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Relationships Between Meteorological And Other Variables And Bobwhite Spring Call Counts, Jeffrey G. Whitt, Kelly S. Reyna 2022 Texas A & M University - Commerce

Relationships Between Meteorological And Other Variables And Bobwhite Spring Call Counts, Jeffrey G. Whitt, Kelly S. Reyna

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Accurate assessment of quail population trends is critical to the success of future conservation efforts. Financial considerations and time constraints often limit population trend estimates to indices, the most common of which are spring call counts and autumn covey counts. While all indices have limitations and caveats, spring call count data specifically possess variability that makes them ill-suited for detecting fine-scale trends. However, because spring call counts record calling males and are relatively easy to conduct, they are assumed to represent an index of breeding potential and produce the most data per unit cost. Here, we examine their variability, comparing …


Detection Rates Of Northern Bobwhite Coveys Using A Small Unmanned Aerial System-Mounted Thermal Camera, Megan E. Martin, Lori A. Hearon, Kristine O. Evans, Raymond B. Iglay, Jesse I. Morrison, Mark D. McConnell 2022 Mississippi State University

Detection Rates Of Northern Bobwhite Coveys Using A Small Unmanned Aerial System-Mounted Thermal Camera, Megan E. Martin, Lori A. Hearon, Kristine O. Evans, Raymond B. Iglay, Jesse I. Morrison, Mark D. Mcconnell

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

The northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; hereafter, bobwhite) requires intensive monitoring to evaluate management efforts and determine harvest rates. However, traditional monitoring techniques (e.g., covey-call surveys) are labor-intensive and imprecise. Small unmanned aerial systems (sUASs) mounted with thermal cameras have demonstrated promise for monitoring multiple avian species and could provide a less intensive and more effective approach to monitoring bobwhite coveys, assuming coveys produce a recognizable heat signature. To assess sUAS monitoring, we evaluated the influence of bobwhite covey size (3, 6, and 12) and cover type (grass, shrub, and forest) on covey detectability by a sUAS equipped with …


Applying Multistate Mark-Recapture Models With State Uncertainty To Estimate Survival And Reproduction Of Quail, Rebekah E. Ruzicka 2022 Rolling Plains Quail Research Foundation

Applying Multistate Mark-Recapture Models With State Uncertainty To Estimate Survival And Reproduction Of Quail, Rebekah E. Ruzicka

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Obtaining unbiased estimates of vital rates and understanding how vital rates change in response to environmental stimuli are a continual pursuit of ecologists. Multistate mark-recapture (MSMR) models provide a flexible framework for evaluating dependent vital rates in a comprehensive analysis. For example, a bird must remain alive during breeding season to initiate a nest (i.e., transition from a nonbreeding to a breeding state); thus, the probability that a bird initiates a nest is dependent on the probability that it is still alive. Traditional MSMR models allow only for the estimation of survival, detection, and state transition parameters and depend on …


Exploring A Plant-Diversity Hypothesis To Explain Helminth Prevalence In Northern Bobwhite In Texas, John E. Herschberger, Shaelyn T. Rainey, Fidel Hernández, Kristyn G. Stewart, Andrea Montalvo, Lindsey K. Howard 2022 Texas A & M University - Kingsville

Exploring A Plant-Diversity Hypothesis To Explain Helminth Prevalence In Northern Bobwhite In Texas, John E. Herschberger, Shaelyn T. Rainey, Fidel Hernández, Kristyn G. Stewart, Andrea Montalvo, Lindsey K. Howard

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Helminths, in particular eyeworms (Oxyspirura petrowi), may be a factor influencing northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; hereafter, bobwhite) populations in Texas, USA. Mean eyeworm prevalence in Texas appears to be greater in the Rolling Plains (55.1%) than the Rio Grande Plains (16.4%), a pattern generally attributed to possible differences in the occurrence of insects, the intermediate hosts of eyeworms. We explored an alternative hypothesis centered on plant diversity. Many plants possess phytochemicals with anthelmintic properties. Because wild animals suffering from parasitic infestations are capable of self-medicating via diet selection, organisms foraging in diverse communities may be expected …


Histopathological Analysis Of Quails In The Trans-Pecos Ecoregion Of Texas, Trey E. Johnson, Carlos E. Gonzalez, Dale Rollins, Josh G. Cross, Ryan S. Luna 2022 Sul Ross State University

Histopathological Analysis Of Quails In The Trans-Pecos Ecoregion Of Texas, Trey E. Johnson, Carlos E. Gonzalez, Dale Rollins, Josh G. Cross, Ryan S. Luna

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Quail populations in Texas, USA, have declined over the past few decades due primarily to habitat loss. The role that parasites may play in such declines has been a recent topic of concern. To help address this question, we collected 12 scaled quail (Callipepla squamata), 8 Gambel’s quail (Callipepla gambelii), and 3 Montezuma quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae) from across the Trans-Pecos ecoregion of Texas via hunter harvest, funnel traps, and night netting. Quail samples were necropsied to determine the abundance of eyeworms (Oxyspirura petrowi). Histopathological analyses were conducted on quail eyeballs and periocular …


Analysis Of Predator Avoidance Behavior In California Valley Quail, Curt Vandenberg, Jeffrey G. Whitt, Kelly S. Reyna 2022 Texas A & M University - Commerce

Analysis Of Predator Avoidance Behavior In California Valley Quail, Curt Vandenberg, Jeffrey G. Whitt, Kelly S. Reyna

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Quail populations have been in decline across the United States, primarily due to habitat loss and climate. For remedy, landowners and game managers have attempted to restore populations by releasing captive-reared quail. These releases were largely unsuccessful, presumably due to high predation losses. Recently, there has been an increased interest in quail translocations, which tend to have lower mortality rates than captive-reared bird releases. Translocations are expensive and unpredictable, and require many person-hours; releasing captive-reared quail would be more efficient if the practice were successful. We compared predator avoidance behavior between captive-reared and wild-translocated California quail (Callipepla californica) …


Characteristics Of Hunter Harvested Montezuma Quail Wings And Implications For Molt Phenology, Charles J. Randel III, Pedro M. Chavarria, C. Zach Johnson, Roel R. Lopez, John M. Tomeček, Nova J. Silvy 2022 Southwestern Wildlife Survey

Characteristics Of Hunter Harvested Montezuma Quail Wings And Implications For Molt Phenology, Charles J. Randel Iii, Pedro M. Chavarria, C. Zach Johnson, Roel R. Lopez, John M. Tomeček, Nova J. Silvy

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

We obtained 1,899 hunter-harvested Montezuma quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae) wings from southeastern Arizona, USA, from the 2008–2009 hunting season. We determined age and sex based on plumage characteristics for 98.2% (1,864) of the original sample. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of wing-chord length found differences (P < 0.001) based on sex, but not age, with mean (± standard error) male wing chord (113.76 ± 0.15 mm) longer than mean female wing chord (111.03 ± 0.13 mm). Mean male and female wing-chord lengths from our study population were 6.8% and 7.7% shorter, respectively, than previously reported in the literature. We additionally calculated a complete prebasic molt cycle of 177 days based on previously reported preformative molt patterns. The primary benefits of our results are: 1) a more accurate sex-based wing-chord length based on a large sample size, 2) a method to back-calculate molt onset dates for hunter harvested after hatch year Montezuma quail, and 3) a potential means to model the influence of precipitation on population dynamics of Montezuma quail.


Winter Diet Of Montezuma Quail In Arizona And New Mexico, Oscar E. López-Bujanda, Alberto Macías-Duarte, Reyna A. Castillo-Gámez, Angel B. Montoya 2022 Universidad de Sonora

Winter Diet Of Montezuma Quail In Arizona And New Mexico, Oscar E. López-Bujanda, Alberto Macías-Duarte, Reyna A. Castillo-Gámez, Angel B. Montoya

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Investigating the diet composition of Montezuma quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae) is fundamental for unveiling how food resources limit the species’ population size and may provide relevant tools for their harvest and habitat management. The objective of this research was to determine the composition and geographic variation of the winter diet of the Montezuma quail in Arizona and New Mexico, USA, from quail crops harvested during the hunting seasons of 2008–2017. In addition, we used beta regression analyses to determine the effect of environmental factors and ecological variables (annual mean precipitation, annual mean temperature, landscape diversity, diet diversity, time of …


Composition Of The Montezuma Quail’S Diet In Arizona, New Mexico, And Texas, Ana G. Paredes-Acuña, Alberto Macías-Duarte, Reyna A. Castillo-Gámez, Angel B. Montoya, James H. Weaver 2022 Universidad de Sonora

Composition Of The Montezuma Quail’S Diet In Arizona, New Mexico, And Texas, Ana G. Paredes-Acuña, Alberto Macías-Duarte, Reyna A. Castillo-Gámez, Angel B. Montoya, James H. Weaver

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

The Montezuma quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae) is a popular game bird and an indicator species of oak-pine savannas in the northern part of its range. In Arizona and New Mexico, USA, robust populations allow for a hunting season from mid-November through mid-February. However, there is no open hunting season for this quail in Texas, USA. Data on the Montezuma quail’s diet can provide new information and improve management of the species. Our objective was to analyze the diet composition of the Montezuma quail in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. Specimens were collected by hunters in Arizona and New Mexico …


Variability And Genetic Structure Of The Montezuma Quail Cyrtonyx Montezumae In The Northern Limit Of Its Distribution, Eduardo Sánchez Murrieta, Alberto Macías-Duarte, Reyna A. Castillo-Gámez, Angel B. Montoya, Alejandro Varela-Romero, Nohelia G. Pacheco Hoyos 2022 Universidad de Sonora

Variability And Genetic Structure Of The Montezuma Quail Cyrtonyx Montezumae In The Northern Limit Of Its Distribution, Eduardo Sánchez Murrieta, Alberto Macías-Duarte, Reyna A. Castillo-Gámez, Angel B. Montoya, Alejandro Varela-Romero, Nohelia G. Pacheco Hoyos

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

A species’ geographic distribution of genetic variability is influenced by different factors including size of geographic distribution, dispersal capability, mating system, and migration. For instance, a low migration rate among populations may cause a decrease in genetic variation. Such is the case of the Montezuma quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae), a popular game bird with a limited flight capacity that prevents long-distance dispersal. In the northern limit of the species’ distribution in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas in the United States, the species inhabits oak forests that are separated from one another by deserts. Consequently, Montezuma quail populations are distributed …


Habitat Of The Long-Tailed Wood-Partridge In Central Mexico, David García-Solózano, Crisma Lopez-Sanchez, Edgardo Lopez-González, Carlos González-Rebeles Islas 2022 The Mexican Alliance for Wildlife Conservation AMECVIS

Habitat Of The Long-Tailed Wood-Partridge In Central Mexico, David García-Solózano, Crisma Lopez-Sanchez, Edgardo Lopez-González, Carlos González-Rebeles Islas

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

The long-tailed wood-partridge (Dendrortyx macroura; hereafter, wood-partridge) is a forest quail endemic to the temperate forests of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt of central Mexico and is considered threatened according to the Secretariat of the Environment of Mexico. We studied 34 sites within the Natural Resources Protection Area River Basins of the Valle de Bravo, Malacatepec, Tilostoc and Temascaltepec in central Mexico to evaluate wood-partridge habitat during September–December 2019. We evaluated attributes of tree, shrub, and herbaceous vegetation, canopy cover, humidity, slope, and altitude. We also identified vegetation used for nesting, food, and shelter. The scant information published for …


Masked Bobwhite Recovery: The Need For A Multifaceted Approach, Lacrecia A. Johnson, Matthew J. Butler, Rebecca Chester, John G. Goodwin Jr., Grant M. Harris, Steven E. Sesnie, Donald H. Wolfe 2022 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Masked Bobwhite Recovery: The Need For A Multifaceted Approach, Lacrecia A. Johnson, Matthew J. Butler, Rebecca Chester, John G. Goodwin Jr., Grant M. Harris, Steven E. Sesnie, Donald H. Wolfe

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Masked bobwhite (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi) is a critically endangered quail historically found in the Sonoran grasslands of southern Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Native populations of masked bobwhite may already be extinct in the wild, but captive populations exist in the United States at G. M. Sutton Avian Research Center (Oklahoma, USA), Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (Arizona, USA), and various zoos. The 47,000-hectare Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge, located in south-central Arizona, was established primarily for reintroduction of this bird. Recovery efforts within the refuge boundary in the 1980s and 1990s were initially successful but suffered debilitating …


Landscape-Scale Effects Of Habitat And Weather On Scaled Quail Populations, John T. Edwards, Fidel Hernández, David B. Wester, Leonard A. Brennan, Chad J. Parent, Andrea Montalvo, Masahiro Ohnishi 2022 Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute

Landscape-Scale Effects Of Habitat And Weather On Scaled Quail Populations, John T. Edwards, Fidel Hernández, David B. Wester, Leonard A. Brennan, Chad J. Parent, Andrea Montalvo, Masahiro Ohnishi

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) have declined over the last half century; however, there is spatial variation within their geographic distribution. Interior populations have increased and peripheral populations have generally decreased. Declines have been attributed to habitat loss and degradation. Scaled quail populations also show interannual fluctuations related to precipitation. Our objective was to determine the relative impact of habitat and weather (i.e., precipitation and temperature) on scaled quail population dynamics. Our hypothesis was that habitat metrics would be more important for decreasing populations whereas weather metrics would be more important for increasing populations. We used publicly available datasets …


Age, Sex And Family Composition Of Montezuma Quail (Cyrtonyx Montezumae) Coveys In Arizona, New Mexico, And Texas, Alberto Macias-Duarte, Angel B. Montoya 2022 Universidad Estatal de Sonora

Age, Sex And Family Composition Of Montezuma Quail (Cyrtonyx Montezumae) Coveys In Arizona, New Mexico, And Texas, Alberto Macias-Duarte, Angel B. Montoya

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

The Montezuma quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae) is a popular game bird in Arizona and New Mexico, USA, but hunting seasons remain closed in Texas, USA. Estimates of age structure parameters and sex ratios in game birds are essential information for predicting population trajectories and developing sustainable harvest and conservation strategies. Montezuma quail form coveys during the winter as a behavioral strategy for improved survival. In this regard, we harvested 1–4 individuals from 112 Montezuma quail coveys in Arizona, New Mexico, and West Texas from 2009 through 2020 to estimate sex and age composition (juvenile vs. adults) of coveys. We …


Nesting Of Montezuma Quail In Mexico, David García-Solózano, Carlos González-Rebeles Islas, German D. Mendoza Martínez, Ernesto Ávila González, Fidel Hernández 2022 The Mexican Alliance for Wildlife Conservation AMECVIS

Nesting Of Montezuma Quail In Mexico, David García-Solózano, Carlos González-Rebeles Islas, German D. Mendoza Martínez, Ernesto Ávila González, Fidel Hernández

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Although Mexico has the greatest diversity of quail of any New World country, basic information on the ecology and life history of Mexican quails remains unknown. Our objective was to describe nest characteristics of the Montezuma quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae montezumae) in central Mexico. We searched for Montezuma quail nests within 8 counties in the state of México, Mexico during May–September 2003. We conducted nest searches along 66 transects (3–5 km × 40 m) distributed across 17 study sites. We recorded vegetation community, elevation, and nesting substrate for each nest. We measured nest characteristics: height, depth, nest entrance diameter, …


Montezuma Quail In The Edwards Plateau Of Texas: Detection, Occurrence, And Habitat, Zachary J. Pearson, Eric D. Grahmann, Fidel Hernández, Robert Perez, Leonard A. Brennan, Humberto L. Perotto-Baldivieso 2022 Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute

Montezuma Quail In The Edwards Plateau Of Texas: Detection, Occurrence, And Habitat, Zachary J. Pearson, Eric D. Grahmann, Fidel Hernández, Robert Perez, Leonard A. Brennan, Humberto L. Perotto-Baldivieso

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Montezuma quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae) were historically found throughout nearly every county in the Edwards Plateau region of Texas, USA. Over the last century, shifting land use, reduction of fire on the landscape, and the subsequent encroachment of woody vegetation have constricted the distribution of Montezuma quail to a few counties in the southern portion of the Edwards Plateau. A renewed interest in management for Montezuma quail over the last decade has been met with a lack of information regarding their habitat requirements in this region. This lack of general information and increased sightings of this elusive species in …


Monitoring Scaled Quail Occupancy And Colonization Post-Translocation On A Large Landscape, Rebekah E. Ruzicka, Dale Rollins 2022 Rolling Plains Quail Research Foundation

Monitoring Scaled Quail Occupancy And Colonization Post-Translocation On A Large Landscape, Rebekah E. Ruzicka, Dale Rollins

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Large landscapes are important for sustaining quail populations in semiarid climates where annual variation in vital rates, and thus population volatility, tends to be larger than in subtropical climates. Translocations may need to be conducted on a similar scale to ensure long-term success. Large landscapes pose challenges for monitoring release sites in terms of costs and logistics. However, large landscapes also provide an excellent opportunity to evaluate habitat preferences and suitability because they inherently hold more variation in habitat type. Multiseason occupancy surveys are a potential monitoring tool for translocations where population persistence is a benchmark for success. Occupancy (i.e., …


Evaluating Release Strategy For Translocated Northern Bobwhites In Cross Timbers Ecoregion Of Texas: A Pilot Study, Rebekah E. Ruzicka, Dale Rollins, Ty Bartoskewitz 2022 Rolling Plains Quail Research Foundation

Evaluating Release Strategy For Translocated Northern Bobwhites In Cross Timbers Ecoregion Of Texas: A Pilot Study, Rebekah E. Ruzicka, Dale Rollins, Ty Bartoskewitz

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) population decline is largely driven by the loss, fragmentation, and degradation of grassland habitats. Translocation is used to reintroduce or augment populations in fragmented landscapes where natural dispersal is inhibited. Northern bobwhites have been successfully translocated in the southeastern portion of their range, but outcomes of translocations in western ranges have been mixed. Our objective was to conduct a pilot study to test the feasibility of translocating northern bobwhites to a restored, but isolated, habitat in the Cross Timbers ecoregion of Texas, USA and to evaluate the influence of release strategy for improving northern …


Stress And Predation Impacts On North American Quail Translocations, Curt A. Vandenberg, Sarah A. Currier, Jeffrey G. Whitt, Kelly S. Reyna 2022 Texas A&M University Commerce

Stress And Predation Impacts On North American Quail Translocations, Curt A. Vandenberg, Sarah A. Currier, Jeffrey G. Whitt, Kelly S. Reyna

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Translocations have been used in attempts to bolster or restore native quail populations for >150 years, often with little success. However, with some northeastern United States quail populations undetectable or extirpated, and others across the United States on the extreme decline, translocation as a tool for quail population restoration is becoming increasingly popular. Two factors contributing to translocation failure are physiological stress and predation. Chronic stress associated with translocations can result in weight loss, reduced immune system function, suppressed reproduction, and an altered fight-or-flight response. These stress-induced responses increase vulnerability to predation, the primary cause of quail mortality. Here, we …


Translocating Wild California Valley Quail To Texas: An Evaluation Of Survival, Dispersal, Tracking Efficacy, And Roost Preference, Garrett Rushing, Jordan T. Conley, Jeffrey G. Whitt, Kelly S. Reyna 2022 Texas A&M University Commerce

Translocating Wild California Valley Quail To Texas: An Evaluation Of Survival, Dispersal, Tracking Efficacy, And Roost Preference, Garrett Rushing, Jordan T. Conley, Jeffrey G. Whitt, Kelly S. Reyna

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Quail translocations are becoming increasingly popular in regions of suitable habitat where local quail populations have declined. In northeastern Texas, USA, northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) populations have drastically declined for over a century and have reached undetectable levels in many areas. As a result, the number of quail hunters and quail conservation funding have also declined. California valley quail (Callipepla californica; hereafter, valley quail) have increased across their range and have been translocated to many states and countries. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether translocating wild valley quail to Texas was feasible, …


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