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Targeting Ocean Conservation Outcomes Through Threat Reduction, Joseph A. Turner, Malcolm Starkey, Nicholas K. Dulvy, Frank Hawkins, Louise Mair, Adeline Serckx, Thomas Brooks, Beth Polidoro, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Kent Carpenter, Minna Epps, Rima W. Jabado, Nicholas B. W. Macfarlane, Leon Bennun 2024 The Biodiversity Consultancy

Targeting Ocean Conservation Outcomes Through Threat Reduction, Joseph A. Turner, Malcolm Starkey, Nicholas K. Dulvy, Frank Hawkins, Louise Mair, Adeline Serckx, Thomas Brooks, Beth Polidoro, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Kent Carpenter, Minna Epps, Rima W. Jabado, Nicholas B. W. Macfarlane, Leon Bennun

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Nations have committed to reductions in the global rate of species extinctions through the Sustainable Development Goals 14 and 15, for ocean and terrestrial species, respectively. Biodiversity loss is worsening despite rapid growth in the number and extent of protected areas, both at sea and on land. Resolving this requires targeting the locations and actions that will deliver positive conservation outcomes for biodiversity. The Species Threat Abatement and Restoration (STAR) metric, developed by a consortium of experts, quantifies the contributions that abating threats and restoring habitats in specific places offer towards reducing extinction risk based on the IUCN Red List …


Delayed Coastal Inundations Caused By Ocean Dynamics Post-Hurricane Matthew, Kyungmin Park, Emanuele Di Lorenzo, Yinglong J. Zhang, Tal Ezer, Fei Yi 2024 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Delayed Coastal Inundations Caused By Ocean Dynamics Post-Hurricane Matthew, Kyungmin Park, Emanuele Di Lorenzo, Yinglong J. Zhang, Tal Ezer, Fei Yi

CCPO Publications

Post Hurricane Abnormal Water Level (PHAWL) poses a persistent inundation threat to coastal communities, yet unresolved knowledge gaps exist regarding its spatiotemporal impacts and causal mechanisms. Using a high-resolution coastal model with a set of observations, we find that the PHAWLs are up to 50 cm higher than the normal water levels for several weeks and cause delayed inundations around residential areas of the U.S. Southeast Coast (USSC). Numerical experiments reveal that while atmospheric forcing modulates the coastal PHAWLs, ocean dynamics primarily driven by the Gulf Stream control the mean component and duration of the shelf-scale PHAWLs. Because of the …


Site-Specific Space Use And Resource Selection By Black Vultures (Coragyps Atratus) In The Southeastern Usa, Betsy Evans, John S. Humphrey, Eric A. Tillman, Michael L. Avery, Bryan M. Kluever 2024 USDA APHIS WS NWRC Florida

Site-Specific Space Use And Resource Selection By Black Vultures (Coragyps Atratus) In The Southeastern Usa, Betsy Evans, John S. Humphrey, Eric A. Tillman, Michael L. Avery, Bryan M. Kluever

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

North American populations of Black Vultures Coragyps atratus have increased and expanded their distribution in the southern and eastern USA. In conjunction with these patterns has been a rise in human–vulture conflicts. To improve our understanding of space use patterns and better inform management, we evaluated the movements of Black Vultures (n = 23) in the southeastern USA using a long-term GPS tracking database. Our specific objectives were to: (1) quantify home-range sizes in relation to season and geographical study location and (2) examine within-home-range resource selection to identify landscape and anthropogenic factors influencing roost and diurnal space use. …


Treatment With The Immunocontraceptive Vaccine, Gonacon, Induces Temporary Fertility Control In Free-Ranging Prairie Dog Populations In Colorado, Usa, Aaron B. Shiels, Jackson Runte, Emily W. Ruell, Douglas C. Eckery, Gary W. Witmer, Daniel J. Salkeld 2024 USDA APHIS WS NWRC Colorado

Treatment With The Immunocontraceptive Vaccine, Gonacon, Induces Temporary Fertility Control In Free-Ranging Prairie Dog Populations In Colorado, Usa, Aaron B. Shiels, Jackson Runte, Emily W. Ruell, Douglas C. Eckery, Gary W. Witmer, Daniel J. Salkeld

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Context

Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are rodents enjoyed by some humans; yet, they cause crop and property damage, and carry zoonotic disease. Non-lethal control of prairie dogs is of interest in urban/suburban settings. The injectable immunocontraceptive vaccine GonaCon (active ingredient is gonadotropin-releasing hormone [GnRH]) has been shown to be effective at reducing fertility in equine and deer, and is a US EPA-registered vaccine for use in these ungulate species.

Aims

To conduct a replicated field study to test efficacy of GonaCon in black-tailed prairie dogs (C. ludovicianus), and if found to be efficacious, to help facilitate …


Comparison Of Ketamine-Xylazine, Butorphanol-Azaperone-Medetomidine, And Nalbuphine-Medetomidine-Azaperone For Raccoon (Procyon Lotor) Immobilization, Shylo R. Johnson, Christine K. Ellis, Chad Wickham, Molly R. Selleck, Amy T. Gilbert 2024 USDA APHIS WS NWRC Colorado

Comparison Of Ketamine-Xylazine, Butorphanol-Azaperone-Medetomidine, And Nalbuphine-Medetomidine-Azaperone For Raccoon (Procyon Lotor) Immobilization, Shylo R. Johnson, Christine K. Ellis, Chad Wickham, Molly R. Selleck, Amy T. Gilbert

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are frequently handled using chemical immobilization in North America for management and research. In a controlled environment, we compared three drug combinations: ketamine-xylazine (KX), butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine (BAM), and nalbuphinemedetomidine- azaperone (NalMed-A) for raccoon immobilization. In crossover comparisons, raccoons received a mean of the following: 8.66 mg/kg ketamine and 1.74 mg/kg xylazine (0.104 mL/kg KX); 0.464 mg/kg butorphanol, 0.155 mg/kg azaperone, and 0.185 mg/kg medetomidine (0.017 mL/kg BAM); and 0.800 mg/kg nalbuphine, 0.200 mg/kg azaperone, and 0.200 mg/kg medetomidine (0.020 mL/kg NalMed-A). Induction time was shortest with KX (mean6SE, 10.060.7 min) and longest with NalMed-A (13.061.3 min). …


Oral Rabies Vaccination Of Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) Across A Development Intensity Gradient In Burlington, Vermont, Usa, 2015–2017, Emily M. Beasley, Kathleen M. Nelson, Dennis Slate, Amy T. Gilbert, Frederick E. Pogmore, Richard B. Chipman, Amy J. Davis 2024 Université de Montréal

Oral Rabies Vaccination Of Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) Across A Development Intensity Gradient In Burlington, Vermont, Usa, 2015–2017, Emily M. Beasley, Kathleen M. Nelson, Dennis Slate, Amy T. Gilbert, Frederick E. Pogmore, Richard B. Chipman, Amy J. Davis

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Management of the raccoon rabies virus variant in North America is conducted primarily using oral rabies vaccination (ORV). When a sufficient proportion of the population is vaccinated (60%), rabies transmission can be eliminated. To date, ORV programs have successfully controlled and eliminated raccoon rabies in rural areas, but there has been less success in urban areas. We studied the proportions of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) in a raccoon (Procyon lotor) population during a 3-year ORV trial in developed areas of Burlington, Vermont, United States. We used a modified N-mixture model to estimate raccoon abundance, RVNA seroprevalence, and …


Recent Beak Evolution In North American Starlings After Invasion, Julia M. Zichello, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Paul Shrewsbury, Agnieszka A. Pierwola, Scott J. Werner 2024 CUNY Hunter College

Recent Beak Evolution In North American Starlings After Invasion, Julia M. Zichello, Shelagh T. Deliberto, Paul Shrewsbury, Agnieszka A. Pierwola, Scott J. Werner

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

European starlings are one of the most abundant and problematic avian invaders in the world. From their native range across Eurasia and North Africa, they have been introduced to every continent except Antarctica. In 160 years, starlings have expanded into different environments throughout the world, making them a powerful model for understanding rapid evolutionary change and adaptive plasticity. Here, we investigate their spatiotemporal morphological variation in North America and the native range. Our dataset includes 1,217 specimens; a combination of historical museum skins and modern birds. Beak length in the native range has remained unchanged during the past 206 years, …


Assessing The Efficiency Of Local Rabies Vaccination Strategies For Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) In An Urban Setting, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Nicole T. Gorman, Katherine M. McClure, Larissa Nituch, Tore Buchanan, Richard B. Chipman, Amy T. Gilbert, Kim M. Pepin 2024 Southern Illinois University Carbondale

Assessing The Efficiency Of Local Rabies Vaccination Strategies For Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) In An Urban Setting, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Nicole T. Gorman, Katherine M. Mcclure, Larissa Nituch, Tore Buchanan, Richard B. Chipman, Amy T. Gilbert, Kim M. Pepin

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Raccoon rabies virus (RRV) has been managed using multiple vaccination strategies, including oral rabies vaccination and trap-vaccinate-release (TVR). Identifying a rabies vaccination strategy for an area is a nontrivial task. Vaccination strategies differ in the amount of effort and monetary costs required to achieve a particular level of vaccine seroprevalence (efficiency). Simulating host movement relative to different vaccination strategies in silico can provide a useful tool for exploring the efficiency of different vaccination strategies. We refined a previously developed individual-based model of raccoon movement to evaluate vaccination strategies for urban Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. We combined different oral rabies vaccination baiting …


Analysis Of Element Yield, Bacterial Community Structure And The Impact Of Carbon Sources For Bioleaching Rare Earth Elements From High Grade Monazite, Melissa K. Corbett, April Gifford, Nick Fimognari, Elizabeth L. J. Watkin 2024 Edith Cowan University

Analysis Of Element Yield, Bacterial Community Structure And The Impact Of Carbon Sources For Bioleaching Rare Earth Elements From High Grade Monazite, Melissa K. Corbett, April Gifford, Nick Fimognari, Elizabeth L. J. Watkin

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Rare earth element (REE) recovery from waste streams, mine tailings or recyclable components using bioleaching is gaining traction due to the shortage and security of REE supply as well as the environmental problems that occur from processing and refining. Four heterotrophic microbial species with known phosphate solubilizing capabilities were evaluated for their ability to leach REE from a high-grade monazite when provided with either galactose, fructose or maltose. Supplying fructose resulted in the greatest amount of REE leached from the ore due to the largest amount of organic acid produced. Gluconic acid was the dominant organic acid identified produced by …


Agricultural Groundcover Update December 2023, Justin Laycock 2024 Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia

Agricultural Groundcover Update December 2023, Justin Laycock

Natural resources published reports

Summary

  • About 96% of the grainbelt had adequate vegetative groundcover (more than 50%) to prevent wind erosion in December 2023.
  • In the northern half of the grainbelt, a larger-than-average area has 51–60% groundcover, which is expected to decrease to below 50% over the summer.
  • Just under 4% of the grainbelt (553,000 ha) had less than 50% groundcover, which is inadequate to prevent wind erosion. West Midlands Ag Soil Zone had the highest risk of wind erosion and 11.4% of this farmland had inadequate groundcover.
  • Less than 0.5% of the grainbelt had a high to very high risk of wind erosion …


Quantifying Potential Marine Debris Sources And Potential Threats To Penguins On The West Antarctic Peninsula, Katherine L. Gallagher, Megan A. Cimino, Michael S. Dinniman, Heather J. Lynch 2024 Stony Brook University

Quantifying Potential Marine Debris Sources And Potential Threats To Penguins On The West Antarctic Peninsula, Katherine L. Gallagher, Megan A. Cimino, Michael S. Dinniman, Heather J. Lynch

OES Faculty Publications

Marine pollution is becoming ubiquitous in the environment. Observations of pollution on beaches, in the coastal ocean, and in organisms in the Antarctic are becoming distressingly common. Increasing human activity, growing tourism, and an expanding krill fishing industry along the West Antarctic Peninsula all represent potential sources of plastic pollution and other debris (collectively referred to as debris) to the region. However, the sources of these pollutants from point (pollutants released from discrete sources) versus non-point (pollutants from a large area rather than a specific source) sources are poorly understood. We used buoyant simulated particles released in a high-resolution physical …


Limitations Of Invasive Snake Control Tools In The Context Of A New Invasion On An Island With Abundant Prey, Shane R. Siers, Melia G. Nafus, Jereid E. Calaor, Rachel M. Volsteadt, Matthew S. Grassi, Megan Volsteadt, Aaron F. Collins, Patrick D. Barnhart, Logan T. Huse, Amy A. Yackel Adams, Diane L. Vice 2024 USDA APHIS WS NWRC Guam

Limitations Of Invasive Snake Control Tools In The Context Of A New Invasion On An Island With Abundant Prey, Shane R. Siers, Melia G. Nafus, Jereid E. Calaor, Rachel M. Volsteadt, Matthew S. Grassi, Megan Volsteadt, Aaron F. Collins, Patrick D. Barnhart, Logan T. Huse, Amy A. Yackel Adams, Diane L. Vice

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

In October 2020, a new population of invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) was discovered on the 33-ha Cocos Island, 2.5 km off the south coast of Guam, United States. Cocos Island is a unique conservation resource, providing refuge for many lizards and birds, including endangered species, which were extirpated from mainland Guam by invasive predators including brown treesnakes. We sought to evaluate the usefulness of toxic baiting with acetaminophen-treated carrion baits and cage trapping, common tools for the control of brown treesnakes on mainland Guam, as potential eradication tools on Cocos Island. We evaluated multiple bait types and …


Maurer Environmental Law Expert Is Lead Author On Science Insights Policy Forum Article, James Owsley Boyd 2023 Maurer School of Law: Indiana University

Maurer Environmental Law Expert Is Lead Author On Science Insights Policy Forum Article, James Owsley Boyd

Keep Up With the Latest News from the Law School (blog)

Environmental champions and conservationists will mark the 50th anniversary of the Endangered Species Act later this month. That is the law requiring federal agencies to use all methods necessary to prevent extinctions and ensure that federal actions not jeopardize the continued existence of species on the brink of disappearing from the face of the Earth.

In the leadup to the December 27th anniversary, several publications have begun examining the Act’s history and impact over five decades.

Science, the world’s third-most influential scholarly journal based on Google Scholar citations, invited experts from around the country to look ahead as well …


Analysis Of Community-Based Pattern Of Water Demand And Supply, Ishaku Dibal Joshua, Abdullahi Chado Salihu, Ayuba Musa Mshelia, Nchedo Nnedinma Ubachukwu 2023 Nigerian Army University, Biu, Nigeria

Analysis Of Community-Based Pattern Of Water Demand And Supply, Ishaku Dibal Joshua, Abdullahi Chado Salihu, Ayuba Musa Mshelia, Nchedo Nnedinma Ubachukwu

Journal of Environmental Science and Sustainable Development

Gombi rural community of Adamawa state, Nigeria, has witnessed significant growth in human population, which has contributed to an increase in water demand. Thus, the study analyzed water demand and supply patterns in Gombi communities of Adamawa State, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics such as mean and percentages and inferential statistics like Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), chi-square, and linear regression were adopted for the analysis. The results on socioeconomic characteristics showed that the majority were females, with low household income levels, large household sizes, and in their active ages. Hand-dug well water was the …


Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia 2023 Brigham Young University

Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia

Journal of Nonprofit Innovation

Urban farming can enhance the lives of communities and help reduce food scarcity. This paper presents a conceptual prototype of an efficient urban farming community that can be scaled for a single apartment building or an entire community across all global geoeconomics regions, including densely populated cities and rural, developing towns and communities. When deployed in coordination with smart crop choices, local farm support, and efficient transportation then the result isn’t just sustainability, but also increasing fresh produce accessibility, optimizing nutritional value, eliminating the use of ‘forever chemicals’, reducing transportation costs, and fostering global environmental benefits.

Imagine Doris, who is …


Innovation And Practice On Biodiversity Conservation In Sanjiangyuan National Park, Xinquan ZHAO, Shixiao XU, Liang ZHAO, Tongzuo ZHANG, Linyong HU, Qi LI, Tongqing GUO 2023 Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008, China State Key Laboratory of Plateau Ecology and Agriculture, Qinghai University, Xining 810016, China

Innovation And Practice On Biodiversity Conservation In Sanjiangyuan National Park, Xinquan Zhao, Shixiao Xu, Liang Zhao, Tongzuo Zhang, Linyong Hu, Qi Li, Tongqing Guo

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

Sanjiangyuan National Park, is one of the first batch of national parks in China, and serves as the largest national park in China. As an important ecological security barrier and a alpine biological germplasm resource base, it has significant conservation value in China and even in the world. Lots of protocols have been taken aiming at ecological tacking protection issues including loss of biodiversity and wildlife habitats, degradation of alpine grassland and overgrazing in Sanjiangyuan National Park. It promotes the implementation of major ecological restoration projects, and has formed the Sanjiangyuan National Park Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Protection Program with …


Synergism Utilization Of Urban Multi-Source Solid Waste And District Green Recycling Development—Taking Dongguan Haixinsha National Resource Recycling Demonstration Base As An Example, Yao SHI, Huiquan LI, Shaohua CHEN, Weiqiang CHEN, Caihong XIONG, Songgeng LI, Yin WANG, Peng QIAN, Shuangde LI, Chao HUA, Ping LU, Yupeng LIU, Chenmu ZHANG, Jianwen CHU, Xin LU 2023 CAS Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institutes of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China National Engineering Research Center of Green Recycling for Strategic Metal Resources, Beijing 100190, China

Synergism Utilization Of Urban Multi-Source Solid Waste And District Green Recycling Development—Taking Dongguan Haixinsha National Resource Recycling Demonstration Base As An Example, Yao Shi, Huiquan Li, Shaohua Chen, Weiqiang Chen, Caihong Xiong, Songgeng Li, Yin Wang, Peng Qian, Shuangde Li, Chao Hua, Ping Lu, Yupeng Liu, Chenmu Zhang, Jianwen Chu, Xin Lu

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

The long-term storage and extensive disposal of solid waste have caused serious water soil air composite pollution. It is necessary to strengthen the scientific and effective utilization of solid waste, which is not only conducive to solving the major pollution problem of solid waste, but also alleviates the shortage of resources and energy in China. This study summarizes three typical types of urban solid waste comprehensive treatment experience models, and points out that the solid waste circular economy model characterized by centralization, resource utilization, and greening is the main way to solve the complex problem of solid waste. Therefore, it …


Editorial, 2023 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Editorial

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

No abstract provided.


Develop Sciences And Technologies To Support The Building Of A Beautiful China In All Respects—Preface On Special Issue “Efforts From Science And Technology To Promote The Building Of A Beautiful China In All Respects”, Quansheng GE 2023 Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China

Develop Sciences And Technologies To Support The Building Of A Beautiful China In All Respects—Preface On Special Issue “Efforts From Science And Technology To Promote The Building Of A Beautiful China In All Respects”, Quansheng Ge

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

No abstract provided.


Scenario Simulation Of “35 Goals” And “50 Vision” For Beautiful China Initiative, Huiyi ZHU, Linsheng YANG, Wei QI, Erqi XU, Jiewei CHEN, Quansheng GE 2023 Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China

Scenario Simulation Of “35 Goals” And “50 Vision” For Beautiful China Initiative, Huiyi Zhu, Linsheng Yang, Wei Qi, Erqi Xu, Jiewei Chen, Quansheng Ge

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

Realizing the Beautiful China Initiative is the general goal of China’s ecological civilization construction in the next 30 years. The overall goal includes two phased goals: “35 goals” and “50 vision”. This study first expounds the understanding of the goal from the aspects of ecosystem elements, structure, process, and function, and then constructs an index system to describe the goal and simulates the “35 goals” and “50 vision” under the trend of climate change, population decline and economic growth. The results show that, by 2035, China will have a population of 1.44 billion (including Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan) and …


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