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Rethinking Urban Green Infrastructure As A Means To Promote Avian Conservation, Allen Lau 2017 The University of San Francisco

Rethinking Urban Green Infrastructure As A Means To Promote Avian Conservation, Allen Lau

Master's Projects and Capstones

There is an under-recognized potential for cities to use urban green infrastructure to contribute to avian biodiversity conservation. At the global scale, climate change and growing urbanization are primary global drivers leading to decline and homogenization in world bird populations. Birds are fundamental and intricate species in ecosystems, and even in urban areas, act as indicator and regulator species contributing to healthy ecosystem function. While many cities have recognized the economic and social benefits associated with green spaces, such as the vast benefits ecosystem services provide to the urban dweller, the use of green spaces to concurrently contribute to avian ...


Streambank Erosion Mapping On The Nottoway River Using Gps-Based Above-Water Video, Emine Fidan 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Streambank Erosion Mapping On The Nottoway River Using Gps-Based Above-Water Video, Emine Fidan

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

This project concerns the development of streambank erosion maps on military installations utilizing GPS-based above-water video mapping and image georeferencing techniques. The river mapped was the Nottoway River at the Fort Pickett military installation on October 10-11, 2015. Kayak-mounted above-water cameras were utilized to capture georeferenced images of streambank erosion. These GIS-based erosion classifications were utilized to develop erosion maps for determining streambank erosion conditions along the river. Areas of high erosion were identified as about two percent of the river (2167 ft. of streambank length). These maps allow for the opportunity to revisit the sites to determine changes in ...


Comparing Building Modeling Software To The Energy Record Of A Preexisting Structure, Nathan Lasley 2017 Western Kentucky University

Comparing Building Modeling Software To The Energy Record Of A Preexisting Structure, Nathan Lasley

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Buildings are complex systems - even "simple" residential structures. Many factors go into building energy consumption and the design to reduce it. Computer energy modeling allows the simultaneous consideration and balance of many of those variables. Computer models are only as good as the information provided however. Tools like blower door and duct blaster can be used to aid in verifying the model or to provide more information to build a better model. In order to verify of building computer energy simulation methods, the Western Kentucky University (WKU) Office of Sustainability located at 503 Regents Ave. in Bowling Green KY was ...


Function And Biodegradation In Soil Of Bioplastic Horticultural Containers Made Of Pla-Biorestm Composites, James Schrader, Kenneth McCabe, William Graves, David Grewell 2017 Iowa State University

Function And Biodegradation In Soil Of Bioplastic Horticultural Containers Made Of Pla-Biorestm Composites, James Schrader, Kenneth Mccabe, William Graves, David Grewell

William R Graves

Container-crops horticultural industries rely almost exclusively on petroleum-based plastic containers for modern production systems. Containers made of these materials fulfill all of the functions required during crop production, and perform better than containers made of clay, peat, and other natural materials, but the source of the plastic materials (fossil carbon), their lack of biodegradability, and their end-of-life disposal (97% end up in landfills) are major obstacles to sustainability. Although function and efficiency are among the most important aspects in determining the best materials for horticultural containers, there is no need for containers to persist in the environment for decades when ...


Research Needs And Challenges In The Few System: Coupling Economic Models With Agronomic, Hydrologic, And Bioenergy Models For Sustainable Food, Energy, And Water Systems, Catherine L. Kling, Raymond W. Arritt, Gray Calhoun, David A. Keiser, John M. Antle, Jeffery G. Arnold, Miguel Carriquiry, Indrajeet Chaubey, Peter Christensen, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Philip Gassman, William Gutowski, Thomas W. Hertel, Gerritt Hoogenboom, Elena Irwin, Madhu Khanna, Pierre Mérel, Daniel J. Phaneuf, Andrew Plantinga, Stephen Polasky, Paul Preckel, Sergey Rabotyagov, Ivan Rudik, Silvia Secchi, Aaron Smith, Andrew VanLoocke, Calvin Wolter, Jinhua Zhao, Wendong Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Research Needs And Challenges In The Few System: Coupling Economic Models With Agronomic, Hydrologic, And Bioenergy Models For Sustainable Food, Energy, And Water Systems, Catherine L. Kling, Raymond W. Arritt, Gray Calhoun, David A. Keiser, John M. Antle, Jeffery G. Arnold, Miguel Carriquiry, Indrajeet Chaubey, Peter Christensen, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Philip Gassman, William Gutowski, Thomas W. Hertel, Gerritt Hoogenboom, Elena Irwin, Madhu Khanna, Pierre Mérel, Daniel J. Phaneuf, Andrew Plantinga, Stephen Polasky, Paul Preckel, Sergey Rabotyagov, Ivan Rudik, Silvia Secchi, Aaron Smith, Andrew Vanloocke, Calvin Wolter, Jinhua Zhao, Wendong Zhang

Wendong Zhang

On October 12–13, a workshop funded by the National Science Foundation was held at Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa with a goal of identifying research needs related to coupled economic and biophysical models within the FEW system. Approximately 80 people attended the workshop with about half representing the social sciences (primarily economics) and the rest from the physical and natural sciences. The focus and attendees were chosen so that findings would be particularly relevant to SBE research needs while taking into account the critical connectivity needed between social sciences and other disciplines. We have identified several major gaps ...


Heterogeneous Preferences For Water Quality Attributes: A Discrete Choice Experiment Of Lake Erie Recreational Anglers, Wendong Zhang, Brent L. Sohngen 2017 Iowa State University

Heterogeneous Preferences For Water Quality Attributes: A Discrete Choice Experiment Of Lake Erie Recreational Anglers, Wendong Zhang, Brent L. Sohngen

Wendong Zhang

In 2011, Lake Erie experienced a record-setting harmful algal bloom (HAB), posing significant risks to ecosystem services, including its $1.5 billion sport fishing industry. Using a mail survey of 3,000 Ohio recreational anglers and a choice experiment, this article provides the first empirical evidence in the US to link HABs to damages to Great Lakes recreational anglers. We account for the heterogeneity in anglers’ preferences using various discrete choice models, including random parameters logit, latent class model, scaled logit, and generalized multinomial logit models. The results suggest that some anglers have stronger preferences for reducing the impacts of ...


Road Salt Use And Groundwater Quality: Cedar Falls, Ia, Brian Gedlinske 2017 University of Northern Iowa

Road Salt Use And Groundwater Quality: Cedar Falls, Ia, Brian Gedlinske

Brian Gedlinske

Since 1940, road salt use in the United States has escalated from roughly 0.28 to over 16 million metric tons annually. This long-term, intense deicing use has created environmental concerns – typically over surface water quality, aquatic life, and vegetation. Recent work, however, also ties road salt use to rising chloride (Cl-) concentrations in groundwater supplies.


Green Church Case Study: Implementing Incremental Improvements In Sustainability, Brian Gedlinske, Bryant Campbell 2017 University of Northern Iowa. Iowa Waste Reduction Center.

Green Church Case Study: Implementing Incremental Improvements In Sustainability, Brian Gedlinske, Bryant Campbell

Brian Gedlinske

Orchard Hill Church (OHC), a project of the Reformed Church in America denomination, is located in Cedar Falls, Iowa. Since gaining approval for establishment in 1961 and its initial groundbreaking in 1962, OHC has grown dramatically in attendance, staffing, and building additions. During a time when a vast majority of churches are seeing declining numbers and donations, OHC has been expanding by catering to people wanting to experience worship in an informal, contemporary style with relevant teachings targeted to growing Christians and their families. Sunday service attendees are greeted at the door, frequent OHC’s coffee shops, and enjoy contemporary ...


Lake Water Quality, Recreation, & Restoration: The Importance Of Stakeholder Involvement, Biran Gedlinske, Wade Kooiman, Katie Olsen 2017 University of Northern Iowa

Lake Water Quality, Recreation, & Restoration: The Importance Of Stakeholder Involvement, Biran Gedlinske, Wade Kooiman, Katie Olsen

Brian Gedlinske

Historically, Iowa’s lakes have been plagued with numerous water quality problems including excessive siltation, nutrients, pesticides, and bacterial contamination. Iowa places a heavy reliance on voluntary efforts to address these problems, largely in the form of best management practices (BMPs). Studies have shown that BMPs can improve lake water quality and, in turn, increase recreational activity and visitor spending. In recognition of the potential economic, recreational, and social benefits of improved lake water quality, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) secured significant legislative funding in 2006 to initiate a state-wide lake restoration program (LRP).

LRP case studies are ...


Using The Storm Water Management Model To Predict Urban Headwater Stream Hydrological Response To Climate And Land Cover Change, J. Y. Wu, Janette R. Thompson, R. K. Kolka, Kristie J. Franz, Timothy W. Stewart 2017 Iowa State University

Using The Storm Water Management Model To Predict Urban Headwater Stream Hydrological Response To Climate And Land Cover Change, J. Y. Wu, Janette R. Thompson, R. K. Kolka, Kristie J. Franz, Timothy W. Stewart

Timothy W. Stewart

Streams are natural features in urban landscapes that can provide ecosystem services for urban residents. However, urban streams are under increasing pressure caused by multiple anthropogenic impacts, including increases in human population and associated impervious surface area, and accelerated climate change. The ability to anticipate these changes and better understand their effects on streams is important for developing and implementing strategies to mitigate potentially negative effects. In this study, stream flow was monitored during April-November (2011 and 2012), and the data were used to apply the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) for five urban watersheds in central Iowa, USA, representing ...


Watershed Features And Stream Water Quality: Gaining Insight Through Path Analysis In A Midwest Urban Landscape, U.S.A., Jiayu Wu, Timothy W. Stewart, Janette R. Thompson, Randall K. Kolka, Kristie J. Franz 2017 Iowa State University

Watershed Features And Stream Water Quality: Gaining Insight Through Path Analysis In A Midwest Urban Landscape, U.S.A., Jiayu Wu, Timothy W. Stewart, Janette R. Thompson, Randall K. Kolka, Kristie J. Franz

Timothy W. Stewart

Urban stream condition is often degraded by human activities in the surrounding watershed. Given the complexity of urban areas, relationships among variables that cause stream degradation can be difficult to isolate. We examined factors affecting stream condition by evaluating social, terrestrial, stream hydrology and water quality variables from 20 urban stream watersheds in central Iowa, U.S.A. We used path analysis to examine and quantify social and ecological factors related to variation in stream conditions. Path models supported hypotheses that stream water quality was influenced by variables in each category. Specifically, one path model indicated that increased stream water ...


Quantifying The Role Of Riparian Management To Control Non-Point Source Pollution Of Pasture And Cropland Streams, James R. Russell, Daniel G. Morrical, John Kovar, Daryl R. Strohbehn, John D. Lawrence, Mathew M. Haan, Shelly Lee Nellesen, Thomas M. Isenhart, Richard Schultz 2017 Iowa State University

Quantifying The Role Of Riparian Management To Control Non-Point Source Pollution Of Pasture And Cropland Streams, James R. Russell, Daniel G. Morrical, John Kovar, Daryl R. Strohbehn, John D. Lawrence, Mathew M. Haan, Shelly Lee Nellesen, Thomas M. Isenhart, Richard Schultz

Thomas M. Isenhart

Grazing management practices have the potential to mitigate some problems with sediment and phosphorus loading in pasture streams. The project demonstrated possible strategies to lessen grazing impacts on streams.


Reconnecting Iowa Riparian Buffers With Tile Drainage (1), Dan B. Jaynes, Thomas M. Isenhart 2017 Iowa State University

Reconnecting Iowa Riparian Buffers With Tile Drainage (1), Dan B. Jaynes, Thomas M. Isenhart

Thomas M. Isenhart

Changing the configuration of tile drainage structures to allow subsurface flow through a riparian buffer could offer farmers another option for nitrate removal. This project examined the effects of using tiling and buffers to enhance the denitrification process.


Riparian Buffer Systems In Crop And Rangelands, Richard C. Schultz, Thomas M. Isenhart, Joseph P. Colletti 2017 Iowa State University

Riparian Buffer Systems In Crop And Rangelands, Richard C. Schultz, Thomas M. Isenhart, Joseph P. Colletti

Thomas M. Isenhart

Riparian ecosystems occupy a narrow belt of land along streams and around lakes and wetlands and are characterized by plant and animal communities that are dependent on close proximity to water. These ecotones function as buffer zones for materials moving from the uplands toward the surface water. They control stream morphology and ecology and also maintain landscape biodiversity by providing diverse habitats and corridors for animals and plants. Most of the riparian zones in the Midwestern agroecosystems and arid and semiarid western rangelands have been extensively impacted by agricultural cropping and grazing activities. These impacts have generally decreased water quality ...


Hydrologic Changes In Iowa's River Systems / Flood Resilience, Keith E. Schilling, Mark Ackelson, Thomas M. Isenhart 2017 Iowa Geological and Water Survey

Hydrologic Changes In Iowa's River Systems / Flood Resilience, Keith E. Schilling, Mark Ackelson, Thomas M. Isenhart

Thomas M. Isenhart

No abstract provided.


Reconnecting Riparian Buffers With Tile Drainage (2), Dan B. Jaynes, Thomas M. Isenhart, Timothy B. Parkin 2017 Iowa State University

Reconnecting Riparian Buffers With Tile Drainage (2), Dan B. Jaynes, Thomas M. Isenhart, Timothy B. Parkin

Thomas M. Isenhart

This is a continuation of an earlier pilot project (E2010-01) where tile discharge was rerouted to allow subsurface flow through an established riparian buffer. This third year of observations allowed researchers to gather more data on nitrate removal using this system.


Pce Groundwater Quality Assessment Of The University Of Northern Iowa Campus Area, Brian Gedlinske 2017 University of Northern Iowa

Pce Groundwater Quality Assessment Of The University Of Northern Iowa Campus Area, Brian Gedlinske

Brian Gedlinske

Perchloroethylene (PCE), is a colorless, nonflammable, and relatively insoluble chlorinated solvent once widely used for dry cleaning and metal degreasing operations. Because of its past widespread use, poor solvent management practices, and environmental persistence, PCE is a common contaminant found in groundwater supplies. Potential health concerns include liver problems and increased cancer risk. This research paper presents the findings of an effort to better characterize the spatial, temporal, and transport attributes of a PCE groundwater plume that exists within the Devonian aquifer underlying the University of Northern Iowa campus and the surrounding area in Cedar Falls, Iowa. Findings reveal the ...


Assessing Surface Flowpaths And Vegetative Buffers Using Arcgis Hydrologic Spatial Analysis For Rock Creek Watershed, Central Iowa, M. Bansal, S. K. Mickelson, M. J. Helmers, K. Arora, D. Webber, B. K. Gelder, M. Shrivastav, C. J. Judge 2017 Infospace, Inc.

Assessing Surface Flowpaths And Vegetative Buffers Using Arcgis Hydrologic Spatial Analysis For Rock Creek Watershed, Central Iowa, M. Bansal, S. K. Mickelson, M. J. Helmers, K. Arora, D. Webber, B. K. Gelder, M. Shrivastav, C. J. Judge

Steven K. Mickelson

Non point-source (NPS) pollution is a major cause of surface water quality degradation due to the transport of chemicals, nutrients, and sediments into lakes and streams. Vegetative buffers comprise several effective landscape Best Management Practices (BMPs) that include Vegetative Filter Strip (VFS) buffers, grassed waterways, terraces, and wetlands. However, some BMPs are ineffective due to concentrated surface flow, improper cropland/contributing area to VFS buffer area ratios, and flowpaths that completely bypass vegetative buffers. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of VFS buffers and other vegetative BMPs to intercept surface runoff by quantifying the accuracy ...


Increased Abundance And First Breeding Record Of The Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax Brasilianus) On The Alluvial Plain Of Mississippi, Katie C. Hanson, Travis L. DeVault, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Increased Abundance And First Breeding Record Of The Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax Brasilianus) On The Alluvial Plain Of Mississippi, Katie C. Hanson, Travis L. Devault, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Neotropic Cormorant) has been observed with increasing frequency in the alluvial plain (Delta region) of Mississippi. In the past 6 years, 22 individuals have been observed in 20 separate sightings during spring and summer. These sightings have occurred at breeding colonies of other colonial waterbirds and commercial aquaculture facilities of Ictalurus punctatus (Channel Catfi sh). Two sexually mature Neotropic Cormorants have been collected at a colonial waterbird breeding colony near the Mississippi River in the western Delta region among fl ocks of Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorants). Twice during the summer of 2008, confi rmed nesting of Neotropic Cormorants ...


Using Variance Components To Estimate Power In A Hierarchically Nested Sampling Design, Maria Dzul, Philip M. Dixon, Michael C. Quist, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Michael R. Bower, Kevin P. Wilson, D. Bailey Gaines 2017 Iowa State University

Using Variance Components To Estimate Power In A Hierarchically Nested Sampling Design, Maria Dzul, Philip M. Dixon, Michael C. Quist, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Michael R. Bower, Kevin P. Wilson, D. Bailey Gaines

Stephen J Dinsmore

We used variance components to assess allocation of sampling effort in a hierarchically nested sampling design for ongoing monitoring of early life history stages of the federally endangered Devils Hole pupfish (DHP) (Cyprinodon diabolis). Sampling design for larval DHP included surveys (5 days each spring 2007–2009), events, and plots. Each survey was comprised of three counting events, where DHP larvae on nine plots were counted plot by plot. Statistical analysis of larval abundance included three components: (1) evaluation of power from various sample size combinations, (2) comparison of power in fixed and random plot designs, and (3) assessment of ...


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