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Population Demography Of A Glacial-Relict Stream Fish Mediated Via Anthropogenic Alteration, Joseph M. Spooner 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Population Demography Of A Glacial-Relict Stream Fish Mediated Via Anthropogenic Alteration, Joseph M. Spooner

School of Natural Resources: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Northern Pearl Dace Margariscus nachtriebi are a small-bodied glacial-relict fish species of greatest conservation need (SGCN) found throughout Canada and the northern United Sates. Their distribution within the Nebraska Sandhills Ecoregion is isolated from the northern core distribution of the species following the last glaciation period approximately 18,000 years ago. Headwater streams within the Nebraska Sandhills Ecoregion are predominately groundwater fed and provide the cool water temperatures needed to support Northern Pearl Dace and other glacial-relict SGCN. Headwater streams within the Nebraska Sandhills Ecoregion have been geomorphically altered through anthropogenic processes such as channelization whereby habitat homogenization has occurred. Evidence …


Habitat Heterogeneity In Nebraska Streams And Distribution Prediction For Tier-1 Cyprinids Using Multi-Scale Modeling Of Fluvial And Landscape Features, Connor P. Hart 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Habitat Heterogeneity In Nebraska Streams And Distribution Prediction For Tier-1 Cyprinids Using Multi-Scale Modeling Of Fluvial And Landscape Features, Connor P. Hart

School of Natural Resources: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Multiscale environmental processes determine in-stream habitat conditions which drive species distributions. Habitat constitutes the physical template upon which ecological processes occur and species conduct life stage activities. Habitat heterogeneity promotes biodiversity of aquatic systems. Stream classification informs freshwater conservation by providing a useful framework to account for habitat heterogeneity, often based on landscape regions of similar environmental processes. A greater understanding of landscape-based classification frameworks as means to classify stream systems may improve understanding of drivers of biodiversity. Using Nebraska as a case study, on a statewide scale, objectives were 1) to characterize habitat availability for several at-risk fish species, …


Reimagining Large River Management Using The Resist–Accept–Direct (Rad) Framework In The Upper Mississippi River, Nicole K. Ward, Abigail J. Lynch, Erik A. Beever, Joshua Booker, Kristen L. Bouska, Holly Embke, Jeffrey N. Houser, John F. Kocik, Joshua Kocik, David J. Lawrence, Mary Grace Lemon, Doug Limpinsel, Madeline R. Magee, Bryan M. Maitland, Owen McKenna, Andrew Meier, John M. Morton, Jeffrey D. Muehlbauer, Robert Newman, Devon C. Oliver, Heidi M. Rantala, Greg G. Sass, Aaron Shultz, Laura M. Thompson, Jennifer L. Wilkening 2023 Minnesota Department of Natural Resources

Reimagining Large River Management Using The Resist–Accept–Direct (Rad) Framework In The Upper Mississippi River, Nicole K. Ward, Abigail J. Lynch, Erik A. Beever, Joshua Booker, Kristen L. Bouska, Holly Embke, Jeffrey N. Houser, John F. Kocik, Joshua Kocik, David J. Lawrence, Mary Grace Lemon, Doug Limpinsel, Madeline R. Magee, Bryan M. Maitland, Owen Mckenna, Andrew Meier, John M. Morton, Jeffrey D. Muehlbauer, Robert Newman, Devon C. Oliver, Heidi M. Rantala, Greg G. Sass, Aaron Shultz, Laura M. Thompson, Jennifer L. Wilkening

School of Natural Resources: Faculty Publications

Background: Large-river decision-makers are charged with maintaining diverse ecosystem services through unprecedented social-ecological transformations as climate change and other global stressors intensify. The interconnected, dendritic habitats of rivers, which often demarcate jurisdictional boundaries, generate complex management challenges. Here, we explore how the Resist–Accept–Direct (RAD) framework may enhance large-river management by promoting coordinated and deliberate responses to social-ecological trajectories of change. The RAD framework identifies the full decision space of potential management approaches, wherein managers may resist change to maintain historical conditions, accept change toward different conditions, or direct change to a specified future with novel conditions. In the Upper Mississippi …


Assessing The Morphological And Physiological Traits Of Smooth Brome Pastures Under Long Term Grazing And Nutrient Enrichment In Eastern Nebraska, Hassan Shehab 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Assessing The Morphological And Physiological Traits Of Smooth Brome Pastures Under Long Term Grazing And Nutrient Enrichment In Eastern Nebraska, Hassan Shehab

School of Natural Resources: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Climate change together with the increase in demands for food, feed, fuel, and fiber are becoming a threat to sustainability and resilience of agriculture and pasture lands. Bromus inermis (smooth bromegrass) dominates pastures for cattle grazing in Eastern Nebraska, US, where it is planted in monocultures, and is considered high quality forage because of its palatability and high nutritional value for cattle, especially under intensive management practices. Sustainable management of these pastures is key to long-term resilience. This study aims to assess the performance of smooth bromegrass pastures to the combined effects of long-term management practices (since 2005) of fertilization …


Ecological Impacts Of Restoring Fire-Grazing Interaction In Sandhills Prairie Through Patch-Burn Grazing, Nolan P. Sipe 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Ecological Impacts Of Restoring Fire-Grazing Interaction In Sandhills Prairie Through Patch-Burn Grazing, Nolan P. Sipe

School of Natural Resources: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

A Collaborative Adaptive Management (CAM) Project was started at the University of Nebraska in 2020 to address some of the key uncertainties related to the management of grasslands in the Nebraska Sandhills through stakeholder driven experiments and the adaptive management cycle. Patch-burn grazing was selected by CAM as a management tool to generate heterogeneity across the landscape and promote biodiversity while balancing economic and ecological trade-offs. The patch-burn grazing system was implemented with controlled burns in May of 2022 and March of 2023. Other parties in CAM will be examining the impact that patch-burn grazing has on forage and livestock …


Human Dimensions Of Woody Encroachment Management In Nebraska, Emily Rowen 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Human Dimensions Of Woody Encroachment Management In Nebraska, Emily Rowen

School of Natural Resources: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Woody plant encroachment (WPE) is a social-ecological problem that will challenge conservation professionals and agricultural producers to adapt their management strategies. This research first examined WPE from the perspective of individual conservation professionals through an online survey. Conservation professionals’ attitudes about adaptation to vegetation transitions, such as WPE, were of interest because these attitudes are one measure of how prepared this group is to respond to WPE. Hypothesized predictors of adaptation attitude were tested through linear regression modeling. These predictors included ecological change, observation of WPE, or risk perception. It was found that risk perception was the strongest predictor of …


Activity Patterns Of Whiptail Lizards (Aspidoscelis) Found In The Northern Chihuahuan Desert, Guillermo Alvarez 2023 University of Texas at El Paso

Activity Patterns Of Whiptail Lizards (Aspidoscelis) Found In The Northern Chihuahuan Desert, Guillermo Alvarez

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Traditional lizard pitfall traps were modified to allow organisms to escape, while collecting valuable ecological data. Modified camera traps were capable of detecting the same species as traditional traps in a semi-arid environment, without posing the associated mortality risks. Pitfall-camera traps were used to sample the activity of the Side-blotched Lizard (Uta stansburiana) and the Southwestern Fence Lizard (Sceloporus cowlesi) in an urban wetland during four continuous years. Evaluations on activity pattern and the activity overlap between the two species revealed extensive overlap, with minor but significant seasonal shifts mediating coexistence. Traps were also effective at detecting other reptiles, invertebrates, …


The Tidal Prism, Viable Eelgrass Habitat, And The Effects Of Sea Level Rise In Morro Bay, Kaden A. Caliendo 2023 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

The Tidal Prism, Viable Eelgrass Habitat, And The Effects Of Sea Level Rise In Morro Bay, Kaden A. Caliendo

Master's Theses

The tidal prism, or the volume of water exchanged from the sea to an estuary from mean low to mean high tide, influences system hydrodynamics and ecological functioning. Since 1884, the tidal prism in Morro Bay, California has been estimated to be decreasing over time due to sedimentation from upstream practices. What is the current tidal prism in Morro Bay and how will that change with sea level rise? How will eelgrass respond to rising sea levels?

For this study, inexpensive tidal gauges were deployed at four locations in Morro Bay from March to August 2023 to measure spatially varying …


Why We Should Have More Walkable Cities, Alexander Huddleston 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Why We Should Have More Walkable Cities, Alexander Huddleston

Op-Eds from ENSC230 Energy and the Environment: Economics and Policies

The walkable city is something that is seen all over Europe but is a rarity in the United States. The rise of cheap oil in the first half of the 20th century led to the expansion of the suburbs and a car culture that we just can’t get away from. Our cities are now so spread out, causing more and more pollution and damage done to our environment. There is a lot that we know about this issue and the solutions that we can get done to fix it. America is stuck in a car culture that is so hard …


Eminent Domain: Unconstitutional, Unjust, And Unnecessary, Ashley Norris 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Eminent Domain: Unconstitutional, Unjust, And Unnecessary, Ashley Norris

Op-Eds from ENSC230 Energy and the Environment: Economics and Policies

Perhaps the most important undertaking of our time is the ubiquity of sustainable energy vital for the continuation and improvement of living conditions worldwide. The utmost care must be taken with the means used to achieve this feat. The fossil fuel industry has used and abused eminent domain since its inception. Ironically, environmental advocates now propose the same means to a cleaner, greener end. The taking of private land for private development, regardless of intent, is unconstitutional, unjust, and unnecessary. The Fifth Amendment states: “…nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.”

As stated by the …


Sound Energy Could Change The World, Tyler Bugiel 2023 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Sound Energy Could Change The World, Tyler Bugiel

Op-Eds from ENSC230 Energy and the Environment: Economics and Policies

The energy crisis is a problem that has been growing more concerning for many years, and yet there has not seemed to be a good solution to the problem. That being said, I think that there is a solution that has not been explored thoroughly enough, that solution being sound energy. Solar and wind are both energy systems that use natural resources and things that occur on a day to day basis to convert those things into energy, but sound has not been explored as much.


The Essential Role Of Fossil Fuels In Combating Climate Change, Ivye Meyer 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Essential Role Of Fossil Fuels In Combating Climate Change, Ivye Meyer

Op-Eds from ENSC230 Energy and the Environment: Economics and Policies

Fossil fuels have been essential to the living standards enjoyed by the industrialized and developed world. Since the Industrial Revolution, non-renewable sources, including coal, oil, and natural gas, have been our first choice in energy generation. Fossil fuels have also become appealing to developing nations, as they require inexpensive sources of energy to increase their standards of living. These factors contribute to fossil fuels comprising over 80 percent of the current global primary energy demand, undeniably making them a vital part of our daily lives. The necessity for upcoming change in energy production does not require the exclusion of fossil …


Navigating The Green Skies: Why Saf Is The Wrong Path To Take, Cameron Cannon 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Navigating The Green Skies: Why Saf Is The Wrong Path To Take, Cameron Cannon

Op-Eds from ENSC230 Energy and the Environment: Economics and Policies

With its promise of a significant decrease in greenhouse gas emissions, sustainable aviation fuels, or SAFs, have been hailed as an environmentally friendly substitute for conventional aviation fuels. SAFs are made from sustainable resources such as plant biomass, waste oils, or agricultural wastes and are intended to mitigate environmental issues. On closer examination, though, this solution's intricacy becomes clear. Grab your mental compass and journey with me as we discover why SAFs would lead us the wrong way.


Accelerated Evolution Of Sars-Cov-2 In Free-Ranging White-Tailed Deer, Dillon S. McBride, Sofya K. Garushyants, John Franks, Andrew F. Magee, Steven H. Overend, Devra Huey, Amanda M. Williams, Seth A. Faith, Ahmed Kandeil, Sanja Trifkovic, Lance Miller, Trushar Jeevan, Anami Patel, Jacqueline M. Nolting, Michael J. Tonkovich, J. Tyler Genders, Andrew J. Montoney, Kevin Kasnyik, Timothy J. Linder, Sarah N. Bevins, Julianna B. Lenoch, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Eugene V. Koonin, Marc A. Suchard, Philippe Lemey, Richard J. Webby, Martha I. Nelson, Andrew S. Bowman 2023 The Ohio State University

Accelerated Evolution Of Sars-Cov-2 In Free-Ranging White-Tailed Deer, Dillon S. Mcbride, Sofya K. Garushyants, John Franks, Andrew F. Magee, Steven H. Overend, Devra Huey, Amanda M. Williams, Seth A. Faith, Ahmed Kandeil, Sanja Trifkovic, Lance Miller, Trushar Jeevan, Anami Patel, Jacqueline M. Nolting, Michael J. Tonkovich, J. Tyler Genders, Andrew J. Montoney, Kevin Kasnyik, Timothy J. Linder, Sarah N. Bevins, Julianna B. Lenoch, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Thomas J. Deliberto, Eugene V. Koonin, Marc A. Suchard, Philippe Lemey, Richard J. Webby, Martha I. Nelson, Andrew S. Bowman

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

The zoonotic origin of the COVID-19 pandemic virus highlights the need to fill the vast gaps in our knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 ecology and evolution in non-human hosts. Here, we detected that SARS-CoV-2 was introduced from humans into white-tailed deer more than 30 times in Ohio, USA during November 2021-March 2022. Subsequently, deer-to-deer transmission persisted for 2–8 months, disseminating across hundreds of kilometers. Newly developed Bayesian phylogenetic methods quantified how SARS-CoV-2 evolution is not only three-times faster in white-tailed deer compared to the rate observed in humans but also driven by different mutational biases and selection pressures. The long-term effect of …


Rapid Evolution Of A(H5n1) Influenza Viruses After Intercontinental Spread To North America, Ahmed Kandeil, Christopher Patton, Jeremy C. Jones, Trushar Jeevan, Walter N. Harrington, Sanja Trifkovic, Jon P. Seiler, Thomas Fabrizio, Karlie Woodard, Jasmine C. Turner, Jeri Carol Crumpton, Lance Miller, Adam Rubrum, Jennifer DeBeauchamp, Charles J. Russell, Elena A. Govorkova, Peter Vogel, Mia Kim-Torchetti, Yohannes Berhane, David Stallknecht, Rebecca Poulson, Lisa Kercher, Richard J. Webby 2023 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

Rapid Evolution Of A(H5n1) Influenza Viruses After Intercontinental Spread To North America, Ahmed Kandeil, Christopher Patton, Jeremy C. Jones, Trushar Jeevan, Walter N. Harrington, Sanja Trifkovic, Jon P. Seiler, Thomas Fabrizio, Karlie Woodard, Jasmine C. Turner, Jeri Carol Crumpton, Lance Miller, Adam Rubrum, Jennifer Debeauchamp, Charles J. Russell, Elena A. Govorkova, Peter Vogel, Mia Kim-Torchetti, Yohannes Berhane, David Stallknecht, Rebecca Poulson, Lisa Kercher, Richard J. Webby

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses of clade 2.3.4.4b underwent an explosive geographic expansion in 2021 among wild birds and domestic poultry across Asia, Europe, and Africa. By the end of 2021, 2.3.4.4b viruses were detected in North America, signifying further intercontinental spread. Here we show that the western movement of clade 2.3.4.4b was quickly followed by reassortment with viruses circulating in wild birds in North America, resulting in the acquisition of different combinations of ribonucleoprotein genes. These reassortant A(H5N1) viruses are genotypically and phenotypically diverse, with many causing severe disease with dramatic neurologic involvement in mammals. The proclivity of …


Patterns In Winter Stonefly Distribution Along A River Continuum And Land-Use Gradient In Northwest Arkansas Streams, Zachary Tipton 2023 University of Arkansas-Fayetteville

Patterns In Winter Stonefly Distribution Along A River Continuum And Land-Use Gradient In Northwest Arkansas Streams, Zachary Tipton

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Freshwater ecosystems are facing a crisis with extinction rates of aquatic species exceeding those of their terrestrial counterparts by up to fivefold. This decline is predominantly attributed to evolving land use patterns within watersheds, leading to chemical and physical transformations in freshwater habitats. Northwest Arkansas (NWA) represents one of the fastest-growing regions in the United States, undergoing substantial shifts in land use. Consequently, the status of aquatic life in this region remains uncertain. Addressing this concern, the latest Arkansas Wildlife Action Plan emphasizes the necessity of distribution and population data to guide conservation efforts for Species of Greatest Conservation Need …


Aquaculture Governance: Five Engagement Arenas For Sustainability Transformation, Darien D. Mizuta, Stefan Partelow 2023 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Aquaculture Governance: Five Engagement Arenas For Sustainability Transformation, Darien D. Mizuta, Stefan Partelow

VIMS Articles

A greater focus on governance is needed to facilitate effective and substantive progress toward sustainability transformations in the aquaculture sector. Concerted governance efforts can help move the sector beyond fragmented technical questions associated with intensification and expansion, social and environmental impacts, and toward system-based approaches that address interconnected sustainability issues. Through a review and expert-elicitation process, we identify five engagement arenas to advance a governance agenda for aquaculture sustainability transformation: (1) setting sustainability transformation goals, (2) cross-sectoral linkages, (3) land–water–sea connectivity, (4) knowledge and innovation, and (5) value chains. We then outline the roles different actors and modes of …


Northern Neck Regional Shallow Draft Channel Dredging Plan: Feasibility Phase, Donna A. Milligan, Cameron W. Green, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Christine A. Wilcox, Claire M. Rae, Scott Lerberg, Alex Demeo, George Brooks, Mark Mansfield 2023 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Northern Neck Regional Shallow Draft Channel Dredging Plan: Feasibility Phase, Donna A. Milligan, Cameron W. Green, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Christine A. Wilcox, Claire M. Rae, Scott Lerberg, Alex Demeo, George Brooks, Mark Mansfield

Reports

The Initial Phase of the project (Phase 1), used remote sensing and other data collection to develop a method for determining which waterbodies on the Northern Neck of Virginia need dredging. The analysis included most of the waterbodies in the counties of Lancaster, Northumberland, Richmond, and Westmoreland. From this analysis, 19 waterbodies emerged as potentially needing dredged based on physical parameters and residential and economic usage (Milligan et al., 2023).

In this Feasibility Phase (Phase 2), more detailed site data were collected to provide data to the localities for consideration. These tasks were included in the analysis:

1. Historic shore …


Northern Neck Regional Shallow Draft Channel Dredging Plan: Initial Phase, Donna A. Milligan, Grace M. Massey, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Christine A. Wilcox, Cameron W. Green, Mark Mansfield 2023 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Northern Neck Regional Shallow Draft Channel Dredging Plan: Initial Phase, Donna A. Milligan, Grace M. Massey, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Christine A. Wilcox, Cameron W. Green, Mark Mansfield

Reports

The purpose of this project is to develop a regional dredging program for the localities of the Northern Neck. This report encompasses Phase 1 of the project, which included creating a database of waterbodies in Lancaster, Northumberland, Richmond, and Westmoreland Counties and the Town of Colonial Beach along the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers and Chesapeake Bay. Generally, these waterbodies can be categorized into three basic types of shallow draft channels: federally-authorized to include aids to navigation (ATONS), non-federal with ATONS, and non-federal without ATONs. Along the Northern Neck, presently identified, are 13 federal channels, 37 non-federal channels in creeks with …


Post-Wildfire Effects On A Headwater Stream In The San Bernardino National Forest, Kelley Giron 2023 California State University, San Bernardino

Post-Wildfire Effects On A Headwater Stream In The San Bernardino National Forest, Kelley Giron

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Southern California has experienced prolonged drought conditions that have supported frequent wildfires that adversely impact ecosystems, natural resources, and human development. A primary consequence of these events is the impact on water quality and quantity. Of equal concern is evaluating how diverse land use configurations within a watershed can alter the physio-chemical properties of headwater reaches where drought and wildfire conditions are prevalent. To better understand the extent to which wildfires impact water quality and quantity across a headwater watershed, this study investigates wildfire impacts from the 2021 South Fire to Lytle Creek, a headwater stream of the Santa Ana …


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