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Characterizing Underwater Radiated Noise From Pacific Whale Watch Association Vessels, David Hannay, Brett Soberg 2018 JASCO Applied Sciences, Canada

Characterizing Underwater Radiated Noise From Pacific Whale Watch Association Vessels, David Hannay, Brett Soberg

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The commercial whale watch industry is interested in understanding the nature of underwater noise produced by whale watch vessels, to help their operators minimize noise emissions. Most focus on vessel-related noise has been on large commercial shipping vessels, with very little attention paid to the smaller vessel types used for commercial whale watching and for recreational purposes. Whale watch companies need this information to guide choices of equipment, such as propulsion systems, to minimize noise emissions that lead to exposures of the marine fauna that are the focus of their industry. In summer 2017, several Pacific Whale Watch Association (PWWA ...


Bringing High Resolution Land Cover Products To The Puget Sound Region And U.S., Melissa Rosa 2018 NOAA Office for Coastal Management, United States

Bringing High Resolution Land Cover Products To The Puget Sound Region And U.S., Melissa Rosa

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Understanding land cover patterns and their changes is essential to comprehensive natural resource management and conservation planning. Land cover products derived from satellite imagery and other remotely sensed data can provide information for resource inventories and assessments, track progress of management plans, and monitor impacts of ecosystem change at the landscape scale. For almost two decades, NOAA’s Office for Coastal Management has been using satellite imagery to produce standardized, regional land cover and change information for the coastal U.S. through its Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP). C-CAP products are updated every five years and provide additional wetland categories ...


Salmon-Safe Farms, Ellen Southard, Amelia Bahr 2018 Salmon-Safe, United States

Salmon-Safe Farms, Ellen Southard, Amelia Bahr

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Stewardship Partners recognizes the crucial role farmers play in the protection of our watersheds and salmon populations, leading us to implement the Salmon-Safe program in Washington in 2004 to support landowners who are promoting and practicing sustainable land management to combat environmental degradation. To date, we have added more than 100 different Washington State farms and vineyards to the program — ensuring the restoration and maintenance of watershed health across tens of thousands of agricultural acres. Since the major salmon streams in the Puget Sound basin flow through the most productive agricultural valleys, conservation efforts aimed at protecting salmon and improving ...


A Tale Of Two Sea Stars: Recovery (Ochre Star) Or Endangerment (Sunflower Star) Following The 2014 Epidemic, Miranda Winningham, Morgan E. Eisenlord, Joseph Gaydos, Diego Montecino-Latorre, Janna Nichols, Christy Pattengill-Semmens, Catherine D. Harvell 2018 Cornell Univ., United States

A Tale Of Two Sea Stars: Recovery (Ochre Star) Or Endangerment (Sunflower Star) Following The 2014 Epidemic, Miranda Winningham, Morgan E. Eisenlord, Joseph Gaydos, Diego Montecino-Latorre, Janna Nichols, Christy Pattengill-Semmens, Catherine D. Harvell

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

During the summers of 2013 and 2014, populations of sea stars along the west coast from Alaska to Mexico were decimated by the sea star wasting disease (SSWD) epizootic. Two of the most highly affected species along this range are Pisaster ochraceus (the ochre star), the most common intertidal species, and Pycnopodia helianthoides (the sunflower star), the most common subtidal species, both of which are endemic to the western coast of the U.S. For the ochre star, in the San Juan Islands of Washington State, we measured high case fatality rates associated with disease prevalence over 90% during the ...


Declines In Puget Sound Sediment-Dwelling Communities And A New Focus On Climate, Nutrient, And Other Ecosystem Stressors, Sandra Weakland, Valerie Partridge, Margaret Dutch, Dany Burgess, Angela Eagleston 2018 Washington State Dept. of Ecology, United States

Declines In Puget Sound Sediment-Dwelling Communities And A New Focus On Climate, Nutrient, And Other Ecosystem Stressors, Sandra Weakland, Valerie Partridge, Margaret Dutch, Dany Burgess, Angela Eagleston

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The Washington State Department of Ecology has been collecting data on Puget Sound sediment-dwelling (benthic) invertebrates since 1989, as part of the Marine Sediment Monitoring Program. Benthic organisms serve key functions, including processing and storage of organic material and cycling of nutrients needed by other components of the ecosystem. Benthic invertebrates are an integral part of the marine food web and biogeochemical processes that support salmon, orcas, and humans and are a key component of the Puget Sound ecosystem. We are finding significant declines in the overall condition of benthic communities, with 44% of the study area adversely affected. Many ...


Designing Data Collection For Decision-Making: Shaping The Coastal First Nations Regional Monitoring System To Meet The Needs Of The Nations, Erica Olson, Brendan Connors, Lara Hoshizaki, Jana Kotaska, Darcy Pickard, Marc Nelitz, Amy Groesbeck, Jordan Benner, Katherine Kellock, Anton Pitts 2018 ESSA Technologies Ltd., Canada

Designing Data Collection For Decision-Making: Shaping The Coastal First Nations Regional Monitoring System To Meet The Needs Of The Nations, Erica Olson, Brendan Connors, Lara Hoshizaki, Jana Kotaska, Darcy Pickard, Marc Nelitz, Amy Groesbeck, Jordan Benner, Katherine Kellock, Anton Pitts

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The Coastal First Nations (CFN) Regional Monitoring System (RMS) was redeveloped to support decisions related to threats to ecological and cultural values, resulting from changes to existing and impending resource use on the North and Central Coast of British Columbia. As First Nations reassert their governance authority, participate in shared decision-making with other governments, undertake land and marine use planning, and manage their territories and resources, the need for coordinated regional monitoring efforts are increasingly important. We used a systematic and inclusive strategy to determine a suitable monitoring approach to meet the needs of a diverse group of Nations across ...


Using Surface Elevation Tables And Marker Horizons To Evaluate Resiliency And Trajectories Of Tidal Marshes And Restoration Projects In The Snohomish River Estuary, Devin Robinson, Jason Hall, Joshua Chamberlin, Todd Zachery, Casimir Rice 2018 Veterans Conservation Corp., United States

Using Surface Elevation Tables And Marker Horizons To Evaluate Resiliency And Trajectories Of Tidal Marshes And Restoration Projects In The Snohomish River Estuary, Devin Robinson, Jason Hall, Joshua Chamberlin, Todd Zachery, Casimir Rice

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The abundance of tidal wetlands has been increasingly impacted by environmental changes, human alterations and sea-level rise around the world. Elevation and sediment dynamics control tidal wetland vegetation colonization, assemblages, resiliency, and recovery trajectories. Seal level rise and hydromodifications may threaten the resiliency of existing tidal marshes, and impact the recovery trajectories of restoration projects. The Snohomish river delta currently supports the second largest extent of tidal wetlands in the Puget Sound, and has become the focus of what could be the largest cumulative estuary restoration effort in Puget Sound. However, we currently know very little about elevation and sediment ...


The Pacific Salmon Explorer: A Data Driven Look At Salmon Populations And Their Habitats, Katrina Connors, Eileen Jones, Leah Honka, Katy Kellock, Eric Hertz, Brian Riddell 2018 Pacific Salmon Foundation, Canada

The Pacific Salmon Explorer: A Data Driven Look At Salmon Populations And Their Habitats, Katrina Connors, Eileen Jones, Leah Honka, Katy Kellock, Eric Hertz, Brian Riddell

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The lack of a centralized, standardized, and easily accessible repository of information on the state of natural resources, and threats to them, can undermine efforts to make informed, transparent, and evidenced-based management and conservation decisions. This is the case with Pacific salmon in British Columbia (BC), where a lack of information on the current status of salmon population and their habitats is undermining public confidence in the ability of government agencies to sustainability manage Pacific salmon populations. In an effort to provide broader public access to salmon datasets, the Pacific Salmon Foundation embarked on a major initiative to synthesize the ...


Puget Sound Habitat Status And Trends Monitoring Program: Nearshore And Large River Delta Geospatial Data And Habitat Status And Trends Monitoring Metrics, Jason Hall, Alex Stefankiv, Britta Timpane-Padgham, Martin Liermann, Timothy J. Beechie, George R. Pess 2018 Northwest Fisheries Science Ctr., United States

Puget Sound Habitat Status And Trends Monitoring Program: Nearshore And Large River Delta Geospatial Data And Habitat Status And Trends Monitoring Metrics, Jason Hall, Alex Stefankiv, Britta Timpane-Padgham, Martin Liermann, Timothy J. Beechie, George R. Pess

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The Puget Sound Habitat Status and Trends Monitoring (PSHSTM) program was developed to provide consistent salmon habitat status and trends data to support status reviews of Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed salmon populations across Puget Sound’s major population groups. Our approach primarily relies on readily available and regularly updated aerial imagery to consistently map key habitat features at a regional scale. We have developed a census-based approach to map key habitat features throughout the nearshore, large river delta, large river, and floodplain environments across Puget Sound. This presentation will focus on our mapping efforts in Puget Sound’s nearshore ...


Research Into The Cause Of Brackish Marsh Recession In The Fraser River Estuary, Brent Gurd, Sean Boyd, Eric Balke, Richard Marijnissen, Brad Mason, Kathleen Moore 2018 British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development, Canada

Research Into The Cause Of Brackish Marsh Recession In The Fraser River Estuary, Brent Gurd, Sean Boyd, Eric Balke, Richard Marijnissen, Brad Mason, Kathleen Moore

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

At least 160 ha (30%) of the brackish marsh on Sturgeon Bank in the Fraser River estuary have disappeared since 1989. A collaborative effort between the provincial and federal governments and industry aims to determine the cause(s) of the recession to inform future restoration efforts. Three adjacent low-elevation brackish marshes along the delta front have also receded to varying degrees. River training structures and regular dredging of the Fraser River divert sediments and fresh water, and thus alter sediment and salinity patterns along the delta front. Lesser snow geese (Anser c. caerulescens) preferentially grub bulrush, and the Fraser-Skagit population ...


Using Passive Acoustics To Monitor Galiano Glass Sponge Reef, Amalis Riera, Stephanie Archer, William Halliday, Xavier Mouy, Matthew Pine, Anya Dunham, Francis Juanes 2018 Univ. of Victoria, Canada

Using Passive Acoustics To Monitor Galiano Glass Sponge Reef, Amalis Riera, Stephanie Archer, William Halliday, Xavier Mouy, Matthew Pine, Anya Dunham, Francis Juanes

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Structured biogenic habitats are biodiversity hotspots that host a wide range of soniferous species. Glass Sponge Reefs (GSRs) are rare and sensitive systems that have only been documented in shelf habitats in the Northeast Pacific from Portland Canal to the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada. Galiano Reef is a GSR located in the Salish Sea, in the Outer Gulf Islands Sponge Reef fishing closure, British Columbia, Canada. Little is known about the soundscapes of these deep-water systems and the potential impacts of anthropogenic noise on them. Here we describe the biophony and the anthropophony on and outside of Galiano ...


Quantifying Marine Vessel Traffic From Aerial Surveys In The Salish Sea, Norma Serra-Sogas, Patrick O'Hara, Rosaline Canessa, Lauren McWhinnie 2018 Univ. of Victoria, Canada

Quantifying Marine Vessel Traffic From Aerial Surveys In The Salish Sea, Norma Serra-Sogas, Patrick O'Hara, Rosaline Canessa, Lauren Mcwhinnie

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

There are a number of potential impacts associated with vessel traffic on marine ecosystems, including noise and oil pollution, ship-strikes, and fishing and fisheries bycatch. To assess these impacts, many studies employ marine traffic data collected using Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) onboard vessels. However, AIS only captures a fraction of the actual marine traffic because it omits many of the smaller vessels, which are not legally required to carry AIS. Without this information, the assessment of vessel-associated impacts based on AIS is inherently flawed, and underestimated. The NEMES (Noise Exposure to the Marine Environment from Ships) project is particularly interested ...


Effects Of Warm Ocean Temperatures On Bull Kelp Forests In The Salish Sea, Braeden Schiltroth, Sherryl Bisgrove, Bill Heath 2018 Simon Fraser Univ., Canada

Effects Of Warm Ocean Temperatures On Bull Kelp Forests In The Salish Sea, Braeden Schiltroth, Sherryl Bisgrove, Bill Heath

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Kelp beds are marine sanctuaries, providing some of the most productive ecosystems on the planet and serving as critical habitat and refuge for many species, including juvenile salmon. Rising ocean temperature associated with climate change is a major stressor contributing to declines of kelp forests worldwide. In the Salish Sea, we identified bull kelp (Nereocystis leutkeana) populations growing under two different temperature regimes. Since 2011, kelp growing in the central Strait of Georgia has been exposed to sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of 15-21 °C in the summer months, which is 5-6 °C warmer than temperatures in the Strait of Juan ...


Genetic Structure Of The Bull-Kelp Nereocystis Luetkeana In The Salish Sea, Lily Gierke, Bobby San Miguel, Tom Mumford, Filipe Alberto 2018 Univ. of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, United States

Genetic Structure Of The Bull-Kelp Nereocystis Luetkeana In The Salish Sea, Lily Gierke, Bobby San Miguel, Tom Mumford, Filipe Alberto

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Despite its vast geographic range and important role in coastal ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest, the bull kelp, Nereocystis luetkeana, has historically not been as widely studied as its globally distributed sister kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera. To date, there have been no published studies on the population genetic structure of Nereocystis luetkeana. We developed 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers with 454 sequencing and used them to genotype a total of over 1000 samples distributed from over 32 sites within the Salish Sea. Anthropogenic impact in the Salish Sea has been associated with decreasing kelp cover in areas close to large urban centers ...


Skokomish Estuary Restoration Monitoring, Lisa Belleveau 2018 Skokomish Indian Tribe, United States

Skokomish Estuary Restoration Monitoring, Lisa Belleveau

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

In 2007 the Skokomish Tribe began breaking ground with a phased estuary restoration project. Since then almost 1000 acres have been reintroduced to tidal influence, which was restricted for hundreds of years. The objectives of this project are to restore salmon habitat to help revive the salmon population. In order to measure the success of the project at attaining these goals a monitoring plan was created. With funds provided by the Environmental Protection Agency the Tribe has been conducting estuary monitoring since 2011. Monitoring includes vegetation paired with pore-water salinity and sediment changes; tidal channel depth, temperature, and salinity; as ...


The Beach Strategies Geodatabase, Alison Lubeck, Branden Rishel, Andrea MacLennan, Jim Johannessen 2018 Coastal Geologic Services, United States

The Beach Strategies Geodatabase, Alison Lubeck, Branden Rishel, Andrea Maclennan, Jim Johannessen

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

This oral presentation will highlight methods, results, and utility of the Beach Strategies geospatial database, recently completed by Coastal Geologic Services as part of the ESRP Learning Program. Making nearshore geospatial data accessible and reliable for use by professionals presents unique challenges. Many coastal datasets in the Puget Sound region of the Salish Sea were mapped by many different scientists over many years, some using inconsistent or outdated methods. Improved remote and field-based mapping methods used in the project have greatly expanded the resolution and reliability of data from previous records. This geodatabase has immense value and implications for nearshore ...


Survival Of The Lower Fraser And People Of The River, Murray Ned, Ken Malloway, Sally Hope, Janson Wong, Dalton Silver 2018 Lower Fraser Fisheries Alliance, Canada

Survival Of The Lower Fraser And People Of The River, Murray Ned, Ken Malloway, Sally Hope, Janson Wong, Dalton Silver

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Fish, fish habitat and fisheries are deeply important to Lower Fraser First Nations. Since time immemorial, Lower Fraser First Nations have relied on the once abundant fisheries and thriving habitats within their territories to support their way of life, including their spiritual, social, cultural and economic well-being. Yet the Lower Fraser River watershed is also subject to immense anthropogenic pressure due to urban developments, navigation, industrial activities, agriculture, etc. The Fraser River and the hundreds of tributaries, streams, marshes, bogs, swamps, sloughs and lakes within its watershed is at its brink due to escalating cumulative pressures and a re-affirmed legal ...


The 2011 Climate Regime Shift: Seabed Taxon Monitoring Identifies Regimes, Jeff Marliave, Donna Gibbs, Laura Borden 2018 Ocean Wise, Canada

The 2011 Climate Regime Shift: Seabed Taxon Monitoring Identifies Regimes, Jeff Marliave, Donna Gibbs, Laura Borden

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Monitoring of biodiversity may sometimes reflect human impacts on ecosystems, but analysis of biodiversity needs to account for naturally occurring trends as well. Biodiversity may provide more accurate definition of climate regime shifts than do physical oceanographic data, Using search programs for a long-term SCUBA taxonomic database (3865 dives) for Strait of Georgia seabed sites, 1,077 taxa were screened to select 171 rare or highly abundant taxa and to present the data according to climate regime categories. Ocean Niño Index climate regime shifts are defined here as the year of the end of the first La Niña closely paired ...


Washington State Ferries: Update On Ferry Vessel Noise In The Salish Sea, Richard Huey, Leslie James, Greg Peterson 2018 Washington State Ferries, United States

Washington State Ferries: Update On Ferry Vessel Noise In The Salish Sea, Richard Huey, Leslie James, Greg Peterson

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Protecting the Salish Sea environment, the Southern Resident Killer Whales and other marine mammals is part of the mission of Washington State Ferries (WSF), and British Columbia Ferries (BCF). This presentation provides an update on underwater noise data analysis of WSF and BCF ferry vessels, plans for further data collection and potential noise mitigation strategies. WSF and BCF are members of the Port of Vancouver Enhancing Cetacean Habitat and Observation Program (ECHO).


City Habitats: Thriving People, Thriving Nature And Solving Stormwater Collaboratively As A Region, Aaron Clark, Chirstin Hilton, Jessie Israel, Hannah Kett, Danielle Shaw, Sean Watts, Pam Emerson 2018 Stewardship Partners, United States

City Habitats: Thriving People, Thriving Nature And Solving Stormwater Collaboratively As A Region, Aaron Clark, Chirstin Hilton, Jessie Israel, Hannah Kett, Danielle Shaw, Sean Watts, Pam Emerson

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The City Habitats Network connects over 100 partner organizations and entities involved in the work or urban ecosystem restoration with a particular interest in green infrastructure and stormwater. By focusing on coordination of partners, collaborative approaches, and meeting communities where they are, City Habitats is accelerating and amplifying efforts from across the Salish Sea and turning the tide on polluted stormwater. This presentation will highlight the overall strategies of City Habitats and examples of our collective impacts across regional and economic sector lines. As a coalition of partners involved in urban restoration, City Habitats is intentionally centering racial and social ...


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