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Effect Of Prescribed Fire And Mechanical Treatments On Northern Bobwhite Occupancy In Mesic Pine Flatwoods, Sarah K. Brown, William E. Palmer 2022 Tall Timbers Research Station

Effect Of Prescribed Fire And Mechanical Treatments On Northern Bobwhite Occupancy In Mesic Pine Flatwoods, Sarah K. Brown, William E. Palmer

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

We examined whether roller-chopping, mowing, and prescribed fire used to restore groundcover in pine flatwoods habitats affected northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; hereafter, bobwhite) occupancy. We surveyed bobwhites using repeated point counts (n = 3), April–June each year, to determine response to prescribed fire and mechanical treatments on Osceola National Forest (Osceola, 78 plots) and St. Sebastian River Preserve State Park (Sebastian, 11 plots) in Florida, USA, 2013–2019. We measured groundcover each year at randomly placed transects within 200-m radius point-count plots. To assess the importance of management covariates, we fit single season occupancy models to predict occupancy …


Northern Bobwhite Response To Vegetation Management And Recovery In South Texas, Rachel A. Smith, Leonard A. Brennan, Humberto L. Perotto-Baldivieso, Fidel Hernández 2022 Texas A&M University, Kingsville

Northern Bobwhite Response To Vegetation Management And Recovery In South Texas, Rachel A. Smith, Leonard A. Brennan, Humberto L. Perotto-Baldivieso, Fidel Hernández

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

The northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; hereafter, bobwhite) requires habitat structure and composition with grass cover for nesting, predator avoidance, and thermal refuge and forb cover for feeding on phytophagous arthropods and seeds. During the past 2 decades, many land managers with interest in promoting quail hunting opportunities have reduced or completely eliminated livestock across South Texas, USA, rangelands. Resting the land from grazing allows vegetation—especially grasses and forbs—to recover and thus provide nesting and foraging habitat for bobwhite and other birds. How bobwhite respond to postgrazing vegetation recovery is of keen interest to rangeland quail managers, but this …


Efficacy Of A Preemergence Herbicide Following Postemergence Control To Reduce Sericea Lespedeza In Old Fields Managed For Northern Bobwhite, Mark A. Turner, Bonner L. Powell, Craig A. Harper 2022 University of Tennessee

Efficacy Of A Preemergence Herbicide Following Postemergence Control To Reduce Sericea Lespedeza In Old Fields Managed For Northern Bobwhite, Mark A. Turner, Bonner L. Powell, Craig A. Harper

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata; hereafter, sericea) is a nonnative forb that commonly invades sites managed for northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; hereafter, bobwhite). Sericea can reduce habitat quality for bobwhite as it outcompetes native plants that provide forage and cover. Bobwhite eat sericea seed, but seed are relatively indigestible and may limit nutrition intake and reduce the fecundity rate. Postemergence herbicides, including glyphosate, triclopyr, and fluroxypyr+triclopyr, control standing sericea, but do not provide preemergence control, which would increase long-term control because sericea annually produces large amounts of hard seed with high dormancy rates. Imazapic is labeled to …


A Simulation Model Of Sustained-Yield Harvest For Northern Bobwhite In South Texas, Joseph P. Sands, Stephen J. DeMaso, Fidel Hernández, Leonard A. Brennan, Matthew J. Schnupp, Trent W. Teinert, Dale Rollins, Robert M. Perez 2022 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

A Simulation Model Of Sustained-Yield Harvest For Northern Bobwhite In South Texas, Joseph P. Sands, Stephen J. Demaso, Fidel Hernández, Leonard A. Brennan, Matthew J. Schnupp, Trent W. Teinert, Dale Rollins, Robert M. Perez

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Recommended sustainable harvest rates for northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) vary greatly and range from 25% to 70% of the prehunt population. Because northern bobwhite populations have declined across their geographic range, determining sustainable harvest levels is critical for effective management. Our objectives were to use simulation modeling to identify sustainable rates of bobwhite harvest, probability of population persistence, and minimum viable population estimates. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the impacts of harvest on northern bobwhite populations in Texas, USA. We constructed a simulation model using Program STELLA 9.0 for a hypothetical northern bobwhite population on …


Spatial And Temporal Analyses Of Bobwhite Hunting Dynamics, D.Abraham Woodard, Leonard A. Brennan, Fidel Hernández, Humberto L. Perotto-Baldivieso, Neal Wilkins 2022 Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute, Texas A&M University – Kingsville

Spatial And Temporal Analyses Of Bobwhite Hunting Dynamics, D.Abraham Woodard, Leonard A. Brennan, Fidel Hernández, Humberto L. Perotto-Baldivieso, Neal Wilkins

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

A variety of factors influence the harvest of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) and where that harvest occurs on a landscape. Many of these factors can be quantified and manipulated to distribute harvest pressure across time and space to meet desired spring densities. We collected spatial hunting metrics using global positioning system units on trucks and hunting dogs, along with detailed hunting logs from 211 quail hunts during the 2018–2019, 2019–2020, and 2020–2021 statewide hunting seasons in Jim Hogg County, Texas, USA. We found that hunting parties effectively covered 23.8 ± 0.3 hectares per hour, with hunts lasting 3.5 …


Evaluating The Harvest Rate Recommendation For Northern Bobwhites In South Texas, D. Abraham Woodard, Leonard A. Brennan, Fidel Hernández, Humberto L. Perotto-Baldivieso, Neal Wilkins, Andrea Montalvo 2022 Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute, Texas A&M University

Evaluating The Harvest Rate Recommendation For Northern Bobwhites In South Texas, D. Abraham Woodard, Leonard A. Brennan, Fidel Hernández, Humberto L. Perotto-Baldivieso, Neal Wilkins, Andrea Montalvo

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

The current harvest rate recommendation for northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus; hereafter, bobwhite) in South Texas, USA is 20% of the autumn population, including crippling loss. This recommendation is based on population simulations of empirical data. We completed the first field evaluation of the 20% harvest recommendation by comparing prehunting and posthunting bobwhite density estimates on a hunted and nonhunted site in South Texas during the 2018–2019, 2019–2020, and 2020–2021 statewide bobwhite hunting seasons in Jim Hogg County, Texas. We conducted line-transect distance sampling surveys on 4 occasions per year (early November, mid-December, late January, early March) from a …


Evaluation Of A Solar-Recharged Micro-Gps Datalogger For Northern Bobwhite In The Rolling Plains Of Texas, Byron R. Buckley, Rowdy A. White, C. Brad Dabbert 2022 Louisiana State University Agricultural Center

Evaluation Of A Solar-Recharged Micro-Gps Datalogger For Northern Bobwhite In The Rolling Plains Of Texas, Byron R. Buckley, Rowdy A. White, C. Brad Dabbert

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) transmitters on northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; hereafter, bobwhite) could increase our understanding of fine-scale movements and habitat use for a declining game bird species. We evaluated solar-recharged micro-GPS dataloggers to determine the effectiveness of the units on free-ranging bobwhite and we conducted a controlled experiment to determine the accuracy of the dataloggers under a variety of canopy cover. We deployed the micro-GPS dataloggers on 25 bobwhites between August 2016 and April 2017 across 4 different ranches in the Rolling Plains of West Texas, USA. Accuracy (± standard error) for the 8 …


Estimating Northern Bobwhite Density In Privately-Owned Forests Across The Southeast, John M. Yeiser, Bridgett Costanzo, Melissa Martin, Jessica McGuire, Clayton Delancey, James A. Martin 2022 University of Georgia

Estimating Northern Bobwhite Density In Privately-Owned Forests Across The Southeast, John M. Yeiser, Bridgett Costanzo, Melissa Martin, Jessica Mcguire, Clayton Delancey, James A. Martin

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Rigorous density estimates can inform management, conservation planning, and policy decisions. Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; hereafter, bobwhite) populations are declining throughout their range, including the southeastern United States. Numerous private land conservation initiatives are underway to restore bobwhite populations in these areas, but baseline estimates of density spanning privately owned forests are sparse. This information gap makes it difficult to evaluate the population-level effects of these conservation programs or develop expectations for timelines to reach population targets. We sought to understand baseline densities across privately owned pine forests in the southeastern United States in areas targeted for bobwhite …


The Efficacy Of Video Cameras To Account For Northern Bobwhites Flushed, But Undetected During Aerial Surveys, Andrea Montalvo, Leonard A. Brennan, Michael L. Morrison, Eric D. Grahmann, Andrew N. Tri 2022 East Foundation

The Efficacy Of Video Cameras To Account For Northern Bobwhites Flushed, But Undetected During Aerial Surveys, Andrea Montalvo, Leonard A. Brennan, Michael L. Morrison, Eric D. Grahmann, Andrew N. Tri

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Over the past 20 years, conventional distance sampling from a helicopter platform has been used to estimate northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; hereafter, bobwhite) density over large areas of rangeland vegetation. However, it has been speculated that aerial surveys can complicate the ability to meet the distance sampling assumption of detecting 100% of the target objects on the transect line due to the restricted observer view from the helicopter. We attempted to use video cameras to determine whether missed detections occurred and whether digital methods could improve the precision of bobwhite density estimates. Our objectives were to 1) determine …


Relationships Between Meteorological And Other Variables And Bobwhite Spring Call Counts, Jeffrey G. Whitt, Kelly S. Reyna 2022 Texas A & M University - Commerce

Relationships Between Meteorological And Other Variables And Bobwhite Spring Call Counts, Jeffrey G. Whitt, Kelly S. Reyna

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Accurate assessment of quail population trends is critical to the success of future conservation efforts. Financial considerations and time constraints often limit population trend estimates to indices, the most common of which are spring call counts and autumn covey counts. While all indices have limitations and caveats, spring call count data specifically possess variability that makes them ill-suited for detecting fine-scale trends. However, because spring call counts record calling males and are relatively easy to conduct, they are assumed to represent an index of breeding potential and produce the most data per unit cost. Here, we examine their variability, comparing …


Detection Rates Of Northern Bobwhite Coveys Using A Small Unmanned Aerial System-Mounted Thermal Camera, Megan E. Martin, Lori A. Hearon, Kristine O. Evans, Raymond B. Iglay, Jesse I. Morrison, Mark D. McConnell 2022 Mississippi State University

Detection Rates Of Northern Bobwhite Coveys Using A Small Unmanned Aerial System-Mounted Thermal Camera, Megan E. Martin, Lori A. Hearon, Kristine O. Evans, Raymond B. Iglay, Jesse I. Morrison, Mark D. Mcconnell

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

The northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; hereafter, bobwhite) requires intensive monitoring to evaluate management efforts and determine harvest rates. However, traditional monitoring techniques (e.g., covey-call surveys) are labor-intensive and imprecise. Small unmanned aerial systems (sUASs) mounted with thermal cameras have demonstrated promise for monitoring multiple avian species and could provide a less intensive and more effective approach to monitoring bobwhite coveys, assuming coveys produce a recognizable heat signature. To assess sUAS monitoring, we evaluated the influence of bobwhite covey size (3, 6, and 12) and cover type (grass, shrub, and forest) on covey detectability by a sUAS equipped with …


Applying Multistate Mark-Recapture Models With State Uncertainty To Estimate Survival And Reproduction Of Quail, Rebekah E. Ruzicka 2022 Rolling Plains Quail Research Foundation

Applying Multistate Mark-Recapture Models With State Uncertainty To Estimate Survival And Reproduction Of Quail, Rebekah E. Ruzicka

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Obtaining unbiased estimates of vital rates and understanding how vital rates change in response to environmental stimuli are a continual pursuit of ecologists. Multistate mark-recapture (MSMR) models provide a flexible framework for evaluating dependent vital rates in a comprehensive analysis. For example, a bird must remain alive during breeding season to initiate a nest (i.e., transition from a nonbreeding to a breeding state); thus, the probability that a bird initiates a nest is dependent on the probability that it is still alive. Traditional MSMR models allow only for the estimation of survival, detection, and state transition parameters and depend on …


Exploring A Plant-Diversity Hypothesis To Explain Helminth Prevalence In Northern Bobwhite In Texas, John E. Herschberger, Shaelyn T. Rainey, Fidel Hernández, Kristyn G. Stewart, Andrea Montalvo, Lindsey K. Howard 2022 Texas A & M University - Kingsville

Exploring A Plant-Diversity Hypothesis To Explain Helminth Prevalence In Northern Bobwhite In Texas, John E. Herschberger, Shaelyn T. Rainey, Fidel Hernández, Kristyn G. Stewart, Andrea Montalvo, Lindsey K. Howard

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Helminths, in particular eyeworms (Oxyspirura petrowi), may be a factor influencing northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; hereafter, bobwhite) populations in Texas, USA. Mean eyeworm prevalence in Texas appears to be greater in the Rolling Plains (55.1%) than the Rio Grande Plains (16.4%), a pattern generally attributed to possible differences in the occurrence of insects, the intermediate hosts of eyeworms. We explored an alternative hypothesis centered on plant diversity. Many plants possess phytochemicals with anthelmintic properties. Because wild animals suffering from parasitic infestations are capable of self-medicating via diet selection, organisms foraging in diverse communities may be expected …


Histopathological Analysis Of Quails In The Trans-Pecos Ecoregion Of Texas, Trey E. Johnson, Carlos E. Gonzalez, Dale Rollins, Josh G. Cross, Ryan S. Luna 2022 Sul Ross State University

Histopathological Analysis Of Quails In The Trans-Pecos Ecoregion Of Texas, Trey E. Johnson, Carlos E. Gonzalez, Dale Rollins, Josh G. Cross, Ryan S. Luna

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Quail populations in Texas, USA, have declined over the past few decades due primarily to habitat loss. The role that parasites may play in such declines has been a recent topic of concern. To help address this question, we collected 12 scaled quail (Callipepla squamata), 8 Gambel’s quail (Callipepla gambelii), and 3 Montezuma quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae) from across the Trans-Pecos ecoregion of Texas via hunter harvest, funnel traps, and night netting. Quail samples were necropsied to determine the abundance of eyeworms (Oxyspirura petrowi). Histopathological analyses were conducted on quail eyeballs and periocular …


Analysis Of Predator Avoidance Behavior In California Valley Quail, Curt Vandenberg, Jeffrey G. Whitt, Kelly S. Reyna 2022 Texas A & M University - Commerce

Analysis Of Predator Avoidance Behavior In California Valley Quail, Curt Vandenberg, Jeffrey G. Whitt, Kelly S. Reyna

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Quail populations have been in decline across the United States, primarily due to habitat loss and climate. For remedy, landowners and game managers have attempted to restore populations by releasing captive-reared quail. These releases were largely unsuccessful, presumably due to high predation losses. Recently, there has been an increased interest in quail translocations, which tend to have lower mortality rates than captive-reared bird releases. Translocations are expensive and unpredictable, and require many person-hours; releasing captive-reared quail would be more efficient if the practice were successful. We compared predator avoidance behavior between captive-reared and wild-translocated California quail (Callipepla californica) …


Characteristics Of Hunter Harvested Montezuma Quail Wings And Implications For Molt Phenology, Charles J. Randel III, Pedro M. Chavarria, C. Zach Johnson, Roel R. Lopez, John M. Tomeček, Nova J. Silvy 2022 Southwestern Wildlife Survey

Characteristics Of Hunter Harvested Montezuma Quail Wings And Implications For Molt Phenology, Charles J. Randel Iii, Pedro M. Chavarria, C. Zach Johnson, Roel R. Lopez, John M. Tomeček, Nova J. Silvy

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

We obtained 1,899 hunter-harvested Montezuma quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae) wings from southeastern Arizona, USA, from the 2008–2009 hunting season. We determined age and sex based on plumage characteristics for 98.2% (1,864) of the original sample. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of wing-chord length found differences (P < 0.001) based on sex, but not age, with mean (± standard error) male wing chord (113.76 ± 0.15 mm) longer than mean female wing chord (111.03 ± 0.13 mm). Mean male and female wing-chord lengths from our study population were 6.8% and 7.7% shorter, respectively, than previously reported in the literature. We additionally calculated a complete prebasic molt cycle of 177 days based on previously reported preformative molt patterns. The primary benefits of our results are: 1) a more accurate sex-based wing-chord length based on a large sample size, 2) a method to back-calculate molt onset dates for hunter harvested after hatch year Montezuma quail, and 3) a potential means to model the influence of precipitation on population dynamics of Montezuma quail.


Winter Diet Of Montezuma Quail In Arizona And New Mexico, Oscar E. López-Bujanda, Alberto Macías-Duarte, Reyna A. Castillo-Gámez, Angel B. Montoya 2022 Universidad de Sonora

Winter Diet Of Montezuma Quail In Arizona And New Mexico, Oscar E. López-Bujanda, Alberto Macías-Duarte, Reyna A. Castillo-Gámez, Angel B. Montoya

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Investigating the diet composition of Montezuma quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae) is fundamental for unveiling how food resources limit the species’ population size and may provide relevant tools for their harvest and habitat management. The objective of this research was to determine the composition and geographic variation of the winter diet of the Montezuma quail in Arizona and New Mexico, USA, from quail crops harvested during the hunting seasons of 2008–2017. In addition, we used beta regression analyses to determine the effect of environmental factors and ecological variables (annual mean precipitation, annual mean temperature, landscape diversity, diet diversity, time of …


Composition Of The Montezuma Quail’S Diet In Arizona, New Mexico, And Texas, Ana G. Paredes-Acuña, Alberto Macías-Duarte, Reyna A. Castillo-Gámez, Angel B. Montoya, James H. Weaver 2022 Universidad de Sonora

Composition Of The Montezuma Quail’S Diet In Arizona, New Mexico, And Texas, Ana G. Paredes-Acuña, Alberto Macías-Duarte, Reyna A. Castillo-Gámez, Angel B. Montoya, James H. Weaver

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

The Montezuma quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae) is a popular game bird and an indicator species of oak-pine savannas in the northern part of its range. In Arizona and New Mexico, USA, robust populations allow for a hunting season from mid-November through mid-February. However, there is no open hunting season for this quail in Texas, USA. Data on the Montezuma quail’s diet can provide new information and improve management of the species. Our objective was to analyze the diet composition of the Montezuma quail in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. Specimens were collected by hunters in Arizona and New Mexico …


Variability And Genetic Structure Of The Montezuma Quail Cyrtonyx Montezumae In The Northern Limit Of Its Distribution, Eduardo Sánchez Murrieta, Alberto Macías-Duarte, Reyna A. Castillo-Gámez, Angel B. Montoya, Alejandro Varela-Romero, Nohelia G. Pacheco Hoyos 2022 Universidad de Sonora

Variability And Genetic Structure Of The Montezuma Quail Cyrtonyx Montezumae In The Northern Limit Of Its Distribution, Eduardo Sánchez Murrieta, Alberto Macías-Duarte, Reyna A. Castillo-Gámez, Angel B. Montoya, Alejandro Varela-Romero, Nohelia G. Pacheco Hoyos

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

A species’ geographic distribution of genetic variability is influenced by different factors including size of geographic distribution, dispersal capability, mating system, and migration. For instance, a low migration rate among populations may cause a decrease in genetic variation. Such is the case of the Montezuma quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae), a popular game bird with a limited flight capacity that prevents long-distance dispersal. In the northern limit of the species’ distribution in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas in the United States, the species inhabits oak forests that are separated from one another by deserts. Consequently, Montezuma quail populations are distributed …


Habitat Of The Long-Tailed Wood-Partridge In Central Mexico, David García-Solózano, Crisma Lopez-Sanchez, Edgardo Lopez-González, Carlos González-Rebeles Islas 2022 The Mexican Alliance for Wildlife Conservation AMECVIS

Habitat Of The Long-Tailed Wood-Partridge In Central Mexico, David García-Solózano, Crisma Lopez-Sanchez, Edgardo Lopez-González, Carlos González-Rebeles Islas

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

The long-tailed wood-partridge (Dendrortyx macroura; hereafter, wood-partridge) is a forest quail endemic to the temperate forests of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt of central Mexico and is considered threatened according to the Secretariat of the Environment of Mexico. We studied 34 sites within the Natural Resources Protection Area River Basins of the Valle de Bravo, Malacatepec, Tilostoc and Temascaltepec in central Mexico to evaluate wood-partridge habitat during September–December 2019. We evaluated attributes of tree, shrub, and herbaceous vegetation, canopy cover, humidity, slope, and altitude. We also identified vegetation used for nesting, food, and shelter. The scant information published for …


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