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Long-Term Annual Aerial Surveys Of Submersed Aquatic Vegetation (Sav) Support Science, Management, And Restoration, Robert J. Orth, William C. Dennison, Cassie Gurbisz, Michael Hannam, Jeni Keisman, J. Brooke Landry, Jonathan S. Lefcheck, Kenneth A. Moore, Rebecca R. Murphy, Christopher J. Patrick, Jeremy Testa, Donald E. Weller, David J. Wilcox, Richard A. Batiuk 2019 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Long-Term Annual Aerial Surveys Of Submersed Aquatic Vegetation (Sav) Support Science, Management, And Restoration, Robert J. Orth, William C. Dennison, Cassie Gurbisz, Michael Hannam, Jeni Keisman, J. Brooke Landry, Jonathan S. Lefcheck, Kenneth A. Moore, Rebecca R. Murphy, Christopher J. Patrick, Jeremy Testa, Donald E. Weller, David J. Wilcox, Richard A. Batiuk

VIMS Articles

Aerial surveys of coastal habitats can uniquely inform the science and management of shallow, coastal zones, and when repeated annually,theyrevealchangesthatareotherwisedifficulttoassess fromground-basedsurveys.Thispaperreviewstheutilityofalongterm(1984–present)annualaerialmonitoringprogramforsubmersedaquaticvegetation(SAV)inChesapeakeBay,itstidaltributaries, and nearby Atlantic coastal bays, USA. We present a series of applications that highlight the program’s importance in assessing anthropogenic impacts, gauging water quality status and trends, establishing and evaluating restoration goals, and understanding the impactofcommercialfishingpracticesonbenthichabitats.Theseexamplesdemonstratehowperiodicallyquantifyingcoverageofthis important foundational habitat answers basic research questions locally, as well as globally, and provides essential information to resource managers. New technologies are enabling more frequent and accurate aerial surveys at greater spatial resolution ...


Electronic Field Trips For Science Engagement: The Streaming Science Model, Jamie Loizzo, Mary J. Harner, Deborah J. Weitzenkamp, Kevin Kent 2019 University of Florida

Electronic Field Trips For Science Engagement: The Streaming Science Model, Jamie Loizzo, Mary J. Harner, Deborah J. Weitzenkamp, Kevin Kent

Journal of Applied Communications

While institutions of higher education work to engage PK-12 youth in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) concepts and careers via in-person programming, PK-12 teachers and students face many logistical and access constraints for physically traveling to sites off of school grounds during the school day. Throughout the years, electronic field trips (EFTs) have offered a digital way for schools to engage in meaningful ways with museums, parks, laboratories, and field research sites. In order for EFTs to be effective, they should be cost effective and created collaboratively with teachers, students, subject matter experts, and instructional design and communication professionals ...


Potential Economic Impacts Of Allocating More Land For Bioenergy Biomass Production In Virginia, Thomas O. Ochuodho, Janaki R. R. Alavalapati, Pankaj Lal, Domena A. Agyeman, Bernabas Wolde, Pralhad Burli 2019 University of Kentucky

Potential Economic Impacts Of Allocating More Land For Bioenergy Biomass Production In Virginia, Thomas O. Ochuodho, Janaki R. R. Alavalapati, Pankaj Lal, Domena A. Agyeman, Bernabas Wolde, Pralhad Burli

Pankaj Lal

The growing attention to renewable energy and rural development has created greater demand for production of biomass feedstock for bioenergy. However, forest growth rates and the amount of land in most existing forests may not be sufficient to sustainably supply the forest biomass required to support existing forest products industries and the expanding bioenergy industry. Additionally, concerns about agricultural land use competition have dampened expansion of biomass production on agricultural land base. One of the ways to meet the growing forest biomass feedstock demand for bioenergy production is by allocating currently marginal non-forested land for growing bioenergy feedstocks. In Virginia ...


Reproductive Parameters And Female Breeding Season Survival Of Rio Grande Wild Turkeys In South Central Texas, Jacob White 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Reproductive Parameters And Female Breeding Season Survival Of Rio Grande Wild Turkeys In South Central Texas, Jacob White

LSU Master's Theses

Historically, Rio Grande wild turkeys in south central Texas have been at lower densities than other portions of the state. Within the Oak-Prairie Wildlife District of Texas, Rio Grande wild turkey regulatory restrictions are different for counties in the eastern and western portions of the ecoregion. Due to perceived increases in turkey density in the eastern portion of the ecoregion (hereafter 1-bird zone), Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD) considered increasing the bag limit to match counties in the western portion of the district (hereafter 4-bird zone) in order to increase hunting opportunities. However, if regulatory changes are to be ...


Founders Of Plant Ecology: Frederic And Edith Clements, Jon H. Oberg 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Founders Of Plant Ecology: Frederic And Edith Clements, Jon H. Oberg

Publications of UNSM Staff and Affiliates

Nineteenth-century students of Charles Bessey at the University of Nebraska, Frederic Clements and Edith Schwartz received doctorates in botany, married, and went on to become founders of the discipline of plant ecology. They tested and taught their theory of plant succession, known as Clementsian ecology, for nearly four decades at their Alpine laboratory in Colorado. Their leadership and influence at the Carnegie Institution was world-wide and attracted followers from several other disciplines. They advocated land use measures to combat the Dust Bowl in the 1930s. Clementsian ecology is still recognized as a paradigm against which other theories of nature are ...


The Economic Impacts Of Blackbird (Icteridae) Damage To Sunflower In The Usa, Karina Ernst, Julie Elser, George Linz, Hans Kandel, Jason Holderieath, Samantha DeGroot, Steven Shwiff, Stephanie Shwiff 2019 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

The Economic Impacts Of Blackbird (Icteridae) Damage To Sunflower In The Usa, Karina Ernst, Julie Elser, George Linz, Hans Kandel, Jason Holderieath, Samantha Degroot, Steven Shwiff, Stephanie Shwiff

Jason Holderieath

BACKGROUND: Blackbird (Icteridae) damage to ripening sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been a persistent economic issue in the USA for the last five decades. To quantify losses, we surveyed blackbird damage from 2001 to 2013 (excluding 2004) to physiologically mature sunflower in eight states: North Dakota, South Dakota, Texas, Nebraska, Minnesota, Colorado, Kansas, and Vermont.

RESULTS:We pooled data gathered during the most recent 5 years (2009 to 2013) of the survey and found losses averaged $US2.5 million and $US11.3 million for confectionery and oilseed hybrids, respectively. Three states, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska, had sufficient acreage ...


The Lampenflora In Show Caves And Its Treatment: An Emerging Ecological Problem, Carlos Baquedano Estévez, Luis Moreno Merino, Almudena de la Losa Román, Juan J. Durán Valsero 2019 Geological Survey of Spain (IGME)

The Lampenflora In Show Caves And Its Treatment: An Emerging Ecological Problem, Carlos Baquedano Estévez, Luis Moreno Merino, Almudena De La Losa Román, Juan J. Durán Valsero

International Journal of Speleology

The artificial lighting of caves adapted for touristic visits, leads to the appearance and propagation of a complex community of phototrophic organisms known as “lampenflora”. Formed mainly by algae and cyanobacteria, they produce the degradation of the colonized substrates and decrease the show value of the caves. This phenomenon became famous worldwide in the 1960s due to the damage caused to the paintings in the Lascaux Cave (France). Since then it has become an issue of serious concern to both managers of show caves and to the international scientific community. Over time, the problem has been approached following two complementary ...


Resilience Reconciled, Craig R. Allen, David G. Angeler, Brian C. Chaffin, Dirac Twidwell, Ahjond Garmestani 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Resilience Reconciled, Craig R. Allen, David G. Angeler, Brian C. Chaffin, Dirac Twidwell, Ahjond Garmestani

Papers in Natural Resources

Resilience scholarship continues to inspire opaque discourse and competing frameworks often inconsistent with the complexity inherent in social–ecological systems. We contend that competing conceptualizations of resilience are reconcilable, and that the core theory is useful for navigating sustainability challenges.

Resilience as a scientific concept exploded in the early 2000s and is now being adopted by a range of disciplines and by a wide diversity of actors, from city planners to networks of global protectedarea managers. Resilience concepts are now integrated within national and international calls for proposals, research initiatives and centres in both the biophysical and social sciences. However ...


Dental And Mandibular Anomalies In White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) From Central Georgia, Patrick M. Powers, Alfred J. Mead 2019 Georgia College & State University

Dental And Mandibular Anomalies In White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) From Central Georgia, Patrick M. Powers, Alfred J. Mead

Georgia Journal of Science

The frequency of dental and mandibular anomalies in free-ranging white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States is not well documented. Characteristic irregularities include supernumerary and missing teeth, malocclusion, root abscesses due to bacterial infections, and tooth or bone damage due to trauma. In the present study, we examined 778 white-tailed deer dentaries collected from the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia. All dentaries were inspected for lesions, tooth irregularities, developmental anomalies, and other pathologies. Thirty-two dentaries (4.1%) displayed signs of dental or bone abnormalities. More abnormalities were associated with infection or injury (22/778, 2.8%) compared to ...


Capacity And Distribution Of Water Stored In The Vadose Zone Of The Chinese Loess Plateau, Yuanjun Zhu, Xiaoxu Jia, Jiangbo Qiao, Andrew Binley, Robert Horton, Wei Hu, Yunqiang Wang, Ming’an Shao 2019 Northwest A&F University

Capacity And Distribution Of Water Stored In The Vadose Zone Of The Chinese Loess Plateau, Yuanjun Zhu, Xiaoxu Jia, Jiangbo Qiao, Andrew Binley, Robert Horton, Wei Hu, Yunqiang Wang, Ming’An Shao

Agronomy Publications

Water stored in the vadose (unsaturated) zone provides the majority of water required by plants and buffers water resources; thus, it is central to understanding ecological and hydrological processes in the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) with its thick loess deposits. We used multisource data on soil water content (SWC) and vadose zone thickness, combined with a spatial interpolation method, to quantify the vadose zone water and further deduce the water resource composition in the CLP. Vadose zone water is approximately 3.1 × 1012 m3 (±27.5%) in the CLP, 92.4% of which is stored in the deep ...


Meeting On-Farm Energy Needs Through Conservation, Efficiency And Renewable Energy, Kamyar Enshayan, Carole Yates 2019 University of Northern Iowa

Meeting On-Farm Energy Needs Through Conservation, Efficiency And Renewable Energy, Kamyar Enshayan, Carole Yates

Kamyar Enshayan

A working group centered on the demonstration and promotion of energy saving practices used meetings, field days and mini-grants to communicate with farmers.


Untapped Capacity For Resilience In Environmental Law, Ahjond Garmestani, J. B. Ruhl, Brian C. Chaffin, Robin K. Craig, Helena F.M.W. van Rijswick, David G. Angeler, Carl Folke, Lance Gunderson, Dirac Twidwell, Craig R. Allen 2019 US Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Economics

Untapped Capacity For Resilience In Environmental Law, Ahjond Garmestani, J. B. Ruhl, Brian C. Chaffin, Robin K. Craig, Helena F.M.W. Van Rijswick, David G. Angeler, Carl Folke, Lance Gunderson, Dirac Twidwell, Craig R. Allen

Papers in Natural Resources

Over the past several decades, environmental governance has made substantial progress in addressing environmental change, but emerging environmental problems require new innovations in law, policy, and governance. While expansive legal reform is unlikely to occur soon, there is untapped potential in existing laws to address environmental change, both by leveraging adaptive and transformative capacities within the law itself to enhance socialecological resilience and by using those laws to allow socialecological systems to adapt and transform. Legal and policy research to date has largely overlooked this potential, even though it offers a more expedient approach to addressing environmental change than waiting ...


Occurrence, Abundance And Associations Of Topeka Shiners (Notropis Topeka) In Restored And Unrestored Oxbows In Iowa And Minnesota, Usa, Nicholas T. Simpson, Alexander P. Bybel, Michael J. Weber, Clay L. Pierce, Kevin J. Roe 2019 Iowa State University

Occurrence, Abundance And Associations Of Topeka Shiners (Notropis Topeka) In Restored And Unrestored Oxbows In Iowa And Minnesota, Usa, Nicholas T. Simpson, Alexander P. Bybel, Michael J. Weber, Clay L. Pierce, Kevin J. Roe

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

  1. In the USA, the Topeka shiner (Notropis topeka) is a federally listed endangered species that has been in decline for decades. A key reason for the decline is the alteration of naturally flowing streams and associated oxbow habitats resulting from land‐use changes. The focus of recent conservation efforts for Topeka shiners has been the restoration of oxbow habitats by removing sediment from natural oxbows until a groundwater connection is re‐established. This restoration practice has become common in portions of Iowa and south‐west Minnesota.
  2. The goals of this study were to compare the occurrence and abundance of Topeka ...


Cover Crop Adoption In Iowa: The Role Of Perceived Practice Characteristics, J. G. Arbuckle Jr., G. Roesch-McNally 2019 Iowa State University

Cover Crop Adoption In Iowa: The Role Of Perceived Practice Characteristics, J. G. Arbuckle Jr., G. Roesch-Mcnally

J. Gordon Arbuckle

Cover crops are widely viewed by the soil and water conservation community to be an effective means for reducing soil erosion and nutrient loss and increasing soil health, yet relatively few farmers have adopted the practice. Despite the widespread recognition of cover crops' benefits and increased promotional efforts, there have been very few peer-reviewed studies focused on farmer perspectives on or adoption of cover crops. This study, which analyzed data from a survey and in-depth interviews with Iowa farmers, examined the roles that perceived practice characteristics, perspectives on potential facilitating factors, and crop and livestock diversity play in cover crop ...


Adoption Of Agricultural Conservation Practices In The United States: Evidence From 35 Years Of Quantitative Literature, L. S. Prokopy, K. Floress, J. G. Arbuckle, S. P. Church, F. R. Eanes, Y. Gao, B. M. Gramig, P. Ranjan, A. S. Singh 2019 Purdue University

Adoption Of Agricultural Conservation Practices In The United States: Evidence From 35 Years Of Quantitative Literature, L. S. Prokopy, K. Floress, J. G. Arbuckle, S. P. Church, F. R. Eanes, Y. Gao, B. M. Gramig, P. Ranjan, A. S. Singh

J. Gordon Arbuckle

This is a comprehensive review of all published, quantitative studies focused on adoption of agricultural conservation practices in the United States between 1982 and 2017. This review finds that, taken as a whole, few independent variables have a consistent statistically significant relationship with adoption. Analyses showed that variables positively associated with adoption include the farmer self-identifying primarily as stewardship motivated or otherwise nonfinancially motivated, environmental attitudes, a positive attitude toward the particular program or practice, previous adoption of other conservation practices, seeking and using information, awareness of programs or practices, vulnerable land, greater farm size, higher levels of income and ...


Developing A Workflow To Integrate Tree Inventory Data Into Urban Energy Models, Farzad Hashemi, Breanna L. Marmur, Ulrike Passe, Janette R. Thompson 2019 Iowa State University

Developing A Workflow To Integrate Tree Inventory Data Into Urban Energy Models, Farzad Hashemi, Breanna L. Marmur, Ulrike Passe, Janette R. Thompson

Ulrike Passe

Building energy simulation is of considerable interest and benefit for architects, engineers, and urban planners. Only recently has it become possible to develop integrated energy models for clusters of buildings in urban areas. Simulating energy consumption of the built environment on a relatively large scale (e.g., such as a neighborhood) will be necessary to obtain more reliable results, since building energy parameters are influenced by characteristics of the nearby environment. Therefore, the construction of a 3-D model of urban built areas with detail of the near-building environment should enhance simulation approaches and provide more accurate results. This paper describes ...


Wildlife Conservation, Zoos And Animal Protection: A Strategic Analysis, Andrew N. Rowan 2019 Tufts University

Wildlife Conservation, Zoos And Animal Protection: A Strategic Analysis, Andrew N. Rowan

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

The publication consists of the proceedings of a workshop, sponsored by the Gilman Foundation, and held in April of 1994 at the White Oak Conservation Center in Florida. About thirty participants were invited from zoos, animal protection groups and academic institutions to discuss concepts such as wild, captive and tame; animal well-being in the wild and in zoos; and protecting individuals versus conserving populations. In order to maximize the time engaged in discussion, several individuals were identified to prepare target articles which were distributed to all participants before the meeting. These articles form the main chapters in this book. Other ...


The Relationship Of Animal Protection Interests To Animal Damage Management: Historic Paths, Contemporary Concerns And The Uncertain Future, John Hadidian 2019 The Humane Society of the United States

The Relationship Of Animal Protection Interests To Animal Damage Management: Historic Paths, Contemporary Concerns And The Uncertain Future, John Hadidian

John Hadidian, PhD

More than a decade ago Schmidt (1989) called for consideration of animal welfare to become a "firstorder" decision rule in wildlife management concerns, including animal damage control. Although there has been movement in that direction, this clearly has not yet come to pass. This paper takes a brief look at the interests we call animal damage management, animal welfare and protection, animal rights, and environmentalism in order to speculate about their shared concerns and the uncertain future before them. Since animal damage and the management of that damage cannot be abstracted from the environmental context in which they occur, this ...


Upper Midwest Climate Variations: Farmer Responses To Excess Water Risks, Lois Wright Morton, Jonathan Hobbs, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Adam Loy 2019 Iowa State University

Upper Midwest Climate Variations: Farmer Responses To Excess Water Risks, Lois Wright Morton, Jonathan Hobbs, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Adam Loy

J. Gordon Arbuckle

Persistent above average precipitation and runoff and associated increased sediment transfers from cultivated ecosystems to rivers and oceans are due to changes in climate and human action. The US Upper Midwest has experienced a 37% increase in precipitation (1958–2012), leading to increased crop damage from excess water and off-farm loss of soil and nutrients. Farmer adaptive management responses to changing weather patterns have potential to reduce crop losses and address degrading soil and water resources. This research used farmer survey (n = 4778) and climate data (1971–2011) to model influences of geophysical context, past weather, on-farm flood and saturated ...


Understanding Predictors Of Nutrient Management Practice Diversity In Midwestern Agriculture, Hanna Bates, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr. 2019 Iowa State University

Understanding Predictors Of Nutrient Management Practice Diversity In Midwestern Agriculture, Hanna Bates, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr.

J. Gordon Arbuckle

Agriculture's negative effect on water quality has become increasingly well documented. Farmers have a range of conservation practices available, yet rate of adoption is not optimal. Extension and other agricultural stakeholders play a key role in promotion of conservation practice adoption. We used survey data to examine relationships between farmers' integration in agricultural social networks and diversity of conservation practices used. Farmers who were more engaged in agricultural organizations and social networks tended to report greater diversity in nutrient best management practices. Conversely, less "connected" farmers reported less management practice diversity. Opportunities for Extension to engage with both groups ...


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