cheri L. Gratto-Trevor, Thomas D. Mullins 2010 U.S. Geological Survey

Subspecies Status And Population Genetic Structure In Piping Plover (Charadrius Melodus), Mark P. Miller, Susan M. Haig, Cheri L. Gratto-Trevor, Thomas D. Mullins

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) is a migratory shorebird that is listed as endangered in Canada and the U.S. Great Lakes and as threatened throughout the rest of its breeding and winter range. We undertook a comprehensive molecular-genetic investigation to (1) address subspecific taxonomy, (2) characterize population genetic structure, and (3) infer past bottlenecks and demographic processes in this species. Analyses included individuals from 23 U.S. states and Canadian provinces and were based on mitochondrial DNA sequences (580 base pairs, n = 245) and 8 nuclear microsatellite loci (n = 229). Our findings provide support for separate Atlantic and Interior subspecies ...


Western Australian Resource Condition Monitoring Projects 2007-2009, Ceidwen Pengelly, 2010 2010 Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia

Western Australian Resource Condition Monitoring Projects 2007-2009, Ceidwen Pengelly, 2010

All other publications

Monitoring the status and trends of our natural resources is the only way we can assess whether the actions that have been implemented are making a difference. The impetus for this resource condition monitoring program (RCM) was the recognition that our monitoring networks, baseline data and data management systems were inadequate to enable quantitative reporting to government, and the community, on the difference their investments in natural resource management were making. It was considered that making a significant investment in raising our ability to report would be a long-lasting legacy of value to the state.


Impacts Of Marsh Loss And Fragmentation On Microhabitat Use By Estuarine Nekton In Southwest Louisiana, John Alexander Gordon 2010 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Impacts Of Marsh Loss And Fragmentation On Microhabitat Use By Estuarine Nekton In Southwest Louisiana, John Alexander Gordon

LSU Master's Theses

In Louisiana, the extensive loss and fragmentation of coastal marshes has prompted inquires into the impacts these processes may have on estuarine-dependant nekton. To date, research on nekton response to marsh loss and fragmentation has been limited to landscape-level studies which focus on the relationship between nekton productivity and the availability of marsh edge. These studies have relied on the assumption that marsh edges provide the same level of support to nekton regardless of the degree of surrounding marsh loss or fragmentation. This study tested this assumption by investigating the impacts of marsh loss and fragmentation on marsh-edge characteristics and ...


Bioaerosols And The Risk Of Upper Respiratory Infection In Dental Hygienists, Christen Rebecca Gautreau 2010 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Bioaerosols And The Risk Of Upper Respiratory Infection In Dental Hygienists, Christen Rebecca Gautreau

LSU Master's Theses

Multitudes of pathogenic and infectious microbes are known to spread via contaminated aerosols. Dental personnel have an increased incidence of respiratory infections. Ultrasonic scaling procedures are reported to produce the largest amounts of contaminated aerosols of any dental procedure. The goal of the current study was to see if dental hygienists are at an increased risk of respiratory infections during the performance of their job and to see if certain dental procedures had a significant effect on this risk. This study was conducted at the Dental Hygiene Clinic of the Louisiana State University School of Dentistry in New Orleans, LA ...


How Long Does This Litter Last?, Public Lands Institute 2010 Public Lands Institute

How Long Does This Litter Last?, Public Lands Institute

Anti-littering Presentations

Timeline for how long different types of waste last in the Nevada desert.


Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Study: Reducing Water Consumption Of Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation, U.S. Department of Energy 2010 U.S. Department of Energy

Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Study: Reducing Water Consumption Of Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation, U.S. Department Of Energy

Publications (E)

This report discusses potential methods to reduce water consumption associated with CSP. Four main concentrating solar power technologies are described in this report: parabolic troughs, linear Fresnel, power towers, and dish/engine. Parabolic troughs are the most commercially available technology. Linear Fresnel and power tower technologies are presently being planned as commercial plants, but none have yet been built in the U.S. The first three of these technologies use the heat collected from the sun to power conventional Rankine steam cycles, similar to those used for coal and nuclear plants. Steam cycle power plants require cooling to function (cooling ...


Using Landscape Genetics To Assess Population Connectivity In A Habitat Generalist, Tyler Duncan Hether 2010 University of Central Florida

Using Landscape Genetics To Assess Population Connectivity In A Habitat Generalist, Tyler Duncan Hether

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the nature of genetic variation in natural populations is an underlying theme of population genetics. In recent years population genetics has benefited from the incorporation of landscape and environmental data into pre-existing models of isolation by distance (IBD) to elucidate features influencing spatial genetic variation. Many of these landscape genetics studies have focused on populations separated by discrete barriers (e.g., mountain ridges) or species with specific habitat requirements (i.e., habitat specialists). One difficulty in using a landscape genetics approach for taxa with less stringent habitat requirements (i.e., generalists) is the lack of obvious barriers to gene ...


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